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Research Paper on Physical Activity and Obesity
Physical Activity and Obesity Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Obesity. Physical Activity is defined as bodily movement (any form) produced by the contraction of skeletal muscles that increases energy expenditure above the basal level, and can be categorized in various ways, including type, intensity or strenuousness and purpose. Obesity is a condition describing excess body weight in the form of fat, with a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or greater...
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  Abortion Research Paper Topics
Research Paper on The Future of Abortion Debate
The Future of Abortion Debate - Abortion - Argumentative Research Paper Topics. As participants in the abortion debate look to the future, resolutions of the current questions seem unlikely. Scientific developments and a shift in attitudes about certain kinds of abortions, however, may change the direction of the debate. Most of the abortions now being performed in the United States occur because the pregnancy is unplanned and having a child would create financial or emotional hardship for the mother. Another, much smaller, percentage are therapeutic abortions that are the result of a medical condition in which allowing a pregnancy to be carried to term would likely endanger a woman's health. A third type, selective abortion, has risen sharply over the last few years. Selective abortions are performed in cases where a particular fetus is perceived as having undesirable characteristics. This may include the absence or presence of a specific genetic property, a genetic defect, undesirable gender, or some other feature that does not appeal to the parents...
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Research Paper on Long-Term Effects of Abortion
Long-Term Effects of Abortion - Abortion - Argumentative Research Paper Topics. Another aspect of the abortion debate is the controversy over whether having the procedure results in long-term health consequences. Ordinarily a simple search of the Internet would provide the answers. In the case of abortion, however, there are two separate schools of thought. People on both sides of the issue have formed opinions based on what they may believe to be scientific evidence. Sometimes the "evidence" is actually biased information or based on case studies rather than random samples. Although there is no lack of information dedicated exclusively to the topic of abortion, the method of collecting the information as well as its source must be carefully considered. Many pro-life supporters are firmly convinced there are dramatic consequences to abortion. Pro-life Web sites and counseling centers usually offer long lists of possible side effects ranging from discomfort to bleeding to death. Many of the complications they mention can and do happen, but they are rare. The incidence of severe...
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Research Paper on Abortion Debate
Abortion Debate - Abortion - Argumentative Research Paper Topics. Current surveys indicate Americans favor legal abortions but not in all circumstances. Some of the situations about which they have reservations involve late-term abortions or women under the age of eighteen. As Americans learn more about abortion options and fetal development, they are more inclined to form opinions about abortion limits and availability. In the years before Roe v. Wade, Americans were generally uneducated about matters relating to sexuality and childbirth. Many of the topics discussed openly in today's society were considered taboo. Types of birth control were limited and not readily available, especially for the very poor or the very young. Today the general public is more informed about birth control, abortion, and fetal development. Due to scientific advancements the number of birth control and abortion options has greatly increased. Many of the mysteries of child development in the womb have been revealed...
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Research Paper on Abortion as a Constitutional Right
Abortion as a Constitutional Right - Abortion - Argumentative Research Paper Topics. Laws regarding abortion existed long before the independence of the United States. In 325 B.C. ancient philosopher Aristotle decreed, "The line between lawful and unlawful abortion will be marked by the fact of having sensation and being alive." This quickening was the basis for most laws on the matter for the past two thousand years. At the time of U.S. independence, the only laws on abortion were those of common law (adopted from England and based on legal decisions of the past). Common law favored Aristotle's idea of abortion being acceptable as long as it occurred before quickening. James Wilson, one of the authors of the Constitution, a lawyer, and one of the original justices on the Supreme Court, expressed the views of the Founding Fathers in a paper entitled Of the Natural Rights of Individuals. In it he wrote: "In the contemplation of law, life begins when the infant is first able to stir in the womb. By the law, life is protected...
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Research Paper on Abortion Morality
Abortion Morality - Abortion - Argumentative Research Paper Topics. At the heart of the abortion issue is the question of morality. As people struggle with the question of whether abortion is right or wrong, many factors come into play. Religious beliefs, age, marital status, economic status, health, an available support system, genetic issues, and a person's own values all influence the way he or she feels about abortion. For a woman who may be considering such a procedure, the decision takes on an extremely personal nature as her own circumstances weigh heavily in her private debate. In giving careful thought to the morality of abortion, two additional questions are often raised. At what point does life begin? And at what point do the rights of this developing life (if ever) overrule the rights of the mother? The answers have produced a range of feelings on the issue. For most pro-life groups and conservative Christians, the answer to the question of when life begins is--at conception. A fertilized ovum...
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  Adoption Research Paper Topics
Research Paper on Foster Family
Foster Family - Adoption - Argumentative Research Paper Topics. Research has indicated that "children who are placed in group homes are more likely to experience emotional disturbance and behavioral problems than those who are placed with families" (Perry 2006). According to Perry, this is because the foster family will provide a less disruptive environment for a youth than a group home, because a family environment is more structured to his or her normal life. Most social workers want to put children in the least disruptive environment possible in order for them to either keep or regain stability in their life. So how can a foster family do this? A foster family must exhibit five things to be successful: communication, integration, flexibility, compassion...
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Research Paper on Foster Care Values
Foster Care Values - Adoption - Argumentative Research Paper Topics. Foster care can be thought of as being based on three main values. First, maternal de- privation in the early years of life has an adverse effect on personality development, and later difficulties of the individual can be traced to a breakdown in this early relationship. This value shows the focus on child development at an early age and the need of social workers to become more engaged early with children from troubled homes. The second value maintains that the parent-child relationship is of vital importance; all efforts must be made to restore it. No child should be deprived of his or her natural parents for economic reasons alone. If, for some extreme reason, a child's own parents cannot take care...
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Research Paper on Foster Care in the United States Essay
Foster Care in the United States - Adoption - Argumentative Research Paper Topics. English colonists arriving in the United States brought the Poor Law system with them. Long after the American Revolution, the well-established tradition continued to in- form poverty practices. During the beginning of the 19th century, adults and children were cared for with very little or no distinction. Almshouses were gaining in popularity for the care of both the children and the elderly in large cities. Almshouses were privately funded (usually through churches) houses that cared primarily for the poor and destitute. Agencies that cared for destitute children tended to spring up from two sources. The first of these was from public bodies that would act as representatives for...
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Research Paper on Foster Care
Foster Care - Adoption - Argumentative Research Paper Topics. Defining foster care is a challenge. The most often stated definition for foster care is "care given outside a child's natural home for more than 24 hours when the child's home is not available to him or her excluding children at camps, in hospitals, or on weekend visits" (Stone 1970). This definition implies that the parents cannot provide adequate care for some serious reason. The essential element of foster care is child rearing responsibility shared with the child welfare agency, the original parents, the foster parents, the child care staff, and social workers. Foster care also has an expectation that it is of a limited duration; it is not a permanent method of child rearing but a temporary solution...
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Research Paper on Transracial Adoption Pros and Cons
Transracial Adoption Pros and Cons - Adoption - Argumentative Research Paper Topics. One of the main arguments against transracial adoption is that white parents will not be able to give a black child a cultural identity and survival skills in a racially diverse society. NABSW says that child socialization begins at birth, but the needs of black children differ from those of white children. Black children need to learn coping mechanisms to function in a society where racism is prevalent. Black families are capable of teaching these mechanisms in everyday life without having to seek out special projects or activities. They live their lives in a white-dominated society, and their children learn by daily interactions. Even when white adoptive families actively...
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  Alcohol Research Paper Topics
Research Paper on Alcoholics Anonymous Twelve-Step Program (12 Steps of AA)
Alcoholics Anonymous Twelve-Step Program - Alcohol Abuse - Argumentative Research Paper Topics. Twelve-step programs include the namesake organization, Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), and other mutual help programs that are modeled on the 12 steps of AA. Their unifying assumption is that the most effective and efficient path to recovery from alcoholism, addiction, and other problems is the dynamic of mutual help--one addict helping another. AA's primacy and influence make detailed knowledge of its approach essential to understanding twelve-step programs in general. Since the founding and development of Alcoholics Anonymous in the United States during the late 1930s, numerous programs representing a broad range of maladies have utilized the general principles of AA, the 12 steps. Initially concentrated in North America, AA and its spin-offs have progressively been adapted and implemented in significant areas of the world. On May 11, 1935, a failed, middle-aged New York City stockbroker, William Griffith Wilson...
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Research Paper on The Temperance Movement
The Temperance Movement - Alcohol Abuse - Argumentative Research Paper Topics. Temperance, most notably associated with alcohol use, refers to moderation or restraint in one's consumption of alcohol. Temperance movements are social movements that attempt to convince others, either through morality or law, to refrain from drinking alcohol or at least moderate their alcohol consumption. These movements, some of which are still active today, have a long history. The thought of moderation regarding alcohol consumption was evident in the earliest American colonies; these ideas eventually resulted in the creation of the Eighteenth Amendment and Prohibition. Colonists generally practiced moderate drinking throughout the 18th century. However, by the beginning of the 19th century, people began to recognize an increase in the use of alcohol. Founded in 1826, the American Temperance Society began gathering pledges calling for abstinence from alcohol. By the mid-1830s there were more than 8,000 local temperance societies...
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Research Paper on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) - Alcohol Abuse - Argumentative Research Paper Topics. Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a cluster of birth defects related to prenatal alcohol exposure. There are four diagnostic criteria for FAS: prenatal and/or postnatal growth deficiency, central nervous system abnormalities (most typically mental retardation), a set of characteristic craniofacial features, and confirmed maternal alcohol use during pregnancy. Estimates of the prevalence of FAS vary widely, in part because there is no gold standard for recognizing a child affected by FAS. In the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimate that FAS affects 0.2 to 1.5 births per 1,000. FAS tends to be concentrated among minority and disadvantaged populations. For example, in the United States the reported prevalence of FAS is highest among African Americans and American Indians. Reports of FAS are particularly prevalent in South Africa, in Russia, and among Native Peoples of Canada. However, numerous studies...
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Research Paper on Alcoholism
Alcoholism - Alcohol Abuse - Argumentative Research Paper Topics. Alcoholism is a type of substance addiction characterized by a preoccupation with alcohol and impaired control over alcohol consumption. Alcoholism is similar to illicit drug addiction in its association with physical and psychological dependence. However, as alcohol consumption is legal and socially accepted, problematic use often goes unrecognized and lacks the same social stigma as illicit drug use. Alcoholism falls into two separate but overlapping categories: dependence and abuse. Alcohol abuse is more prevalent among youth and young adults and is characterized by binge drinking, often resulting in legal problems such as drunk driving arrests or interpersonal problems such as failure to fulfill employment responsibilities. In this entry the chronic and degenerative form of alcoholism--dependence--is the primary focus. Characterizing alcohol dependence is long-term abuse and the degradation of health caused by sustained long-term use...
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Research Paper on Drunk Driving
Drunk Driving - Alcohol Abuse - Argumentative Research Paper Topics. Traffic crashes are the cause of more fatal and debilitating traumatic injuries than any other modern activity in the United States, and today few are blind to the fact that alcohol-impaired drivers pose a significant risk to themselves and others. The deaths and injuries that drunk driving causes are frequently inflicted upon innocent victims; as there is no justification for drunk driving, these are particularly pointless and tragic occurrences. But broad recognition of the problems drunk drivers cause has not led to an easy crafting of effective strategies to combat them; indeed, the path remains contentious. Even fundamental issues, such as defining the term drunk driving, spark sometimesheated battles among researchers, activists, industry, and the government. Nonetheless, great strides have occurred in preventing deaths from drunk driving. Of concern, though, is the apparent recent stall in the decline in drunk driving and the...
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  Bullying Research Paper Topics
Research Paper on Bullying in College
Bullying is the deliberate and repeated affliction of harm by one individual on another of less physical or social power. The harm often takes place over an extended period of time and can be inflicted physically, verbally, or emotionally. The victim of bullying is known as the target, while the perpetrator is called the bully. While bullying is often associated with early and middle adolescence, bullying may persist into college and the workplace. At colleges and universities, bullying usually occurs either between two students, between a student and a teacher, or between two teachers. More than 60% of college students report having witnessed a peer being bullied by another student, and more than 45% report having seen a student being bullied by a teacher. The three major forms of bullying are physical bullying, verbal bullying, and emotional bullying. Physical bullying is an example of direct bullying, or bullying that outwardly harms the victim. Among college students, physical bullying most often involves...
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Research Paper on Bullying Laws
As more attention has been focused on school-based bullying, states have moved to enact appropriate legislation that penalizes students who bully and provides assistance to those who have been victimized. By 2003, at least 15 states had passed some type of school anti-bullying law. Some laws also include prevention programming, although precisely what this covers and who is included vary. In July 2009, students involved with the organization Students Against Violence Everywhere (SAVE) testified before U.S. House of Representatives subcommittees on Early Childhood, Elementary and Secondary Education, and Healthy Families and Communities, lobbying for a federal zero-tolerance law for bullying. Democratic Representative Linda Sanchez has sponsored the Safe Kids agenda, which includes several bills related to bullying. She would also like to see federal funds devoted to the creation of anti-harassment groups in schools. According to Bully Police, a self-proclaimed "watchdog organization," effective anti-bullying...
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Research Paper on Cyber-Offenses in High School
In the 1990s, when the Internet first gained a public face, it belonged to adults. In most cases, a home had only one computer that all family members shared, with adults being the primary users. In recent years, however, with the introduction of a wide variety of new products linking to the web and the vast collection of social networking groups that exist online, a new group has come to rule the Internet-- teenagers. Many parents are worried by the idea of predators creeping around on the Internet hunting for their teens. The reality is that they have far more to worry about when it comes to cyber-offenses and their children. Rather than focusing on how strangers may be interacting with teenagers on the Internet, adults perhaps should be more concerned with how teens are interacting with one another on the web. Adults may be surprised to learn that the threat of predators online is exaggerated and misunderstood. For the vast majority of youths who have contact with a stranger on the Internet, the contact...
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Research Paper on Stop Bullying
Stop Bullying is a website that was created and is maintained by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration. Its tagline, "Take a stand. Lend a hand. Stop Bullying Now!", and its youth-friendly graphics and design make it accessible and appealing for youth and educators who are working to reduce bullying in their schools and communities. The primary audience for this website is middle school students (grades 6-9). The website is divided into four main areas: "What bullying is," "What you can do," "Cool stuff," and "What adults can do." The "What bullying is" section of the website offers basic definitions and examples of bullying in youth-friendly language. According to the site, "Bullying happens when someone hurts or scares another person on purpose and the person being bullied has a hard time defending himself or herself. Usually, bullying happens over and over." There is also a short quiz to help youth reflect on their own behaviors...
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Research Paper on Cyber Bullying
Cyber Bullying - Bullying - Argumentative Research Paper Topics. Social networking has also given traditional bullies a way to move harassment online. Cyberbullying is defined as "bullying that involves the use of e-mail, instant messaging, text messages and digital images sent via cellular phones, Web pages, Web logs (blogs), chat rooms or discussion groups and other information technologies." The majority of kids have been affected at some point by cyberbullying. i-SAFE America, an organization that promotes Web safety education, studied a group of fourth to eighth graders. They found that 58 percent of these students had mean or hurtful things said to them online. Forty-two percent admitted to being bullied online. The majority of these teens did not tell parents or other adults about the online bullying. The bullying happened through threatening e-mails, nasty instant messages, and repeated text messages. In some cases, the bully set up Web sites or profiles to make fun of others, impersonated...
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  Child Abuse Research Paper Topics
Types of Child Abuse Research Paper
Types of Child Abuse - Child Abuse - Argumentative Research Paper Topics. The key types of child maltreatment are neglect, physical Abuse, sexual abuse and psychological/emotional abuse. Most maltreated children in the United States (about 63%) suffer from neglect, followed by physical abuse (19%), sexual abuse (10%) and psychological or emotional maltreatment (5%) as well as other forms of abuse as defined by state laws. Children may also suffer from multiple forms of abuse. The neglect of children may be as extreme as depriving infants and young children of food, water and basic care. It also may include many other types of behaviors, such as withholding medical treatment (medical neglect) or preventing or discouraging a child from obtaining an education (educational neglect). Neglect is the most common form of child maltreatment among...
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Statistics on Victims of Child Abuse Research Paper
Statistics on Victims of Child Abuse - Child Abuse - Argumentative Research Paper Topics. According to statistics for 2003 (reported in 2005) by the Administration on Children, Youth, and Families, the rate of child victimization dropped from 13.4 children per 1,000 in 1990 to 12.4 children per 1,000 in 2003, a 7.5% decrease. (The reason for this decrease is unknown.) Most child victims in 2003 were neglected(60.9%), followed by those who were physically abused (18.9%), sexually abused (9.9%), emotionally or psychologically maltreated (4.9%) or medically neglected (2.3%). Some children suffered from other or multiple forms of maltreatment as defined by state law. Children of all ages, including adolescents, are abused; however, according to U.S. statistics on child maltreatment in 2003, infants comprised the largest single age group of all victims, and children...
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Adolescent Sexual Abuse Research Paper
Adolescent Sexual Abuse - Child Abuse - Argumentative Research Paper Topics. Adolescent sexual abuse is predictive of serious problems among adolescents in middle school and high school. Many studies have demonstrated that sexually abused adolescents are at risk for depressive disorders as well as for the abuse of drugs and/or alcohol. They also have an increased risk for suicide. In one study of sexual victimization among adolescent women, reported in a 2004 issue of Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, the researchers studied adolescents in 1995 and again in 1996. They found that 7% of their sample (of more than 7,000 adolescent women) was forced into sexual intercourse. Some predictive factors for sexual victimization were alcohol use in the past year, marijuana use in the past 30 days and having been exposed to violence...
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Child Neglect: Statistics, Effects, and Prevention Research Paper
Child Neglect: Statistics, Effects, and Prevention - Child Abuse - Argumentative Research Paper Topics. Child neglect is the most frequent form of child maltreatment and results in more fatalities than all other types of child maltreatment in the United States. Child abuse often involves acts of commission, but child neglect often involves chronic acts of omission in care by a parent or caregiver which cause (the harm standard) or create an imminent risk (the endangerment standard) of serious physical or mental harm to a child under 18 years of age. Neglect may be physical, medical, educational, or emotional. It may involve a failure to provide for a child's basic needs of nutrition, clothing, hygiene, safety, or affection. It may involve abandonment, expulsion, inadequate supervision, permitted substance abuse, chronic school truancy, or failure to enroll a child...
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Child Abuse Risk and Protective Factors Research Paper
Child Abuse Risk and Protective Factors - Child Abuse - Argumentative Research Paper Topics. The first research articles on child abuse and neglect characterized offenders as suffering from various forms of psychopathology (Bennie and Sclare, 1969; Galdston, 1965; Steele and Pollock, 1974). Thus, the initial approach to explaining, understanding and treating maltreatment was to identify the personality or character disorders that were thought to be associated with abuse and neglect. There were many methodological problems that limited studies that attempted to develop psychological profiles of caretakers who maltreated their children. Most early studies had small samples and no, or inappropriate, comparison groups. Collectively, the studies failed to develop a consistent profile of abusers. Current theoretical approaches tend to recognize the multidimensional...
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  Civil Rights Research Paper Topics
The Civil Rights Movement Research Paper
The Civil Rights Movement - Civil Rights - Argumentative Research Paper Topics. Only part of the population experienced the picture-perfect American life in the 1950s. Many African Americans and other minorities were living in poverty, had poor access to education, and saw no way to improve their lives. In some cities and states, African Americans had lost their voting rights through poll taxes and other laws that discriminated against them. Segregation, or separation, of blacks and whites was common. Segregation had become the law of the land in 1896 with a Supreme Court decision called Plessy v. Ferguson. Law enforcement officers arrested Homer Plessy, an African American, for sitting in a "whites only" railroad car. The Supreme Court decided it was legal to maintain...
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Booker T. Washington Biography Research Paper
Booker T. Washington Biography - Civil Rights - Argumentative Research Paper Topics. Booker Taliaferro Washington was born on a farm near Hale's Ford in the foothills of the Blue Ridge Mountains in Franklin County, Virginia, most likely on April 5, 1856. Washington spent the first eight years of his childhood as a slave. Following emancipation he moved with his mother, brother, and sister to join his stepfather, who had found employment in the saltworks in Malden, West Virginia. Emancipation did not significantly raise the economic wellbeing of the family. The young Washington...
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Malcolm X Biography Research Paper
Malcolm X Biography - Civil Rights - Argumentative Research Paper Topics. Malcolm X was born Malcolm Little on May 19, 1925, in Omaha, Nebraska. The family soon moved to Lansing, Michigan, where the six-year-old Malcolm's father was killed in 1931--possibly murdered by members of the Black Legion, a local Ku Klux Klan group. A good student, Malcolm nevertheless got into trouble early. He admired the energy and intelligence of criminals and soon became involved with the numbers racket and drugs. It did not help that his mother was committed to a mental institution...
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Martin Luther King, Jr. Biography Research Paper
Martin Luther King, Jr. Biography - Civil Rights - Argumentative Research Paper Topics. Martin Luther King, Jr., was the eloquent voice of the modern civil rights movement. More than any other individual, he articulated the aspirations and grievances of African Americans who sought the rights promised by the U.S. Constitution. King pioneered the use of civil disobedience against racial segregation and discrimination. His powerful oratory invoked religious and patriotic imagery in support of full civil rights for all Americans. He inspired thousands of sympathizers to join his nonviolent...
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W.E.B. Du Bois Biography Research Paper
W.E.B. Du Bois Biography - Civil Rights - Argumentative Research Paper Topics. . William Edward Burghardt Du Bois was born on February 23, 1868, in Great Barrington, Massachusetts, and raised by his mother. In spite of the poverty of his childhood, Du Bois excelled in school and achieved one of the most impressive educations of his generation. He received bachelor degrees from Fisk University and Harvard University, pursued graduate work at Harvard and Germany's University of Berlin, and earned his PhD in history from Harvard in 1895. He received a faculty appointment...
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  Cloning Research Paper Topics
Research Paper on Cloning in America: Legal Rights and Boundaries
Cloning in America: Legal Rights and Boundaries - Cloning - Argumentative Research Paper Topics. In 1994, Federal District Court Judge Barbara Rothstein struck down Washington state's ban on physician-assisted suicide. In her opinion she employed what she thought was the logic of Casey: "Like the abortion decision, the decision of a terminally ill person to end his or her life 'involves the most intimate and personal choices a person can make in a lifetime,' and constitutes a 'choice central to personal dignity and autonomy.'" Legal philosopher Ronald Dworkin makes a similar claim. Our Constitution takes no sides in these ancient disputes...
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Research Paper on Constitutional Right to Clone
Constitutional Right to Clone - Cloning - Argumentative Research Paper Topics. Is the constitutional right to reproductive liberty broad enough to encompass cloning? It depends. There are aspects of the Supreme Court's decisions on reproductive liberty that seem to point toward personal autonomy on matters of lifestyle, marital choices, and intimacy as being part of the foundation of that liberty. If that is the case, then it seems that there is a constitutional right to clone that states may restrict only if there is a compelling state interest. On the other hand, there are aspects of these same Supreme Court decisions...
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Research Paper on Cloning and Society
Cloning and Society - Cloning - Argumentative Research Paper Topics. Unlike other forms of reproductive assistance, SCNT cloning allows one to choose the particular genome for one's "offspring." Some have argued that this sort of control over and selection of another's genome may result in viewing the child-clone produced as "made" rather than "begotten." That is, some argue that human cloning will have more in common with manufacturing than procreating, and this will lead people to begin to think of these children (and perhaps non-cloned children as well) as commodities selected for their attributes rather than as persons who should be valued for their own sake...
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Research Paper on Nonreproductive Reasons against Cloning
Nonreproductive Reasons against Cloning - Cloning - Argumentative Research Paper Topics. Someone may want to clone entire human beings as well as incomplete human beings for purposes other than becoming a parent. Cloning could be a plentiful resource for stem cells, which could "serve as the starter stock for growing replacement nerve, muscle and other tissues that might one day be used to treat patients with a variety of diseases." Nonreproductive cloning also holds out the possibility of increasing the supply of tissues and organs for transplantation by cloning full or intentionally damaged human beings...
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Research Paper on Cloning Controversy: Legal and Political Reactions
Cloning Controversy: Legal and Political Reactions - Cloning - Argumentative Research Paper Topics. Alarmed by the prospect of human cloning generated by Dolly, Congress and the White House called for legislation in March of 1997 that would ban human cloning. President Bill Clinton, by executive order, prohibited the use of federal funds for cloning. The president also requested that the National Bioethics Advisory Commission (NBAC) evaluate the legal and ethical questions raised by the possibility of human cloning. In arriving at its conclusion and recommendations, the commission conducted hearings over approximately three months...
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  Community Service Research Paper Topics
Research Paper on Community Crime Control
Community Crime Control - Community Service - Argumentative Research Paper Topics. Community crime control refers to the use of criminal justice mediums in solving social problems or preventing crime. Examples of this proactive approach to crime control include neighborhood watch, community watch, and beautification projects. A primary assumption is that crime is a social problem, rather than an individual problem, disrupting the community structure. The goal of community crime control is to empower the community by decreasing the fear of victimization and to foster positive participation in the community through the reduction of crime. These goals connect to theories of social control and social disorganization. Travis Hirschi's social control theory suggests that desistance from offending requires attachment to others, commitment...
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Research Paper on Community Policing: Programs, Models, and Problems
Community Policing: Programs, Models, and Problems - Community Service - Argumentative Research Paper Topics. Emerging from the tradition of locally organized police forces in the United States, community policing is a philosophy of police administration that focuses on cooperation and empathy between local police forces and communities. This style of policing embraces visible policing practices like foot or bike patrol and interactions with community members outside of emergencies, car accidents, or crime. Furthermore, this approach encourages substantive dialogue between police representatives and local organizations and sometimes goes so far as offering incentives for patrol officers to live in the communities in which they work. Based on the idea that police and the public should know each other as well as possible to be effective, community policing was a favorite buzzword...
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Research Paper on Community-Based Strategic Policing
Community-Based Strategic Policing - Community Service - Argumentative Research Paper Topics. Strategic policing refers to proactive measures that police take to prevent crime, control disorder, improve citizens' quality of life, and resolve community problems. To achieve these goals, the police employ tactics within a general, community-oriented strategy commonly known as "community policing." While community policing is the dominant paradigm of policing, police strategies...
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Research Paper on Community Service
Community Service - Community Service - Argumentative Research Paper Topics. Community service is compulsory, free, or donated labor performed by an offender as punishment for a crime. This requirement is a community service order. An offender under a community service order must perform labor for a certain length of time (as determined by the crime) at charitable not-for-profit agencies or governmental offices. Community service involves many different types of work, both skilled and unskilled. Most work is physical in nature, such as graffiti and debris removal or outdoor maintenance. Offenders must complete the work within a certain amount of time, such as 3 months. Community service closely aligns with restitution; the offender engages in acts designed, in part, to make...
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Research Paper on Community Corrections
Community-Based Corrections - Community Service - Argumentative Research Paper Topics. Community corrections refers to the supervised handling of juvenile and adult criminal offenders, convicted or facing possible conviction, outside of traditional penal institutions. It includes a wide range of programs intermediate between incarceration and outright release, such as probation, parole, pretrial release, and house arrest. It includes diversion from criminal justice to rehabilitative programs, day reporting, and residential centers. Community corrections measures include restitution, community service, fines, and boot camps. Whereas probation and parole are the predominant forms of community-based corrections, they often are considered separately, having long been parts...
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  Controversial Health Topics
Research Paper on Debate over the Causes of Addiction
Debate over the Causes of Addiction - Controversial Health Topics - Argumentative Research Paper Topics. Not all doctors agree on what constitutes addiction. Traditionally, addiction has been defined as only possible when a substance is ingested that temporarily alters the natural chemical behavior of the brain to produce the euphoric high associated with these drugs. However, over time, people have begun to feel that there should be an alteration of the definition of addiction to include psychological dependency on such things as gambling, food, sex, pornography, computers, work, exercise, cutting, shopping, and so forth. These activities do not alter the natural chemical behavior of the brain when they are performed; thus, they do not fit into the...
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Research Paper on Types of Addiction
Types of Addiction - Controversial Health Topics - Argumentative Research Paper Topics. Addiction is a recurring compulsion or need by an individual to engage in some particular activity or to consume some specific substance. The activity or substance becomes the sole focus in an addicted individual's life. He or she begins to lose interest in other activities, loses focus on goals that were once important, and will begin to abandon normal behavior in order to gain access to the addictive activity. As the need for the activity or substance grows, the individual will do anything for the substance. In extreme cases, the addict even breaks laws in order to continue engaging in the activity or substance. Family is often the target of the illegal activity and may pay stiff penalties...
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Research Paper on Addiction and Family
Addiction and Family - Controversial Health Topics - Argumentative Research Paper Topics. Addiction has become an increasingly large problem in the United States over the past few decades. Jails have become overcrowded with those who are caught selling and using addictive substances. It has become the social norm for celebrities to be in and out of addiction rehabilitation centers every other week, and activities such as gambling and overeating have been labeled, along with substances such as alcohol and cocaine, as potentially addictive. Once a narrowly defined term, addiction, or dependence, has been expanded to describe behaviors or activities that one wouldn't normally think of as being addictive. Among the more recent uses of the term are food addicts...
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Research Paper on Vegetarianism History and Facts
Vegetarianism History and Facts - Controversial Health Topics - Argumentative Research Paper Topics. The vegetarian movement in the United States and Canada encompasses local, national, and international organizations that promote vegetarian practices and lifestyles. These organizations identify meat as a social problem for a variety of reasons, including threats to personal health, destruction to the environment, and the pain and suffering caused to animals in the factory farming industry. The concerns of the vegetarian movement...
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Research Paper on Therapeutic Communities
Therapeutic Communities - Controversial Health Topics - Argumentative Research Paper Topics. Although the model of drug misuse treatment called the "therapeutic community" (TC) traces its American roots to Synanon, it has quite an ancient pedigree. At the dawn of the Christian era, Philo Judaeus wrote of communitae therapeutrides, the art of which was to "heal the souls which are under the mastery of terrible . . . incurable diseases of pleasures and appetites. . . ." Thus, it appears that the struggle with uncontrolled appetite was a challenge...
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  Controversial People Research Paper Topics
Research Paper on Emma Goldman Biography
Emma Goldman Biography Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Biographies of Famous People. Emma Goldman was born June 27, 1869, in Kovno, Lithuania, which was then part of the Russian Empire. The Goldman family moved to St. Petersburg, where Emma's father experienced a series of business failures. Goldman often quarreled with her father, who failed to support his daughter's educational endeavors. In 1885 Goldman and her older sister Helena left Russia for the United States and settled with other family members in Rochester, New York, where Goldman began factory work as a seamstress...
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Research Paper on Joseph Goebbels Biography
Joseph Goebbels Biography Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Biographies of Famous People. Joseph Goebbels was the mastermind who crafted the ongoing propaganda campaign that was indispensable in selling Adolf Hitler, the Nazi Party (NSDAP), the Nazi regime, and Nazi war aims to the German people. He was born in the Rhenish town of Rheydt, the son of a factory clerk. Highly intelligent, Goebbels earned a doctorate in philology from Heidelberg University in 1922...
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Research Paper on Lee Harvey Oswald Biography
Lee Harvey Oswald Biography Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Biographies of Famous People. Lee Harvey Oswald, the man generally recognized as the assassin of President John Fitzgerald Kennedy was born in New Orleans. He and his mother, a widow, lived in several cites as he was growing up. At the age of 17, he joined the U.S. Marine Corps, serving for three years before receiving a dishonorable discharge. After leaving the service, he moved to the Soviet Union with the intention of becoming a citizen...
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Research Paper on Dr. Josef Mengele Biography
Dr. Josef Mengele Biography Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Biographies of Famous People. The infamous Nazi doctor, known to the inmates of Auschwitz as the "Angel of Death," Mengele, who held a Ph.D. as well as an M.D., became interested in "racial science" in 1934 as a member of the Nazi regime's Hereditary Institute for Biology and Racial Hygiene. He joined the National Socialist (Nazi) Party in 1937, and the following year the S.S. (Schutzstaffel)...
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Research Paper on Ernesto Che Guevara
Biography and Legacy of Ernesto Che Guevara Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Biographies of Famous People. Che's legacy contains an indiscriminate blending, overlapping and confusion of intellectual and practical contributions to different areas of behavior that should be separated and distinguished. First, there is Che the insurrectionary theorist, strategist and tactician. This is the main thrust of his legacy, and it weighs heavily on his post-1967 followers and on interpreters of the Latin American left...
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  Controversial Science Topics
Essay on Evolution and Genetics
Evolution and Genetics Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Controversial Science Topics. In 1858 two Englishmen were about to shake the foundations of what nearly everyone thought about the origins of life and its immense diversity around the world. Charles Darwin (1809-82) and Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913), living on opposite sides of the globe, had come to nearly identical conclusions. Just as each cell arose from a preexisting cell, each of the Earth's species had evolved from an earlier form of life, in an immensely long, unbroken chain stretching back to the first cell. Evolution was based on a few logical principles that could be observed nearly everywhere: Variation--Each member of a species (except for identical twins) has slightly different features...
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Essay on Science vs Religion: Can a Scientist Be Religious?
Science vs Religion: Can a Scientist Be Religious? Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Controversial Science Topics. Almost all scientists answer the question posed in the title in the affirmative, for both personal and scientific reasons. The personal reason is that many scientists are religious individuals, although fewer scientists are religious (about 40 percent believe in a personal God) compared to the general American population (over 90 percent). For example, some of the most famous evolutionary scientists have been openly religious. The scientific reason is that the scientific method does not require an assumption that a supreme being (God) does not exist. What science does require is that, for the phenomena being investigated, this supreme being, or other supernatural...
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Essay on Extinction of Species
Extinction of Species Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Controversial Science Topics. Extinction can be a natural process. Indeed, the vast majority of species that ever existed are now extinct. In light of this, some people have justified the growing global impoverishment of species by arguing that because extinction is a natural process, the extinction of modern species is simply a continuation of a normal phenomenon. Yet historically, typical, or background extinction rates usually have been lower than the rate at which new species evolved (except during extinction spasms). But because modern extinction rates are roughly 1,000 times higher than background extinction rates (Myers 1988; Soule 1996), today only a handful of people deny that the planet is in, or rapidly approaching...
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Essay on Evolution vs Creationism Controversy
Evolution vs Creationism Controversy Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Controversial Science Topics. Garry Wills begins his 1990 book, Under God: Religion and American Politics, as follows: "The learned have their superstitions, prominent among them a belief that superstition is evaporating. Since science has explained the world in secular terms, there is no more need for religion, which will wither away. Granted, it has been slow to die in America." If there is a recurring lesson in each episode of the creation/evolution controversy, it is that neither creationism nor evolutionism ever dies in America. This controversy does not go away -- no matter how convinced one side is that truth has won out and the other side, that error has prevailed. Wills could have been speaking...
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Essay on Ethics of Biotechnology
Ethics of Biotechnology Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Controversial Science Topics. There can be no doubt that biotechnology represents a major breakthrough in scientific research and a triumph of human ingenuity. It will be the most powerful ally in our fight against diseases and disabilities, hunger and poverty on a world scale. It will help us cope better with the devastation of nature brought about by the earlier industrial revolution and over-population in the wake of what has been described as 'the demographic explosion' (Paul Kennedy). However, the downside of biotechnology has largely to do with this unprecedented power, its use and its control. The implications and social impact of biotechnology have been compared to those of the splitting of the atom and...
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  Controversial Topics in Business
Research Paper on Corporate Crimes: Motives, Cases, and Social Responses
Corporate Crimes: Motives, Cases, and Social Responses - Controversial Topics in Business - Argumentative Research Paper Topics. Corporate crimes include secretly dumping hazardous waste, illegally agreeing to fix prices, and knowingly selling unacceptably dangerous products. These offenses, like other corporate crimes, are deviant outcomes of actions by people working in usually nondeviant corporations. Identifying true rates of corporate crime is problematic because victims and their victimization are difficult to establish. Toxic dumping, for instance, does not leave maimed or dead bodies at dump sites, and victims of price fixing seldom know they were illegally overcharged. Knowingly selling hazardous pharmaceuticals is particularly difficult to determine because often the harms are insidious--they kill only a tiny fraction of consumers, and harms do not appear until decades after exposure...
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Research Paper on The Nature of the American Interest Group System
The Nature of the American Interest Group System - Controversial Topics in Business - Argumentative Research Paper Topics. When the French aristocrat Alex de Tocqueville toured the new American nation in the 1830s, he was amazed by the tendency of Americans to organize interest groups to advocate social change. Compared to the politics of "Old Europe," Americans preferred to use political organizations to pursue their social objectives. Modern comparative political science supports that conclusion. Among the peoples of developed nations, Americans belong to more interests groups than any other people and expect these groups to promote their interests and preferences for them. Those in the other developed nations tend to leave such tasks to political parties (Hrebenar 1997). The Encyclopedia...
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Research Paper on Interest Groups and Lobbying
Interest Groups and Lobbying - Controversial Topics in Business - Argumentative Research Paper Topics. Virtually any discussion of contemporary American social issues has to be framed within the vast array of interest groups and lobbyists who advocate for or resist the adoption of new policies. Of all the nations in the world, interest groups and lobbyists are more important to the outcomes of social issues in the United States and especially in the contemporary political era. If one just follows the course of U.S. politics by reading the political articles in the New York Times or the Washington Post, one would quickly notice that almost every social issue is understood by an examination of the powerful interest groups involved in the political battles. The essence of the process of U.S. politics...
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Research Paper on CEO Pay Controversy: Pros and Cons
CEO Pay Controversy: Pros and Cons - Controversial Topics in Business - Argumentative Research Paper Topics. Top Executives Are Not Overpaid. This side of the argument is based on the premise that top executives are paid well, but not overpaid. Many people see CEO pay packages but do not look further to see that a CEO's pay is not the whole story. What are the factors that might support a high executive compensation package? Only Extreme Cases of Overpay Hit the Press. Proponents of the argument that top executives are not overpaid state that most of the complaints about executive compensation center around extreme cases of overpay, and such cases blind us to the fact that the majority of executives are paid fairly. One example of this is the case of Lee Raymond, former head of Exxon Mobile...
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Research Paper on Executive Pay Controversy
Executive Pay Controversy - Controversial Topics in Business - Argumentative Research Paper Topics. The U.S. media have made much out of executive pay recently, which reflects a widespread popular dissatisfaction with the way companies compensate their top officers. Even as stock prices fell dramatically in the midst of the 2008-2009 financial crisis, for example, some chief executives' compensation remained stable or increased. Is it fair that, in 2009, following massive job cuts at companies such as Ford, Starbucks, Dow Chemical, Whirlpool, and American Express, the CEOs of these organizations received stock options valued at between $17 million (Whirlpool) and $53 million (Ford) (Schwartz 2010)? (Such options, of course, are only part of the standard executive compensation package...
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  Controversial Topics in Education
Research Paper on Inclusive Education Research Findings and Applications
Inclusive Education Research Findings and Applications - Controversial Topics in Education - Argumentative Research Paper Topics. So what does the research say about the efficacy of inclusive education--that is, students with mild to severe disabilities, typical average students, students who are gifted and talented, racially and culturally diverse students learning together? As always, of course, research in any meaningful question is never finished. However, here are some conclusions that are clear from the present research base: - Studies that have systematically compared outcomes from inclusive education and separate programs most often show that academic and social gains are higher in inclusive classes. In some studies, the results were mixed. It is notable that no studies showed segregated...
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Research Paper on Inclusive Schooling and Ability Diversity
Inclusive Schooling and Ability Diversity - Controversial Topics in Education - Argumentative Research Paper Topics. Inclusive education is a movement that aims to have all students--including children with mild to severe disabilities, students considered gifted and talented, and students with other special needs--educated in general education classes with support and collaboration from specialists. Inclusive education had its beginning in the efforts of parents of children with disabilities, particularly severe disabilities, and professionals who were concerned about the segregated lives for which these children were being prepared in special education classes and schools. The movement has built on language in laws of countries throughout the world that has required, as in the United States...
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Research Paper on School Violence and Safety
School Violence - Controversial Topics in Education - Argumentative Research Paper Topics. In light of the widespread coverage in the popular media of these high-profile incidents of school violence, the Justice Policy Institute examined data gathered from an earlier study conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and concluded that the likelihood of children becoming victims of school-based violence was as minute as "one in two million" (Olweus 1993). The following month, President Clinton addressed Americans and asserted that "the overwhelming majority of our schools are, in fact, safe" (CNN 1998), a comment reiterated by Attorney General Janet Reno and Education Secretary Richard W. Riley in the report titled Early Warning, Timely Response: A Guide to Safe Schools...
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Research Paper on Gender Issues in International Education
Gender Issues in International Education - Controversial Topics in Education - Argumentative Research Paper Topics. Gender issues in international education vary greatly by region and also vary within regions by level of schooling and, at the tertiary (higher education) level, subject of study. Some broad trends can be analyzed by examining data from the first decade of the twenty-first century. Those trends shed light on areas in which the experiences of boys and girls and men and women have remained dramatically different. To gauge the porousness of the academic pipeline through higher education, it is helpful to refer to both the Education for All initiative developed at the Jomtien World Conference on Education for All (UNESCO 1990) and the Millennium Development Goals established in 2000...
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Research Paper on Gay and Lesbian College Students
Gay and Lesbian Students in College - Controversial Topics in Education - Argumentative Research Paper Topics. College campuses have often been on the forefront of social change in U.S. culture, and the emergence of gay, lesbian, bisexual, or transgender (GLBT) student identity and awareness of GLBT issues is no exception. Due to complexities in measurement and the fact that many GLBT students remain private about their sexual orientation, it is not possible to determine the size or prevalence of this student population on college campuses. However, for many GLBT youth, college is a time when students begin to explore issues of identity and belonging related to their sexual orientation and gender identity as a result of being away from home for the first time and in an environment that foments...
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  Controversial Topics in Psychology
Research Paper on Parenting Children with ADHD
Children with ADHD and Their Parents - Controversial Topics in Psychology - Argumentative Research Paper Topics. While the debate rages on about the proper conceptualization of ADHD behaviors, parents and children are caught in the middle. Much research has found that actions consistent with ADHD in a child have negative implications for that child's relationship with his or her parents. In general, households with children who have ADHD are characterized by higher parental stress and distress and more parent-child conflict than households without children who have ADHD. Studies of parents' self-reports find that mothers and fathers of these children have trouble relating to their off spring, often lack a sense of closeness with the child, and view themselves as less skilled and competent...
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Research Paper on ADHD Controversy: ADHD as Social Construction
ADHD Controversy: ADHD as Social Construction - Controversial Topics in Psychology - Argumentative Research Paper Topics. In addition to the perspectives of ADHD as disease and the medicalization of ADHD is the view of ADHD as social construction. According to social psychology, humans are driven by the desire to make sense of the world around them. Individuals observe one another's behavior, interact in situations, and perform acts, all to which they constantly try to attach definitions to help them understand the world and their place in it. This process is social and varies based on situational, historical, and other factors, which means that society's understandings can change over time. Several authors believe this has occurred with the interpretation of youthful conduct. Ideas about desirable...
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Research Paper on ADHD Controversy: The Medicalization of ADHD
ADHD Controversy: The Medicalization of ADHD - Controversial Topics in Psychology - Argumentative Research Paper Topics. Another perspective on ADHD is that it, like a number of other social issues, has been subjected to the process of medicalization. Prominent medicalization researchers and others cite as key elements of the medicalizing of ADHD the changing views of children in the United States, the unprecedented power of the medical profession, and the clout of pharmaceutical companies offering so-called miracle drugs to fi x behavioral problems. Prior to the Industrial Revolution, children were seen as miniature adults rather than members of a special life stage prior to adulthood. Children were considered responsible and were expected to become productive members of society at early ages...
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Research Paper on ADHD Controversy: ADHD as a Disease
ADHD Controversy: ADHD as a Disease - Controversial Topics in Psychology - Argumentative Research Paper Topics. The underlying assumption of a medical model of ADHD is that some recognized standard of behavior, one that is displayed by the majority of the populace, is absent in an individual. The absence of the expected behavior is attributed to an illness or disease, which, once properly diagnosed, can be treated to help bring about more desired behavior. Many psychologists, psychiatrists, physicians, and other clinicians, as well as parents, teachers, and members of the general public, believe this model is appropriate for ADHD. The idea that inattentiveness and hyperactivity in children indicate a disorder originated near the turn of the 20th century. The condition, then termed hyperkinetic...
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Research Paper on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Controversy
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) - Controversial Topics in Psychology - Argumentative Research Paper Topics. Parents often agonize over a child's behavior, wondering if their child is just unruly or if there might be a medical cause to problems experienced in school and other rigid settings. Increasingly, parents are finding a diagnosis--attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)--to account for some of the behavior issues that make parenting a particularly challenging activity. According to the medical community, ADHD is a neurological disorder primarily characterized by inattentiveness, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. ADHD is generally detected in childhood, but increasing numbers of individuals are being diagnosed in adulthood. The vast majority of identified ADHD sufferers...
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  Controversial Topics in Religion
Research Paper on Sexual Abuse of Minors by Roman Catholic Priests
Sexual Abuse of Minors by Roman Catholic Priests - Controversial Topics in Religion - Argumentative Research Paper Topics. In 2003, the archdiocese of Boston paid $85 million to 552 people who claimed sexual abuse by Roman Catholic priests. In 2004, the diocese of Orange in California settled 90 abuse claims for $100 million. In November 2004, the USCCB established a data collection procedure, whereby dioceses make annual reports regarding allegations of sexual abuse of minors by priests and deacons and the costs associated with the abuse. The Center for Applied Research in the Apostolate (CARA) at Georgetown University was given responsibility for compiling and reporting the data. According to the CARA reports, there were 898 new allegations of sexual abuse of minors by clergy in 2004...
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Research Paper on Priests Sexual Abuse Scandal
Priests Sexual Abuse Scandal - Controversial Topics in Religion - Argumentative Research Paper Topics. Beginning in the mid-1980s, a series of court cases began to reveal the extent of sexual abuse committed by clergy in various religious contexts. Although the popular press has tended to associate the clergy abuse scandals as a "Catholic" issue, in fact, the problem is widespread in many religious contexts, including non-Christian religions as well. Although the focus here is on the crisis in the American Catholic Church, in 1990, a survey conducted by the Center for Ethics and Social Policy at the Graduate Theological Union in Berkeley, California, discovered that 10 percent of clergy from across many Protestant Christian denominations that were surveyed said that they had been sexually...
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Research Paper on The "Christian Identity" Movement
The "Christian Identity" Movement - Controversial Topics in Religion - Argumentative Research Paper Topics. Among the most explicitly religious groups among the far-right and extremist organizations is the movement known as Christian Identity (variant but related groups appear with names like Church of the Aryan Nation and similar ones). A number of specific groups identify with variations on this train of thought, so it is important to briefly summarize some of the basic ideas encountered in these many versions. Among the most common ideas that feed the Christian Identity movement ideas are those known as British Israelism or Anglo-Israelism. This is the belief that the white races of western Europe and especially the Celtic and Germanic peoples are direct descendents of the Lost Tribes...
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Research Paper on Religion and Religious Prejudice
Religion and Religious Prejudice - Controversial Topics in Religion - Argumentative Research Paper Topics. The gap between the humanitarian ideals of most religions and the often inhumane actions of their practitioners is wide and widely observed. Religious people are clearly not immune to the tendencies toward biased judgments, intolerance, contempt, and even violence that are apparently universal features of human societies. The specific relationship between religion and prejudice...
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Research Paper on Religious Extremism
Religious Extremism: Definition and Examples - Controversial Topics in Religion - Argumentative Research Paper Topics. Religious extremism is a radicalized and intolerant viewpoint that typically sanctions the use of violence to promote a defined, religiously motivated political agenda. Religious extremist groups share several interlocking characteristics. Among the most important are a sense of persecution, a sense of injustice suffered at the hand of a larger force or ideological entity...
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  Corporal Punishment Research Paper Topics
Research Paper on Corporal Punishment and Child Abuse
Corporal punishment is defined as inflicting bodily pain on a child as a response to misbehavior, with the goal of immediately stopping the behavior and preventing a repetition of the behavior in the future. Some examples of corporal punishment are spanking, slapping and paddling. In most cases, corporal punishment is not regarded as abuse, unless the child is severely harmed. Those who oppose corporal punishment see it as ineffective and even cruel, with serious potential problems stemming from its use. Those who support it believe that it would be wrong for the government to take away a form of discipline that many parents use and support. Some parents continue to use corporal punishment as a method of discipline. In some states, schools may use corporal punishment...
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Research Paper on Corporal Punishment: Definition, Pros, and Cons
Corporal Punishment: Definition, Pros, and Cons Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Corporal Punishment Controversy. Corporal punishment refers to intentional application of physical pain as a method of changing behavior. Youth in the United States experience various forms of corporal punishment in two primary places: their homes and their schools. When corporal punishment occurs in the home, it can be thought of as a form of family violence. The most severe forms of corporal punishment occur with very young children, pregnant teens, and adolescent males between the ages of 15 and 17. Spanking is the most common form of corporal punishment used by adults to discipline children. The use of spanking as a disciplinary method is controversial. Parents often consider the use of spanking...
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Research Paper on Effects of and Alternatives to Corporal Punishment
Effects of and Alternatives to Corporal Punishment Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Corporal Punishment Controversy. The Effects of corporal punishment are well documented and sobering. Studies reveal that individuals who were physically punished by parents or caregivers are more likely to be physically aggressive with others, including one's spouse; to severely attack one's siblings; to imagine or engage in masochistic sexual practices; to physically abuse one's children; to have depressive symptoms and suicidal thoughts; to become delinquent as a juvenile; and to have lower lifetime earnings. The more often one was subjected to corporal punishment during adolescence, the lower the chances of being in the top 20 percent of all wage earners. It is worth reiterating that...
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Research Paper on Religiosity, Region, and Corporal Punishment
Religiosity, Region, and Corporal Punishment Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Corporal Punishment Controversy. Support for corporal punishment in the United States historically has always been high and is often linked to religious or regional factors. Violence against children and babies is well documented and dates back to the biblical period. Historically, most forms of child punishment would today be considered severe child abuse. Parents were instructed to chastise and control errant children through such methods as swaddling, whipping, burning, drowning, castration, and abandonment. Puritans held a strict belief in original sin, and parents were instructed to, in a very literal sense, beat the devil out of their children. Early U.S. schools used corporal punishment...
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Research Paper on Attitudes toward Corporal Punishment
Attitudes toward Corporal Punishment Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Corporal Punishment Controversy. The vast majority of U.S. parents support the use of corporal punishment. This is peculiar in light of the purported overwhelming concern that Americans have about violence in society generally and certainly in relation to children and adolescents. In fact, parents who choose not to spank their children are in violation of a strong social norm and often encounter conflict with others. They may feel the need to justify their decision not to spank, whereas no justification for spanking is required. Overall, corporal punishment is still commonly being used against U.S. children. A number of Americans actually favor corporal punishment over other methods of child discipline...
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  Criminal Justice Research Paper Topics
Research Paper on Crime: Definition, Theory, and Research
Recent figures from the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) report that violent and property crime are declining. For example, from 2003 to 2004, the index for violent crime indicates a drop of 2.2 percent. Perhaps more telling is that between 1995 and 2004 the same index reports an overall decline in violent crime of 32 percent. The trend for property crime is equally noteworthy. Figures from the NCVS report a 2.1 percent decrease from 2003 to 2004. Moreover, the rate of property crime from 1995 to 2004 fell by 23.4 percent. Clearly, these data suggest that the problem of crime is increasingly under control and that the mechanisms to contain it are working effectively. However, interpreting the data reveals another story...
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Research Paper on Violence Definition
Violence is an injurious force exerted to cause damage to people or things. Shaped by a multitude of social, political, and economic forces within families, neighborhoods, nation-states, and the broader international community, violence is a complex problem related to patterns of thinking and behavior. It embodies an expression of power often used to demonstrate authority or repression, or to persuade others to behave in particular ways. Also characterizing violence is an element of intent by its perpetrator. Intention is obvious in physical forms of violence but is minimally evident or even nonexistent in its structural or symbolic forms. Finally, discussions about violence often take on a moral tone, classifying it as just or unjust. Violence, therefore, is an...
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Research Paper on Victimization and Victimology
The term victimization refers to a process whereby an external force comes in contact with a person, causing that person to feel pain, sometimes causing injury, either of which can be short-lived or which might cause extended suffering and sometimes death. That force can be legal or illegal, natural or human caused, biological or chemical, expected or unexpected, social or individual, civil or uncivil, intended or unintended; the list of possibilities is endless. Those persons who are the direct recipients of the external force are the primary victims, the ones who suffer first, feel pain the most severely, and are usually injured the worst. Other persons who are related to, or acquainted with, the primary victims and are negatively affected (usually emotionally) are...
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Research Paper on Affirmative Defence
The structure of criminal liability or guilt in Anglo-American law is straightforward. (The same structure of liability applies in general in civil suits, but this entry focuses on criminal law.) Crimes are defined by their criteria, which lawyers call the "elements." Most crimes require some prohibited action and an accompanying mental state. For example, one definition of murder is the intentional killing of a human being. The prohibited action is any type of killing conduct and the required mental state is intent, the purpose to kill. The State has enormous discretion concerning what behavior to criminalize and what the specific elements of crimes should be. The State (prosecution) must prove these elements beyond a reasonable doubt. Even if the prosecution...
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Research Paper on Arson as a Type of Crime
Arson is the willful or malicious burning of property, and arson fires also entail the risk of intentional or inadvertent personal injury, including risk to firefighters. In the United States, at least 20 percent (and as much as 50 percent) of fire-related property damage is due to arson. This proportion has been declining due, at least in part, to increased vigilance and investigation. Considerable scientific knowledge now supports forensic fire investigation, including determination that the cause was arson. Nevertheless, conviction rates for arson are extremely low (2 percent to 3 percent), and about 80 percent of arson cases remain unsolved. Although profit is probably the most common motive for arson, little is known about its perpetrators because of their low...
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  Death Penalty Research Paper Topics
Human Rights and Death Penalty Essay
This essay on the death penalty serves as a reminder of how our attitudes with regard to what constitutes a human rights question change over time...
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Essay on Death Penalty Issues: Costs and Methods
Death Penalty Issues: Costs and Methods Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Death Penalty Controversy. It is generally agreed that the cost of administering the death penalty as punishment for murder is greater than the cost of life in prison without parole. These costs are a consequence of protracted trials, appeals, and increased security expenses for those under sentence of death. An increased guard-to-prisoner ratio is often found on death rows to prevent the embarrassment to government officials of suicides by convicts. In those cases when death-sentenced prisoners attempt suicide, the prison staff makes heroic attempts to save their lives so they can survive to be properly executed as specified by law. During much of the 19th century, most U.S. executions were...
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Essay on Death Penalty Debate: Pros and Cons
Death Penalty Debate: Pros and Cons Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Death Penalty Controversy. Unlike most industrialized nations that severely restrict or have banned the practice completely, the United States continues to use capital punishment. Despite international pressures, internal protests, and some compelling arguments against this practice, the United States remains the only industrialized democracy still executing prisoners. The death penalty was used widely in the ancient world. In the 18th century BCE, Babylon prescribed the death penalty for 25 crimes. Even the celebrated ancient democracy in Athens relied heavily on capital punishment in its legal code developed in the 7th century BCE. Roman law is well known for its executions, using various methods, including...
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Essay on Death Penalty Controversy
Death Penalty Controversy Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Death Penalty Controversy. The major objective of death penalty supporters in the 1990s was to cut down the delay between death sentences and execution. The story of this crusade is an important chapter in American constitutional history. The 200 death sentences a year are an impossibly tiny fraction of the multitude of felony convictions recorded each year in the United States, and the 3700 prisoners on death row in 2002 are less than one-tenth of 1 percent of sentenced felony offenders. But death penalty cases are unique in American criminal justice and have provoked a sustained attack on judicial principles and processes over the last twenty years that carries important consequences throughout the criminal justice system...
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  Divorce Research Paper Topics
Mothers and Work-Life Issues Essay
Mothers and Work-Life Issues Today Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Social Issues. Both the family and the workplace are so-called greedy institutions, demanding a great deal of time and energy from individuals. In fact, in the United States the full-time work week is quite a bit longer than in many Western European countries. Furthermore, individuals often find that these domains require the most from them during the same period of their lives. That is, the demands of work and family peak around the same time. Thus, many women and men feel that it is difficult to balance the demands of career, marriage, and family. This is particularly true of women, because they are expected to be the "kinkeepers"--maintaining a happy marriage, a stable and successful...
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Maternal Employment Essay
Maternal Employment Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Social Issues. Maternal employment has been the subject of considerable debate for many years. Women's labor force participation rates have been steadily increasing since before the turn of the 20th century. In fact, over the past 100 years, the number of women who are employed for pay or seeking paid employment has increased from about 4 million in 1890 to almost 63 million in 2001. Furthermore, between 1980 and 2000, the paid labor force participation rate for mothers of school-aged children increased from 64 to 79 percent. For mothers of preschool children, the rate increased from 47 to about 65 percent. In 2009, nearly 60 percent of married mothers with children under the age of three were in the paid...
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Divorce as Solution for Marital Problems Essay
Divorce as Solution for Marital Problems Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Social Issues. For partners who do not grow together in terms of interests and expectations, married life can be stifling. Divorce permits couples in unhappy unions to end their relationships and start anew. While ending a marriage is a difficult, even traumatic, life transition, it does permit persons to make meaningful life changes and experience a renewal in their lives. This notion of being renewed after severing ties from an unsatisfactory relationship is particularly likely to be mentioned by women after a divorce. In some communities, a woman's female friends might even throw her a liberation party to celebrate her newly single status. Despite the potential for some women to experience...
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Society and Divorce Essay
Society and Divorce Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Social Issues. Divorce is a symptom of the pressure that Americans put on the marital relationship to be all things to the partners. The romantic notion of marriage--that one perfect person will make all of your dreams come true--may be partly responsible for the high rates of divorce. Asking one person to be your everything is putting a lot of faith in and pressure on that individual. While partners are expected to marry for life, they are given very little preparation, other than what they have witnessed in the marriages of their parents and other adults, about how to make a marriage work. Divorce is a symptom of the inadequate preparation for marriage that exists in U.S. society. To combat this...
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Divorce as a Social Problem Essay
Divorce as a Social Problem Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Social Issues. While divorce rates in the United States have been stable or declining for 20 years, Americans express an overwhelming anxiety about the state of marriage. The rate of divorce peaked around 1980, but persons from all across the political spectrum propose that divorce is a serious problem in the United States today. Persons who see divorce as a problem come from the perspective that current divorce rates are unnaturally high and that society should work to reduce them. There is a long history stemming from religious prohibitions and middle-class morality suggesting that divorce is a problem. Divorce is defined as a problem because of the trauma of the breakup as well as the aftereffects for...
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  Domestic Violence Research Paper Topics
Domestic Violence: Barriers to Seeking Help Essay
Domestic Violence: Barriers to Seeking Help Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Social Issues. A common question that arises in relation to domestic violence is why doesn't she just leave? Surely women do not enjoy being treated this way, so why don't abused women get out? Many feel that if a victim of domestic violence really wanted to leave the relationship, she would just move on. However, as will be discussed further, the circumstances that often surround domestic violence, especially in situations where intimate terrorism is present, tend to be complex, and choosing to leave can be much more difficult, if not more lethal, than most people may realize. The suggestion that she should just leave blames any future abuse on her decision to stay; thus, the victim...
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Domestic Violence and Abuse Behaviors Essay
Domestic Violence and Abuse Behaviors Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Social Issues. Domestic violence, also known as intimate partner violence, is a significant concern in society today. It is estimated that 9 million couples, or one in six marriages, experience some form of intimate partner violence, with 21 percent of all violent crimes committed against women perpetrated by a romantic partner (Strong, DeVault, and Cohen 2010). Although violence against women in intimate relationships has existed for centuries, it has only become widely acknowledged as problematic since the latter half of the 20th century. Many credit this increased awareness to social and political movements such the second wave of feminism, also known as the modern women's movement, that have argued...
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Legal Responses to Domestic Violence Essay
Legal Responses to Domestic Violence Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Marriage and Family Life. Domestic violence has traditionally fallen under the jurisdiction of the states. Changes in statutes to address domestic violence crimes have come in the areas of police response, how cases are handled by the judiciary and prosecutors, increasing the availability and deployment of civil orders of protection, and the development of additional educational resources. Every state has adopted reforms to address these concerns, including enacting domestic violence codes, removing barriers to obtaining arrest warrants, and expanding grounds for arrest. Reforms on the state level began by the passage of criminal statutes on domestic violence. Laws also started to include enhanced punishments...
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Domestic Violence: Child Abuse and Elder Abuse Essay
Domestic Violence: Child Abuse and Elder Abuse Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Marriage and Family Life. The majority of child abuse is perpetrated by the parents (77%) or other relatives (11%) whereas only 2 percent of offenders were from outside of the home (i.e., childcare providers) (Gosselin 2000). Women accounted for 75 percent of the abusers in neglect and medical child abuse cases (Gosselin 2000). Fathers and mothers are equally likely to physically abuse children, and when a parent substitute is involved, the offender is usually the male or the father substitute. This form of domestic abuse is not constituted by a single act of physical violence, deprivation, or molestation. Emotional abuse is included in a broad definition of child abuse but may not be legally...
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Domestic Violence and Intimate Partner Abuse Essay
Domestic Violence and Intimate Partner Abuse Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Marriage and Family Life. The majority of victims of intimate partner abuse are women, and they are assaulted by someone who is a former or current spouse, cohabiting partner (opposite or same-sex), date, or boyfriend or girlfriend. When the victim is female, 93.4 percent of the time the offender is male, and when the victim is male, 85.9 percent of the time the perpetrator is male (Gosselin 2000). Studies focusing on the adult male batterer have identified characteristics and personality risk-factors that characterize this type of abuser, but these factors can also be applied to female perpetrators, abusers in gay and lesbian relationships, and elder and child abuse situations. These characteristics...
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  Drug Abuse Research Paper Topics
The War on Drugs Criticism Essay
The War on Drugs and Its Critics Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Social Issues. Just as drugs have shaped the course of global and U.S. history, so have periodic wars on drugs. The current U.S. drug policy regime is based on the Controlled Substances Act (1970), which classifies legal and illegal drugs onto five schedules that proceed from Schedule I (heavily restricted drugs classified as having "no medical use" such as heroin, LSD, psilocybin, mescaline, or peyote) to Schedule V (less restricted drugs that have a legitimate medical use and low potential for abuse despite containing small amounts of controlled substances). This U.S. law implements the United Nations' Single Convention on Narcotics Drugs (1961), which added cannabis to former international...
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Drug Usage and Historical Trends Essay
Drug Usage and Historical Trends Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Social Issues. Patterns of popular drug use often follow the contours of social change. Several factors tipped the scale toward constructing drug addiction as a disease in the 1960s. The U.S. Supreme Court interpreted addiction as an illness, opining, "Even one day in prison would be a cruel and unusual punishment for the 'crime' of having a common cold" (Robinson v. California, 1962). Finding it "unlikely that any State at this moment in history would attempt to make it a criminal offense for a person to be mentally ill, or a leper, or to be afflicted with a venereal disease," the Court stated that prisons could not be considered "curative" unless jail sentences were made "medicinal"...
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Drugs, Medication, Self-Medication, and Medicalization Essay
Drugs, Medication, Self-Medication, and Medicalization Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Social Issues. Practices of self-medication blur the medical-versus-nonmedical category. In some places, illegal drug markets have made these substances more widely available than the tightly controlled legal market. Many people who use heroin, cocaine, or marijuana are medicating themselves for depression, anxiety, or disease conditions. They lack health insurance and turn to drugs close at hand. Legal pharmaceuticals are also diverted to illegal markets, leading to dangerous intermixing, as in the illegal use of legal benzodiazepines as "xaniboosters" to extend the high of an illegal drug. The social construction of legal drugs as a social good has been crucial to the expansion...
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Drug Panics and Regulation Essay
Drug Panics and Regulation Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Social Issues. Not all psychoactive substances used as recreational drugs are currently illegal. Alcohol and tobacco have been commonly available for centuries, despite attempts to prohibit them. Both typically remain legal, except where age-of-purchase or religious bans are enforced. Alcohol prohibition in the United States lasted from 1919 to 1933. Although Prohibition reduced per-capita consumption of alcohol, it encouraged organized crime and bootlegging, and repeal efforts led to increased drinking and smoking among the respectable classes. Prohibition opened more segments of the U.S. population to the recreational use of drugs such as the opiates (morphine and heroin), cannabis, and cocaine...
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Drugs Controversy and Social Context Essay
Drugs Controversy and Social Context Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Social Issues. Drugs enjoy a social significance different from other commodities, technologies, or artifacts. Celebrated by artists and visionaries from the 19th-century Romantics to the 20th-century Beats to 21st-century hip-hop musicians, drugs have been seen to shape minds and bodies in socially positive and problematic ways. Prescription drugs are credited with improving health, productivity, and well-being, whereas nonprescription drugs are blamed for destroying minds and bodies. How society views drugs depends on who produces them, how they are distributed and marketed, and who consumes them and how. Many controversies surround the workings of these fascinating, functional...
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  Euthanasia Research Paper Topics
Essay on The Right-to-Die Movement
The Right-to-Die Movement Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Euthanasia Controversy. The "right to die" is an umbrella term that denotes not a unified movement but rather a collection of various advocacy groups that have asserted a range of ethical and legal positions about when and how a human life may be deliberately terminated with legal impunity. Among these groups are those who argue for a natural or civil right to self-determination, even over the manner and timing of one's death, a so-called right to "rational suicide" or "self-deliverance" under certain conditions (or, much the same position has been argued on utilitarian grounds, rather than as a matter of individual rights); those who would permit legally assisted euthanasia (or "mercy killing" or "assisted suicide") of...
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Research Paper on Euthanasia Debate, Statistics, and Facts
Euthanasia Debate, Statistics, and Facts Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Euthanasia Controversy. The term euthanasia often elicits a variety of responses from individuals. The reactions may be related to one's understanding of what euthanasia is, one's experience with end-of-life decision making, one's religious or spiritual belief system, or any number of other factors. This paper will attempt to clarify some of the definitions associated with different types of euthanasia, as well as present a historical perspective of the discourse on euthanasia in order to provide a context for the more current developments in the area. Attitudes toward euthanasia found across the major racial-ethnic groups within the United States will be explored. International perspectives on euthanasia...
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Essay on Oregon's Death with Dignity Act
Oregon's Death with Dignity Act Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Euthanasia Controversy. "Death with dignity" has long been a slogan of the "right to die" movement. Proponents of legalizing physician-assisted suicide and/or voluntary active euthanasia (in which mentally competent patients with terminal illnesses can request to end their lives and suffering) adopted this rallying cry as a means of speaking to the concern of the general public about the dehumanizing aspects of dying in increasingly technologically sophisticated health care settings. In contrast, opposition to "mercy killing" has arisen in some religious and ethnic communities who oppose the medical termination of life under any condition, either for moral reasons or because of historically conditioned distrust...
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Essay on Physician-assisted suicide (PAS)
Physician-assisted suicide (PAS) Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Euthanasia Controversy. Physician-assisted suicide (PAS) is the intentional termination of a human's life, at the explicit request of the one who dies, with the aid of a physician. The so-called "Doctor Death," Dr. Jack Kevorkian, brought attention to PAS when he assisted several terminally ill patients end their lives. Kevorkian was imprisoned for his activities. Related to PAS is euthanasia, from the Greek term for "good death." Euthanasia is generally defined as including active euthanasia and passive euthanasia. Passive euthanasia is the hastening of death by withdrawing or altering a form of support. This includes removing life support, stopping medical procedures or medications, cutting off food...
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Essay on Euthanasia and Legal Issues in the United States
Euthanasia and Legal Issues in the United States Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Euthanasia Controversy. In 1991 and 1992, citizens in Washington and California, respectively, voted on two referenda; these referenda sought to sanction legally both euthanasia and physician- assisted suicide, or physician-assisted dying. In both cases, voters defeated these referenda by very narrow margins--about 54 percent to 46 percent in both cases. However, in 1994, the citizens of Oregon were asked to vote on Measure 16, which asked, "Shall law allow terminally ill adult Oregon patients voluntary informed choice to obtain physician's prescription for drugs to end life?" (quoted in Campbell 1994, 9). In this case, the measure passed, which ultimately led to the Oregon Death with Dignity Act...
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  Family & Marriage Research Paper Topics
Argumentative Essay on Widowhood Effects
Widowhood Effects Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Argumentative Topics. Widowhood is the common term for the loss of a spouse, either male or female. This altered marital status requires life adjustments by the surviving partner to maintain a meaningful and fulfilled life after the loss. According to the 2000 U.S. Census, 11.3 million widows overshadow the 2.6 million widowers and 50 to 70 percent of women over the age of 65 are widowed, while their male counterparts constitute only 12 to 20 percent. Whereas widowhood issues were once dominated by the elderly, due to rising population rates and world instability...
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Argumentative Essay on Single Mothers in America
Single Mothers in America Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Argumentative Topics. U.S. Census Bureau data indicate that the percentage of children living in single-mother families increased from 11 percent in 1970 to 23 percent by 2005. Although the percentage of single-father families also grew, rising from 1 percent in 1970 to 6 percent by 2003, the vast majority of single-parent households involve single mothers. Large race differences are evident: 50 percent of African American...
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Argumentative Essay on Views on Premarital Sex, Its Effects, Pros, and Cons
Views on Premarital Sex, Its Effects, Pros, and Cons Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Argumentative Topics. Premarital sex refers to sexual interaction between heterosexual men and women prior to marriage. Many scholars chart changes in both attitudes and behavior related to premarital sex to explore the connection between this issue and social problems, such as divorce and the spread of sexually transmitted diseases. Given the interconnectedness of sexual behavior...
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Argumentative Essay on Interracial and Interethnic Marriages
Interracial and Interethnic Marriages Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Argumentative Topics. Intermarriage is the marriage between spouses of different races or different ethnicities and is therefore either inter-racial or interethnic. Marriage between a white and a black is an inter-racial marriage, while a marriage between a Japanese and a Chinese is an interethnic marriage. The difference between race and ethnicity, however, is not always clear...
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Argumentative Paper on Nuclear Family Definition
Nuclear Family Definition Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Argumentative Topics. The nuclear family consists of a married couple and their children, either natural or adopted, who reside within the same household. Because the nuclear family is based on marriage, it is also called the "conjugal family." Nuclear families form around marriage, a legal relationship that includes economic cooperation, sexual activity, and childbearing and childrearing, which people expect to last...
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  Feminism Research Paper Topics
Essay on Lesbian Culture, Rights, and Feminism
Lesbian Culture, Rights, and Feminism Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Feminism. Lesbian music was central to the development of lesbian feminist communities in the 1970s through the 1990s. ''Women's music'' answered the categorical absence of women in the recording industry and spoke to the revolutionary moment by presenting music made by women, about women, and for women. Lesbian artists such as Ferron, Tret Fure, Alix Dobkin, and Ubaka Hill were important voices in the genre's founding. Cris Williamson's album The Changer and the Changed (1975) was the first album produced by Olivia Records, which was the first women's music label (founded in 1973 by a collective that included the musician Meg Christian). Christian's playful lesbian anthems...
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Essay on Feminist Views and Gender Theory
Feminist Views and Gender Theory Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Feminism. Whereas there is no ultimate feminist consensus about the meaning of gender, its varying usages share one thing in common, and that is the explicit rejection of the belief in gender as a natural phenomenon. A natural, and still widely spread, common sense attitude to gender assumes that differences between men and women are biologically--or genetically--given; that gender is invariant; that there are two and only two genders standing in opposition to each other; that genitals and reproductive capacities form the defining aspects of gender; that the male/female dichotomy is a fixed structure that cannot be modified and that determines the kind of lives people can live; and that all...
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Essay on Feminism, Sex, and Pleasure
Feminism, Sex, and Pleasure Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Feminism. Being castigated for expressing pleasure has long been a topic of feminist concern. In nineteenth-century Western European countries as well as the United States, some women who expressed too much sexual pleasure were considered dangerous and deviant. If their sexual pleasure was taken too far, they may have been diagnosed with nymphomania and subjected to treatments ranging from the bed rest cure to genital cutting--the removal of the clitoris as a site of pleasure. The fact that variously gendered bodies and subjectivities have been officially punished, medically diagnosed, or culturally shamed for seeking pleasure in the wrong object, wrong thought, or wrong act has long been a topic of gay/lesbian/bi...
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Essay on Feminist Philosophy
Feminist Philosophy Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Feminism. A number of developments since the late 1970s suggest that the distinction between sex and gender is much more malleable than feminism came to assume. These include increasingly technological reproductive means (artificial insemination, for example) and the proliferation of gender identity clinics, which enable female-to-male and male-to-female operations. Hand in hand with these developments, gender theorists are no longer as invested in parsing out the distinction between sex and gender as they are in reversing the implied causal relation between them. In these theories, it is not sex that causes gender, but gender that causes sex. Theorists such as Monique Wittig, Christine Delphy...
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Essay on Feminist Critiques of Economics
Feminist Critiques of Economics Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Feminism. In the early 1990s feminist economists began publishing more thoroughgoing critiques of the mainstream discipline, pointing out that the failures in labor market and household theories were not just isolated instances but rather signs of deep-seated masculinist bias in the discipline. Formal choice-theoretic modeling; a central image of rational, autonomous, and self-interested economic man; and a narrow focus on mathematical and econometric methods were (and still are) hallmarks of mainstream economics. Feminists argued that these are a Procrustean bed when it comes to analyzing phenomena fraught with issues of tradition, connection to others, and relations of power and domination. Feminists began...
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  Gambling Research Paper Topics
Argumentative Essay on Native American Gambling Enterprises
Native American Gambling Enterprises Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Gambling - Related Topics. Over the past two decades, gambling has grown exponentially in the United States owing in no small measure to Indian gaming, or the operation of gambling casinos on Native American reservations. By 20 08, a peak year, revenues from such casinos had reached nearly $27 billion, according to the National Indian Gaming Commission. States and local communities throughout the nation continue to debate the merits of tribal casinos. Among the issues raised are the right of a marginalized population to self-governance and the pursuit of economic revival; the need of income-starved states for tax revenues and job opportunities; and the interest of the public...
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Gambling Addiction Essay
The Medicalization of Gambling: Problem and Pathological Gambling Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Gambling - Related Topics. It is in the 20th century that the notions of sinful gambling and irrational gambling began to be replaced with a medicalization of gambling as an illness that required intervention and therapy. Clearly, such attitudes were based on those cases where serious amounts of money were lost by those hardly able to handle such losses rather than on the minor or moderate amounts lost by casual gamers who fly to Las Vegas or Atlantic City in the United States for a few days of vacation. A good part of the ancient and medieval opposition to gambling was based precisely on this notion that gambling was engaging in a kind of secular or antireligious consulting...
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Lottery as a Type of Gambling Essay
Playing Lottery as a Type of Gambling Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Gambling - Related Topics. Every day, millions of Americans stop by a local store or visit a Web site, plunk down a few dollars, and hope for a miracle. Very few who play state lotteries will ever win any significant sums, and everyone except a handful of jackpot winners is guaranteed to lose more money buying tickets than they will gain in (mostly small) prizes over a lifetime. Yet these millions of Americans seem happy to continue playing --happy that some of the proceeds go to fund popular state programs such as schools and parks, and happy for the chance, however remote, of striking it rich. The regeneration of a state lottery industry in the United States--the term regeneration is apt...
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Gambling Definition Essay
What Is Gambling? Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Gambling - Related Topics. The vast majority of Americans have gambled at least once. One can place bets on dog and horse races in 43 states, buy lottery tickets in 42 states, gamble for charity in 47 states, and play at commercial casinos in 11 states. As of 2010, all but two states (Hawaii and Utah) allowed some form of gambling. Gambling as a government-sponsored activity exploded in the late 20th century, and will clearly increase in the 21st century. Is gambling a moral and social problem? What are the social costs of problem gambling, and do they outweigh the social and economic benefits of increased state-sponsored gaming? Finally, how does the rise of Native American gambling in the late 20th century as a new income...
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Argumentative Essay on Gambling: Addiction, Statistics, and Impact
Gambling: Addiction, Statistics, and Impact Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Argumentative Topics. In assessing the impact of gambling, it is useful to distinguish between places--the neighborhoods, cities, or states where legalized gambling has taken hold--and people. After all, proponents of legalization have never argued that gambling benefits individuals, though subsequent advertising usually appeals precisely to that idea. Instead, they promote gambling as an economic enhancement to the general community. Lotteries and machines ("electronic gaming devices") would provide money for education and other worthwhile government projects; casinos would be the core of a tourist-like industry, reducing local unemployment, bringing money to other local businesses, and generally...
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  Gay Marriage Research Paper Topics
Essay on Same-Sex Adoption and Adoption Agencies
Same-Sex Adoption and Adoption Agencies Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Gay Marriage Controversy. Regardless of one's position as to whether gay parents should be permitted to adopt, there are distinct differences in how each side is portrayed in the media and in various advocacy groups' Web sites. Agencies exist on both sides of the issue. The Evan B. Donaldson Adoption Institute has done extensive work in improving the knowledge of the public in this area. In 2003, the institute published a national survey titled "Adoption by Lesbians and Gays: A National Survey of Adoption Agency Policies, Practices, and Attitudes." Drawing on a number of surveys and studies, the report gives a plethora of statistics regarding the acceptance and placement of children into homosexual...
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Essay on Gay Parent Adoption or Same-Sex Adoption
Gay Parent Adoption or Same-Sex Adoption Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Gay Marriage Controversy. Gay parent adoption or same-sex adoption refers to the adoption of children by individuals who prefer romantic partners of the same sex--gays and lesbians. Same-sex adoption is portrayed by the media as being a potentially good thing but with potentially detrimental side effects, most notably for the adopted children. This type of adoption is often made to look as if it might well be done but perhaps should not be for the sake of the children involved. With groups such as the religious right, fundamentalist Christian denominations, and private religiously affiliated adoption agencies backing the opposition to adoption by gays and lesbians and, on the other side...
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Essay on Current Controversies over Domestic Partnerships and Gay Marriage
Current Controversies over Domestic Partnerships and Gay Marriage Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Gay Marriage Controversy. Those most concerned with the implementation of policies legitimizing various coupling options are divided along ideological lines to form two competing camps. The pro-marriage camp consists of those promoting legal marriage as the sole form of public acknowledgement of intimate unions. Individuals and organizations in this camp may be divided further into two classes: one that promotes heterosexual marriage and desires the exclusion of legal recognition of all other types of unions based on religious beliefs (referred to here as the religiously-oriented) and one that fears the institution of marriage, along with its beneficial aspects to men, women...
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Essay on Same-Sex Marriage Pros and Cons
Same-Sex Marriage Pros and Cons Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Gay Marriage Controversy. Advocacy groups in support of same-sex marriage have utilized the ever-changing social environment to their advantage, ultimately giving support to their position that a just society translates as one that accepts the practice of same-sex marriage as one of simple fairness, full and complete citizenship, and equal rights. While many involved in the battle over same-sex marriage approach it from a religious standpoint, those that are religiously affiliated but do not attack the issue on a negative level, such as the Unitarian Universalist Association, have called for fully legalized same-sex marriage. In 2005, the United Church of Christ (with some 1.3 million estimated adult members)...
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Essay on Legal Options for Domestic Partnerships
Legal Options for Domestic Partnerships Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Gay Marriage Controversy. Four states (Vermont in 2000, Connecticut in 2005, New Jersey in 2007, and New Hampshire in 2008) have implemented civil union legislation. In all four states, only same-sex couples are eligible to enter into a civil union; with the exception of sexual orientation, they must also meet the eligibility requirements for legal marriage. At the state level, civil unions are the functional equivalent of legal marriage in that they provide to couples all of the benefits and protections of marriage afforded to spouses. Due to the federal Defense of Marriage Act signed into law by President Bill Clinton in 1996, which defines marriage as consisting of the legal union...
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  Gender Research Paper Topics
Essay on Sex Roles
Sex Roles Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Sex and Gender Issues. Sex roles refer to socially coded behaviors and practices often related to a person's reproductive capacities, such as women with the roles of motherhood and men with fatherhood. The term sex role is often used interchangeably with the term gender role; however, the modifier gender implies roles may be socially or culturally produced whereas sex implies roles may be naturally or biologically determined. Notions of sex roles tend to privilege biological factors such as internal or external sex organs, chromosomes and hormones as determining a person's social placement as either male or female, man or woman. Such determinations rely on a dualistic or binary understanding of sexual difference...
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Essay on Transgender People and Gender Identities
Transgender People and Gender Identities Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Sex and Gender Issues. Transgender is an umbrella term used to refer to a diverse group of individuals who challenge socially and culturally constructed gender norms. Historically the term was used to refer to cross-dressers or transvestites (those who desire to wear clothing associated with another sex). In contemporary context the term has broadened to include a number of gender variant groups: male-to-female transsexuals (MTF); female-to-male transsexuals (FTM); transgenderists (those who live in the gender role associated with another sex without sex reassignment surgery); bigender persons (those who identify as both man and woman); drag queens and kings (typically gay men and lesbian women, respectively...
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Essay on Tomboys
Tomboys Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Sex and Gender Issues. The word tomboy originated in the mid-sixteenth century and referred both to a boisterous boy or girl and to an unchaste or immodest woman. From the seventeenth century on, the term has referred solely to girls whose behavior is considered boylike, being especially active, spirited, outspoken, and indelicate. In all applications, it has been used to censure a person considered deviant. As a stage of sexual and psychological development, tomboyism occurs between childhood and puberty and is an explicitly temporary stage during which it is more or less socially acceptable for a girl to behave contrary to the norms of stereotypical femininity. Tomboys often wear boys' clothes, prefer boys' games...
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Essay on Spinsters and Bachelors
Spinsters and Bachelors Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Sex and Gender Issues. Spinster at first designated, simply, people (either male or female) whose occupation was spinning. The term was originally appended in name lists of various sorts to designate the individual's occupation. From the seventeenth century onward, the term morphed into a legal designation for a never-married woman and from there into general use, where it usually was deployed with faintly pitying or contemptuous connotations. Thus a term that begins as an occupational tag for people (mostly women) who could support themselves independently with the work of their hands evolves into an invidious policing technique for what Adrienne Rich famously dubbed ''compulsory heterosexuality'': a spinster...
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Essay on Physical Culture and Sexuality
Physical Culture and Sexuality Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Sex and Gender Issues. If only because it involves partial nudity, the physical culture movement, like modern bodybuilding after it, has always been closely tied to sexuality. As a feature of Sandow's stage shows, women were invited to come backstage afterward, where they could feel his muscles upon payment of a fee. Although bodybuilding culture has thus given women opportunities to appreciate the male form since its inception, the sport's primary relation to sexuality has been a long and uneasy association with homosexuality. Because bodybuilding is one of the few arenas in twentieth- and twenty-first-century culture where men have been allowed to look at and appreciate the bodies of other men, the sport...
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  Global Warming Research Paper Topics
Essay on Speculative Fiction about Global Warming
Speculative Fiction about Global Warming Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming Controversy. Speculative fiction portrays alternate realities, often in order to comment on present-day reality. Either through analogy or through literal use of contemporary science, speculativefiction authors have commented upon issues involving climate change and have introduced some readers to the central concepts used in its scientific study and policy discussion. Climate change has been used by the science-fiction branch of speculative fiction since the late nineteenth century. In The War of the Worlds (1898) by H. G. Wells, Mars has undergone climate change to the point where it is dying. The Martians then invade the Earth so that they can live here instead...
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Essay on Scientific Proof of Global Warming
Scientific Proof of Global Warming Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming Controversy. Scientific proof is the means by which a question comes to be considered sufficiently settled, on the basis of scientific argument and evidence. What makes a theory, method, or result count as scientific has been controversial, both among philosophers of science and as a practical issue in courts of law. The term "proof" is also problematic. To prove originally meant to test (the word stems from the same Latin root as "probe"): Thus, something successfully tested has been "proven," but such proof is...
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Essay on Poverty and Global Warming
Poverty and Global Warming Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming Controversy. Extreme or prolonged climate changes affect poor people's ability to secure a basic standard of living, reducing access to drinking water, threatening food security, and exacerbating health problems. Low crop yields, famines, and landmass erosion are expected to force millions of Earth's poorest people to leave their homes and seek better conditions elsewhere. Rises in average global temperatures will most adversely affect the world's poor and place at risk international efforts to eradicate poverty. Developing countries will bear the brunt of climate-related adversities that have already affected millions of people. The $6 billion spent annually on humanitarian responses to disasters...
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Essay on Military Implications of Global Warming
Military Implications of Global Warming Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming Controversy. Climate change is an emerging global threat that may aggravate conflicts and undermine security in many regions of the world. Climate-related impacts and shocks could trigger military responses and absorb resources for risk reduction, disaster mitigation, and conflict resolution. Global warming not only affects the lives of individual human beings but may also have larger societal consequences. By triggering a cycle of environmental degradation, economic decline, social unrest, and political instability, climate change may become a crucial issue of geopolitical security and conflict. In some parts of the world (notably in Africa, Asia, and Latin America), the erosion...
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Essay on Kyoto Protocol Mechanisms
Kyoto Protocol Mechanisms Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming Controversy. The Kyoto Protocol established three mechanisms for greenhouse gases (GHG) reduction: emissions trading, joint implementation, and the clean development mechanism. The aim of these mechanisms is to provide additional, cost-effective opportunities for industrialized countries to reduce their emissions of GHGs in order to mitigate climate change. Article 3 of the Kyoto Protocol requires industrialized countries, identified in Annex I of the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change, to take on quantified emission limitation and reduction commitments (QELRCs). These QELRCs are set out in Annex B to the protocol and require parties listed in Annex I of the convention...
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  Gun Control Research Paper Topics
Argumentative Essay on Impact of Gun Control Laws on Violence
Impact of Gun Control Laws on Violence Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Argumentative Topics. The enormous variation in strictness of controls across different states and cities makes the United States a natural laboratory for evaluating the impact of gun control laws. Most studies of the impact of gun control laws have found little impact on violence rates. For example, in one comprehensive evaluation, researchers assessed the effects of 19 major types of gun control on rates of homicide, robbery, aggravated assault, rape, suicide, and fatal gun accidents, separately examining gun and non-gun violence (e.g., gun homicide vs. non-gun homicide), as well as the impact of gun laws on gun ownership levels. They found that none of the 19 common types of gun laws...
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Argumentative Paper on Gun Control Debate
Gun Control Debate Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Argumentative Topics. Gun control is one of the most commonly proposed methods for reducing violent crime. Defined narrowly, it is the enactment and enforcement of laws regulating firearms. More broadly, it is any organized effort to regulate firearms, which could also encompass civil suits aimed at the firearms industry and voluntary gun turn-ins and buybacks. Americans support a wide array of moderate regulatory controls aimed at keeping guns away from criminals, juveniles, and other high-risk groups but oppose prohibitionist controls that would preclude them from legally acquiring or owning guns. As a result, the United States has many gun control laws but virtually none that ban guns or seriously limit access...
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Argumentative Paper on Effects of Guns on Violence
Effects of Guns on Violence Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Argumentative Topics. The purpose of gun control is to reduce the frequency or seriousness of violence by preventing dangerous persons from obtaining guns. The main rationale for believing that this will reduce violence is the idea that firearms are more lethal than other possible weapons, so denying guns to violent persons will reduce the likelihood that any injuries they inflict will be fatal. Gun use or possession may also facilitate attacks that otherwise would not have occurred by weaker or fewer aggressors against more powerful or numerous victims. On the other hand, an aggressor's possession of a gun can make it unnecessary for the possessor to attack the victim to gain control--a mere...
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  Health Care Research Paper Topics
Health Care Reform under President Barack Obama Essay
The Debate over Health Care Reform under President Barack Obama Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Social Issues. There have been a series of great lobbying battles in the first decade of the 21st century, but surely one of the greatest was over the Obama administration's efforts to create a more substantial role for the federal government in managing the nation's huge health care insurance program--a sector that accounts for one-sixth of the nation's gross domestic product each year and continues to grow. While the nation's financial system struggled to recover from its near collapse in late 2008 and early 2009, health insurance companies, hospitals, doctors, pharmaceutical manufacturers, corporations, labor unions, consumer associations, and lawmakers organized...
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Health Insurance Coverage and Obama Reforms Essay
The Need for Health Insurance Coverage and Obama Reforms Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Social Issues. The lack of health insurance among a substantial group of Americans is not a new issue, but as the recession hit and more people lost jobs and younger people had trouble finding jobs initially, the issue of the link between employment and health care became clearer and problematic. Also, there were concerns for older people who either planned an early retirement before the age of 65 or who lost a job in their fifties and discovered how difficult it was, in a time of recession, to find new jobs with health insurance or to be able to purchase a private health insurance policy. For people who already had health problems, many insurance companies would not provide...
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Health Care Reform: SCHIP and Changes in Medicare Essay
Health Care Reform: SCHIP and Changes in Medicare Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Social Issues. Some important expansions have been passed in the last decade, especially the State Child Health Insurance Program, which has expanded the provision of government-provided health care insurance to the children of the working poor, and the drug coverage provision of the Medicare program, which has dealt with one major criticism and weakness of the Medicare program, the lack of inclusion of coverage for drugs. In fall 1997, Congress passed the joint federal-state SCHIP as part of the Balanced Budget Act of 1997, which began in fiscal year 1999. As an expansion, this program focused on providing coverage to children, a group that previous surveys found was viewed by most...
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Medicare, Medicaid, and Health Insurance Essay
Medicare, Medicaid, and Health Insurance Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Social Issues. Once Medicare was passed, the elderly had access to a health insurance plan that resembled what many working-age Americans had through their jobs, because a central goal of Medicare was to bring the elderly into the mainstream of U.S. medicine. Another basic assumption was that Medicare would provide all elderly with the same health insurance coverage, whatever a person's income level before retirement or after retirement. A third assumption of the architects of the basic Medicare legislation was that Medicare was the beginning of a government role in health insurance, perhaps a first step toward a more universal health insurance system. This did not really happen, with...
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History of the U.S. Health Care System Essay
History of the U.S. Health Care System Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Social Issues. At one point in time, the U.S. health care system was dominated by physicians who worked in private practice as independent practitioners and was even described as a cottage industry since many physicians had their offices in their homes (Starr 1982). During that time period (up to 1900 at least and probably later), most people who had other options tried to avoid hospitals, because hospitals were viewed as a place to go to die for people with no other option and for people who were too poor to be able to remain in their homes. In addition, during the same time frame, there was not much care that could be provided for a person in the hospital that could not occur in the homes...
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  Homelessness Research Paper Topics
Causes of Homelessness Essay
Causes of Homelessness Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Homelessness - Related Topics. In addition to identifying the characteristics of the homeless, much of the research has focused on the causes that resulted in the increase in the size and composition of the homeless population. Most of the research on homelessness identifies three main causal factors: a shift in the economy; the lack of affordable housing, such as the destruction of single-room occupancy (SRO) units through urban renewal efforts; and the deinstitutionalization of the mentally ill. There remains serious debate over which of these is most significant, but there is substantial evidence to suggest they all play a part in the problem. First, Blau (1993) attempts to explain the causes of homelessness...
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Profile of the Homeless Essay
Profile of the Homeless Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Homelessness - Related Topics. While the debate continues about the size of the homeless population as well as the most effective method of collecting data, there is much greater consensus on the characteristics of the homeless. And while no study has been accepted as the seminal work on the subject, especially since regional differences have been discovered, there are some fairly consistent themes that run through this population. According to a 2010 report by the National Coalition for the Homeless, in general, the research suggests that the homeless population is younger than its historical counterparts and consists of about 50 percent minorities. According to the National Alliance to End Homelessness...
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Homelessness in America Essay
Homelessness in the United States Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Homelessness - Related Topics. All of us are touched by homelessness in one way or another. One of the main reasons this particular social problem remains in the minds of many Americans is its visibility. While always a part of the U.S. social fabric, in the last 30 years Americans have been forced to confront the visibility of this group of people in a substantial way. This visibility has resulted in the public's attempt to conceal or minimize its significance, thereby exacerbating the problem. Part of the difficulty in dealing with homelessness has to do with how it is defined. In the 1970s, Mitch Snyder argued that a million Americans were homeless. In the 1980s, he and Mary Ellen Hombs (1982), in their...
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Policy Efforts to Address Homelessness Essay
Policy Efforts to Address Homelessness Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Homelessness - Related Topics. Policy responses to persistent homelessness can generally be divided into at least four often coexisting categories. First, an "emergency" or "accommodation" response involves expanding shelters and food providers to lessen the hardship of homelessness but without doing much to help persons escape the streets. This approach was characteristic of the initial response to homelessness in the early 1980s. Out of this approach emerged a "restorative" response, which provides an extensive array of supportive services to remedy the individual shortcomings of persons who are homeless so they can compete, or at least function, in mainstream housed society. This is basically...
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Descriptive Essay on Homelessness in America
Homelessness in America Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Homelessness - Related Topics. Small groups of people tending to makeshift structures of an encampment, disheveled men rummaging through garbage cans for food, and young women with small children lining up outside of shelters have become common sights across the world's leading cities. This widespread growth in homelessness has been linked with economic, demographic, and cultural trends that have come to be known as "globalization"-- the spread of manufacturing and financial activity across borders, heightened immigration, and the global ascendance of neoliberal ideology which favors free markets over government intervention. However, it is clear that these global trends interact with local conditions, such that the...
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  Homosexuality Research Paper Topics
Essay on Repressions of Homosexuality
Repressions of Homosexuality Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Sex and Gender Issues. In most historical periods, same-sex sexual activity has left few traces. By contrast, verbal sanctions that regulated or sought to regulate homoeroticism have often survived in writing. For the pre-modern period, sexual prohibitions therefore provide one of the main sources for our knowledge of sexual cultures in the past. The earliest known prohibitions on same-sex sexual activity arose from societies in the Near East with little separation between a legal and a religious sphere: the Zoroastrian ''Code Against the Devas,'' the Book of Leviticus, St. Paul's New Testament letters, and the Koran. Such passages, taken from specific contexts, are far from unequivocal. Reiterations of older laws...
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Essay on Sodomy Laws and Decriminalization
Sodomy Laws and Decriminalization Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Sex and Gender Issues. Sodomy laws, or more accurately, antisodomy laws, are statutes that prohibit sodomy. The term sodomy refers generally to modes of sexual intercourse involving the anus or body parts other than the penis or vagina. More specifically the term refers to male anal intercourse with another male, although the term is sometimes enlarged to refer to anal intercourse between males and females, males and animals, or any sexual act that is not heterosexual genital intercourse. The term sodomy derives from the name of the town Sodom, described in Genesis as a place of careless sin and deep lack of hospitality. In the Bible God destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah because their residents...
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Essay on Perspectives on Sodomy
Perspectives on Sodomy Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Sex and Gender Issues. Sodomy, as the term is generally used, refers to anal sex. It most commonly is used to describe anal sex between two males, although it has also been used to describe anal sex between a man and a woman. In common parlance in Great Britain, the term buggery is used. It carries the same connotations as sodomy but is often used as well to describe a kind of benign, nonstigmatized queerness. According to historian John Boswell, the word sodomy has meant, over time, ''everything from ordinary heterosexual intercourse in an atypical position to oral sexual contact with animals. At some points in history it has referred almost exclusively to male homosexuality and at other times almost...
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Essay on Sin Contra Naturam
Sin Contra Naturam Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Sex and Gender Issues. In theological, philosophical, scientific, legal, and literary texts from the medieval and early modern periods, the term contra naturam (against nature) was applied to a range of nonprocreative sexual acts (masturbation, oral sex, same-sex relations, bestiality). From the eleventh century on, the sin against nature was frequently conflated with sodomy, but the meaning of the two terms was never precise or fixed--indeed, it was often deliberately vague; their valence was dependent to a great extent on the immediate context in which they were deployed. Whereas sodomy was an invention of medieval theology, the idea of an act or sin against nature was part of Christianity's inheritance from...
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Essay on Same-Sex Love and Sex
Same-Sex Love and Sex Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Sex and Gender Issues. The adjectival form same-sex, usually hyphenated, appears with some consistency in the early 1970s, not necessarily in relation to issues of homosexuality. The phrase is applied to homosexuality in a 1969 reader that argues for the normalcy of homosexuality (Weltge 1969). Same-sex is used in a 1973 review of literature hostile to homosexuality, seeing it as a sickness and a state, not an identity (Sagarin 1973, p. 10). In a 1978 article, Lillian Faderman applies the term freely to love, sex, and friendship. By the 1990s, however, with the debates between essentialists and constructionists, same-sex begins to lose its neutrality and to reflect anxieties around accusations of ''essentialism''...
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  Human Rights Research Paper Topics
Free Essay on The Historical Development of Human Rights
When governments, activists, or United Nations documents refer to 'human rights' today they are almost certainly referring to the human rights recognized in international and national law rather than rights in a moral or philosophical sense. Of course, philosophical debate will continue to illuminate (or sometimes obscure) the reasons why we think human rights are important and how to best develop them. But for the moment, the content of human rights is usually understood by reference to the legal catalogue of human rights we find developed through international texts. This legal approach responds to demands for the concrete...
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Prosecution of International Criminals Essay
At the end of the Second World War, the victorious powers established the Nuremberg International Military Tribunal to try the 'major war criminals of the European Axis' and the Tokyo Tribunal to try the 'major war criminals in the Far East'. These two Tribunals tried individuals for crimes against peace (aggression), war crimes, and crimes against humanity (in connection with aggression or war crimes). The Nuremberg Tribunal sentenced 12 defendants to death, and five defendants to long sentences of imprisonment. The Tokyo Tribunal sentenced seven defendants to death and 16 received life sentences...
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The Universal Declaration of Human Rights Essay
The establishment of the United Nations signaled the beginning of a period of unprecedented international concern for the protection of human rights. Under the auspices of the UN, several key instruments were established for the promotion and protection of human rights. The day after the adoption of the Genocide Convention, the General Assembly proclaimed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights 'as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations.' An evaluation of the relevance of the Universal Declaration, as it turns 60, would have to conclude that the Declaration has had a huge influence...
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The International Covenants Essay
Following the adoption of the Universal Declaration, the UN's Human Rights Commission began work on a legally binding text in the form of a treaty together with measures for implementation. Governments had decided that there should be a binding multilateral treaty on human rights to complement the existing Declaration. Due to political disagreements about including all types of rights within one treaty, the General Assembly requested the Commission to draft two separate covenants - one on 'civil and political' rights, and another on 'economic, social and cultural' rights. On 16 December 1966, the General Assembly...
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Human Rights Treaties Adopted at the United Nations Essay
In addition to the so-called 'International Bill of Human Rights', the UN system is the source of a number of other international human rights instruments. The other treaties that are considered 'core' to the human rights system include the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, which came into force in 1969 and prohibits: any distinction, exclusion, restriction or preference based on race, color, descent, or national or ethnic origin which has the purpose or effect of nullifying or impairing the recognition, enjoyment or exercise, on an equal footing, of human rights...
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  Human Trafficking Research Paper Topics
Human Trafficking Essay
Human Trafficking Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Human Trafficking - Related Topics. Trafficking in persons has been defined as the modern-day form of slavery and is perhaps among the most profitable transnational crimes next to the sale of drugs and arms. This transnational crime has been subject to international and national attention. Publicity and human rights advocacy has helped pave the way for the creation of international and national laws to stop the sale and enslavement of persons. However, controversy exists over the extent of the protection these laws provide, especially the Victims of Trafficking and Violence Prevention Act of 2000 (VTVPA), a law drafted and implemented by the United States. Because a significant number of persons who are trafficked become...
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Human Smuggling Essay
Human Smuggling Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Human Trafficking - Related Topics. The concerns about illegal immigration expressed in the popular media, such as television news shows and talk radio programs, can be misleading. These shows often overlook the factors underlying migration and disregard the jeopardy that migrants face in dealing with the smugglers who bring them across the border or the traffickers who enslave them. Despite the dangers involved, many undocumented migrants come to the United States to look for work or to join their families, hoping to settle permanently. Others, entering the country under even less favorable circumstances, come at the hands of human traffickers. Human smugglers and traffickers are international criminals. Nevertheless, it is not surprising...
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Sex Trafficking Essay
Sex Trafficking Statistics Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Human Trafficking - Related Topics. Sex trafficking refers to the trafficking of women and children for sexual exploitation in forced marriages and forced prostitution. Generally, the trafficking flows from poorer countries to countries where the average person's living standard is relatively higher. Women are typically tricked and recruited with promises of well-paid legitimate work elsewhere and delivered to the employers through agents and brokers. Upon arrival, they quickly discover that the work they are expected to do is very different from what they had been told. Traffickers deceive, intimidate, threaten, and/or use physical force to control these women and children. It is extremely difficult and dangerous to...
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Sex Trafficking Controversies Essay
Controversies Over Sex Trafficking Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Human Trafficking - Related Topics. Sex trafficking is a locus of debate between feminists and human rights activists. Some feminists advocate an abolitionist model, arguing that prostitution is tantamount to sexual slavery of women. For instance, the Coalition Against Trafficking in Women (CATW) contends that sex trafficking violates the sexual rights of female victims. Groups such as the Global Alliance Against Trafficking in Women (GAATW) and the Network of Sex Work Projects (NSWP) observe that trafficking is forced migrant labor that violates women's human rights. They contend that sex trafficking is exploitative and immoral because it involves commercial sex. Other feminists feel that intensive...
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Anti-Human-Trafficking Campaigns in the U.S. Essay
Anti-Human-Trafficking Campaigns in the U.S. Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Human Trafficking - Related Topics. Since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, the Bush administration has embarked on an anti-trafficking cause, distributing more than $100 million to fight trafficking, including major grants to Evangelical groups. The State Department generates an annual Trafficking in Persons Report, which tracks U.S. and foreign reductions in trafficking. Countries are ranked by how much importing and exporting of trafficking victims is believed to occur within their borders. A three-tier classification is used to categorize each country: Tier 3 denotes countries with the poorest track records, Tier 2 refers to countries with borderline records, and Tier 1 is reserved...
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  Immigration Research Paper Topics
Mass Immigration Essay
The United States is a nation of diverse peoples, formed not through a common genealogy, as were its European counterparts among capitalist democracies. Instead, its people have been bound together through allegiances to a constitution, outlining the framework for the making of law and for governance, and a loosely defined, ever contested creed. Americans are moved to love their country not by language that speaks of membership in an "American family," but rather by the powerful rhetorical formulations of Jefferson's Declaration of Independence that establish the promise of "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness"...
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Immigration Debate and Conflict Essay
Mass immigration has been a source of division among Americans, but the intensity of that division waxes and wanes over time. Because so many Americans have their origins somewhere else, they might applaud the melting pot society that immigration assisted in creating. Yet amid a vast tide of newcomers, they have been deeply divided on whether mass immigration is a benign development, or a necessary one, or an evil to be eradicated. Indeed, the effects of immigration upon employment and wage scales; political alignments and the workings of government; schools and other public institutions...
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Myths and Realities of Immigration Essay
Disagreements over the benefits of immigration suggest that what might prompt a memory of a common or ancestral experience among tens of millions of Americans does not really serve to unite them. It is not for want of powerful, potentially unifying symbols of immigration. Consider the Statue of Liberty, and its poetic companion, Emma Lazarus's poem The New Colossus, written for the statue's dedication in 1886. Both give material form to the oral traditions of millions of contemporary Americans, and provide an emotionally compelling immigration myth celebrating the redemptive powers of American democracy...
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Immigration Law and Policy Essay
Over centuries the modernization of economies and societies, and the growth of technologies and transportation and communication, have led to constant movement among many of the world's peoples, whose displacement in their homelands has encouraged them to seek opportunities far beyond them. But people on the move have not been able to migrate around the world with complete freedom and resettle wherever they wish. Societies desiring immigrant labor have sought nonetheless to control the flow of people across their borders, especially when that flow seemed to have reached proportions believed likely...
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Unregulated Immigration in Early America Essay
On the eve of its war for independence, colonial British North America had more than a century of experience of voluntary immigration. The British Crown had loosely regulated entrance of non-British subjects and made their right of residence and ultimately their naturalization subject to few restrictions, because it was eager to recruit labor. Regulatory policies were applied only sporadically. Pockets of Germans, Swedes, Finns, and Irish as well as Dutch (remaining after the British defeated the Netherlands in war and took control of New York) lived more or less as equals with the majority...
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  Juvenile Delinquency Research Paper Topics
Essay on Measuring Juvenile Delinquency Statistics
The two main sources of information on the extent of juvenile delinquency and who is most likely to engage in delinquency are official arrest statistics and self-report questionnaires. Each has strengths and limitations, and they sometimes provide somewhat conflicting pictures of the extent of delinquency and characteristics of delinquents. The Federal Bureau of Investigation Uniform Crime Report (UCR) provides the most comprehensive data on arrests of juveniles in the United States. The UCR is a compilation of information from law enforcement agencies throughout the country on crimes reported to police and those cleared by arrest. For all arrests, the UCR includes information on the age, race, and gender of the person arrested. By combining this...
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Essay on Effects of Juvenile Incarceration
The first institution created solely for "wayward," poor, and orphaned children was the House of Refuge in New York City in the late 1800s; most states soon followed New York's lead with their own institutions. The creation of these types of institutions marked the beginning of a shift in the conceptualization of the definition of childhood; before this, children older than age 5 were viewed as small adults, capable of the same moral capacity as adults. Gradually, the idea that children are inherently different from adults and that the state had the responsibility to protect them took hold. The culmination of this evolution occurred in 1899, when the Juvenile Court Act created the first juvenile court. In response to court cases that pointed to the need...
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Essay on Juvenile Justice System in the U.S.
The U.S. juvenile justice system is currently designed to address the special needs of minors who engage in criminal acts but might not yet be held fully responsible for their behavior, as they are not yet legal adults recognized by society. However, juvenile justice has not always been driven by this philosophy. Prior to the 19th century, the criminal justice system treated all individuals over age 5 equally. Around 1825, a reform group called the "child savers" began advocating for more appropriate treatment of children who commit crime, arguing that the justice system should protect and rehabilitate rather than punish juveniles. They claimed that society could control juvenile delinquency if it attacked its causes--namely, poor education, poor morals...
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Juvenile Delinquency Debate Essay
Juvenile Delinquency Debate Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Social Issues. The role of the family as a social institution is essentially to prepare children for adult- hood. To accomplish this task, the family is comprised of values and norms and different statuses and roles, all of which are devoted to achieving the goals of the family as well as that of society. However, this is no easy task. Families are often scrutinized when a child displays delinquent behavior. Of particular concern are the ways that families might promote or prevent juvenile delinquency. Among the areas of concern when examining the link between family and delinquency are traditional family values, child-rearing practices, the influence of the mass media, and parental responsibility...
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Argumentative Essay on Negative Effects of Juvenile Incarceration
Negative Effects of Juvenile Incarceration Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Argumentative Topics. Many believe that juvenile incarceration has a negative effect on juveniles and may in fact increase recidivism (future involvement in criminal behavior). While incarcerated, juvenile offenders interact with other delinquents, allowing them the opportunity to acquire and hone criminal skills, thereby fostering delinquent values and beliefs. Criminologists find that this bringing...
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  Multiculturalism Research Paper Topics
Essay on Native Americans Today
Native Americans Today Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Controversial Topics. Today, slightly less than half of all Native Americans live on isolated, rural reservations, many with inadequate housing, plumbing, and electricity. However, tribal schools and colleges enable new generations to study their tribal languages and cultures and to acquire traditional skills that would otherwise be lost. Desperate for economic relief, some tribes have forsaken their values about the land to allow...
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Research Paper on Cultural Pluralism in America
Cultural Pluralism in America Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Argumentative Topics. Horace M. Kallen, an immigrant who taught at the University of Wisconsin in the early 20th century, first coined the term cultural pluralism. According to the prevailing nativist view at that time, new immigrants moving to the United States should become "Americanized" by strictly conforming to the social practices and even the blood lines of a singular, generic national culture. In 1924, Kallen introduced the term and made a radical argument: immigrants' unique, persistent nationalities could coexist within American democracy in some kind of harmony. Since then, pluralism has meant different things at different points in U.S. history, depending on trends in academic disciplines...
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Argumentative Paper on Cultural Degradation of Native Americans
Cultural Degradation of Native Americans Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Argumentative Topics. Scorn for the Native Americans' ways of life became apparent soon after their first encounters with Europeans. Disparagement of, and disrespect for, tribal cultures continued thereafter and, unfortunately, still continues today. For centuries, much of what people have known about Native Americans has rested on misinformation, stereotypes, and media creations that have led to biased...
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Argumentative Essay on Multiracial Identity
Multiracial Identity Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Argumentative Topics. Census 2000 identified 6.8 million Americans, or 2.4 percent of the total U.S. population, as multiracial. Of these, 93.3 percent identified with two races, 6 percent identified with three races, and 0.6 percent identified with four races. Though not the first time the U.S. Census Bureau counted multiracial individuals, Census 2000 did mark the first time individuals were able to check all races...
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Essay on Arguments against Multiculturalism
Arguments against Multiculturalism Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Argumentative Topics. Those against multiculturalism usually express concern about one or more of its aspects: immigration, language, culture, and race. Immigration. Large-scale immigration fuels the debate over multiculturalism perhaps more than any other element. The presence of newcomers dissimilar from the native population typically generates negative reactions...
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  Nature vs Nurture Research Paper Topics
Research Paper on Nature vs. Nurture Controversy: Genes versus Social Environment
Nature vs. Nurture Controversy: Genes versus Social Environment Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Nature vs Nurture Controversy. To estimate the effects of genes versus social environment upon something like intelligence, intelligence must first be measured accurately--that is, measured with little or no measurement error. Considerable debate exists about this issue--even apart from the question of the relative effect of genes versus social environment. Some researchers argue that intelligence and academic potential are quite accurately measured today, with little measurement error. At the same time, other researchers argue with equal verve that standardized ability tests today are not very accurate or fair measures of intelligence or academic potential of minorities...
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Research Paper on Intelligence and Nature vs. Nurture Controversy
Intelligence and Nature vs. Nurture Controversy Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Nature vs Nurture Controversy. The question of whether human differences in intelligence and personality are caused more by their genetic differences or by their differences in social environment has been addressed by studies in several behavioral science disciplines using what is called the "heritability coefficient." The heritability coefficient is the proportion of the total differences (total variance) in a phenotype (phenotypic variable) that is causally attributable to genetic factors. Typical phenotypic variables studied are intelligence, personality predispositions like aggressiveness, criminal tendency, and self-reported criminal acts. Equivalently, the proportion of...
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Essay on The Nature-Nurture Debate
The Nature-Nurture Debate Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Nature vs Nurture Controversy. The social and behavioral sciences have in recent years played host to what has come to be called the "nature versus nurture debate." This is the question of to what degree our genes ("nature") explain human differences in certain phenotypic variables such as intelligence, personality predispositions, criminal tendencies, and so on, versus the degree to which the social environment ("nurture," which includes many social structural variables such as schooling, one's social class status, one's parent's or parents' social class status, one's family socialization practices, nutrition, peer group influences, and so on) also explain intelligence, personality, and criminal...
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  Other Argumentative Paper Topics
World-Systems Analysis Essay
World-Systems Analysis Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Argumentative Topics. The world-systems perspective is a strategy for explaining social change that focuses on whole intersocietal systems rather than single societies. The main insight is that important interaction networks (trade, information flows, alliances, and fighting) have woven polities and cultures together since the beginning of human social evolution. Thus explanations of social change need to take intersocietal systems (world-systems) as the units that evolve. But intersocietal interaction networks were rather small when transportation was mainly a matter of...
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Welfare Capitalism Essay
Welfare Capitalism Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Argumentative Topics. The problem of under consumption in the U.S. economy at that period led to the fourth concern. In response to this, Henry Ford (Ford Motor Company) announced a Five Dollar a Day program in 1914. The program was a combination of a cut in the workweek from 6 to 5 days, a reduction in the length of the workday from 9 to 8 hours, and a raise in minimum daily pay from $2.34 to $5. To be eligible for this program, however, workers had to meet certain conditions. To control and direct the needs and habits of workers, Ford set up a "social department" in his company...
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Welfare Reform and TANF Essay
Welfare Reform and TANF Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Argumentative Topics. Since the passage of federal welfare reform, the welfare rolls have dropped dramatically. The challenge of welfare reform now rests with the states, which focus on moving welfare recipients to work. The 60-month time limits in TANF have major implications for low-income U.S. families. Because the design of TANF is to move recipients from welfare to work creating self-sufficiency, those who face time limits without employment can encounter homelessness and other hardships. These time limits were put into effect so that recipients would not become dependent...
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Research Paper on Water Resources
Water Resources Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Controversial Topics. Water is an essential resource. It is also a nonrenewable or finite resource: While water supplies can be regenerated by creating new water molecules from their elemental beginnings (hydrogen and oxygen), the energy required to create large usable pools of water is currently too energy costly to be feasible. Threatening water resources are scarcity, overuse, and pollution. Variations in weather oscillations between wet and dry periods can result in periods...
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Research Paper on Water Organization
Water Organization Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Controversial Topics. When water moves from rivers and reservoirs through canals and pipelines to fulfill crop consumptive needs, when it moves through urban water treatment plants to serve household and industrial requirements, when it is left in-stream for recreational and ecological purposes, it is because people have socially organized to make such things happen. How water organizations are socially constructed to capture, distribute, and dispose...
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  Pornography Research Paper Topics
Essay on Adult Film Industry
Adult Film Industry Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Sex and Gender Issues. The first erotic film images came from the serious work of English photographer Eadweard Muybridge (1830-1904), who took a series of still photographs of nude women carrying out everyday acts in the period from 1884 to 1887. The subjects' nudity permitted the viewer to see how the body moved. Erotic cinema is as old as the film industry itself. Thomas Edison (1847-1931), who began to produce short films in the late 1890s, made some provocative entries, such as What Happened in the Tunnel and Aunt Sallie's Wonderful Bustle. Early film pioneer Georges Melies (1861-1938) produced an 1897 film called After the Ball-The Tub depicting a naked young woman in a bathtub attended by her maid...
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Essay on Pornographic Images
Pornographic Images Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Sex and Gender Issues. From the time of the ancient Greeks, images of sexual activity have been inscribed on walls, pottery, and other everyday items. Nude studies in sculpture and painting are common. The walls of Pompeii included many sexually explicit murals, whose exhibition in the eighteenth century was limited initially only to discerning gentlemen. Erect phalli dotted some landscapes, and genitalia protectively adorned architecture. Some of these images evoked gods of fecundity; others celebrated daily life in societies where sexuality was more open. After the Renaissance more openly erotic art gradually became a part of the fine art tradition. As printing technologies became more sophisticated and cheaper...
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Essay on Pornographic Literature
Pornographic Literature Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Sex and Gender Issues. Obscene texts have existed ever since there have been texts, if obscenity is defined as the representation of sexual activity. Most texts, such as the Bible, that in some way portray a vision of life and human history, include sexual matters because they are an integral and important part of life and its dilemmas. Ancient Greek literature reflects the culture's pleasure in sexuality. As the originators of pornography focused on descriptions of prostitutes, the Greeks produced a large number of texts on the lives and habits of courtesans (professional women of pleasure). Greek dramatic comedies often consist of sexual humor, such as Aristophanes's Lysistrata and The Frogs (405 BCE)...
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Essay on History of the Concept of the Pornography
History of the Concept of the Pornography Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Sex and Gender Issues. In the Middle East and Europe, ancient cultures understood sexuality as an integral part of life and social relations. The Hebrew Bible includes numerous accounts of passion, sexual liaisons, adultery, and other behavior, which might be deemed pornographic if such instances had not also often been occasions for moral lessons. Ancient Greek writing about prostitutes was not pornographic in the modern sense. The Greeks were fairly open about sexuality and nudity, seeing it as a form of social commerce. Greek culture, especially among the upper classes, often featured multiple sexual liaisons with courtesans (or high-class prostitutes) and male youths. Greek theater...
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Essay on Pornography Definition
Pornography Definition Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Sex and Gender Issues. Pornography consists of literary texts, images, magazines, films, videos, audio tapes, erotic arts, theatrical events, Internet sites, and other forms of representation that depict sexual and/or salacious subjects without sufficiently redeeming artistic merit. The purpose of pornography is to excite its consumers sexually, but what may count as pornography at any given time or location is defined by the tastes, ideals, fears, and repressions of the local community. Although the ancient Greeks employed the term pornographos (pornos meaning prostitute and graphos meaning writing), referring to writing about the lives and acts of prostitutes, the term and its more modern concept do not appear in English...
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  Poverty Research Paper Topics
The Underclass Debate Essay
The Underclass Debate Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Controversial Topics. The underclass debate refers to a scholarly and public debate during the 1970s through the 1990s about the origins, character, and appropriate response to the problems of concentrated urban poverty in the United States, particularly among African Americans. The sociologist William Julius Wilson brought attention to this issue in the 1970s and became a central figure in the debate that ensued between those who emphasized the values and choices...
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Causes of and Remedies for Poverty Essay
Causes of and Remedies for Poverty Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Controversial Topics. The causes of poverty are the subject of fierce debate among social scientists. Beyond obvious causes such as wars, famine, political corruption, and economic collapse, the presence of persistent poverty finds explanation in several theories. Some attribute poverty to macroeconomic structures and policy decisions beyond the influence of individuals. Marxists argue that poverty is endemic to the system of capitalism...
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Argumentative Essay on Children in Poverty Worldwide
Children in Poverty Worldwide Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Argumentative Topics. According to the UN Children's Fund, worldwide, about 1 billion children currently live in poverty. Of these children, 674 million are living in absolute poverty. Further, the International Labor Organization estimates that 218 million children engage in some form of illegal, hazardous, or exploitative child labor. The Joint UN Program on HIV/AIDS estimates that 143 million orphans live in Africa, Latin America, Asia, and the Caribbean, and that every minute a child under age 15 dies of an AIDS-related illness. The World Health Organization estimates that more than 10 million children under age 5 die each year from preventable or treatable diseases, such as diarrhea, malaria, measles...
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Statistics on Poverty in America Essay
Statistics on Poverty in America Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Argumentative Topics. Not until the mid-1960s, however, did the U.S. government create a poverty index by which to measure who should benefit from government programs targeted to the poor. Public concern about poverty grew as a result of the civil rights movement, urban rebellions, and Michael Harrington's book, The Other America, which called attention to the persistence of poverty in the midst of economic growth...
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The Emergence of Poverty Laws Essay
The Emergence of Poverty Laws Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Argumentative Topics. The destruction of the monasteries that had provided care for the poor and the emergence of capitalism in the West began to disrupt this age-old pattern. The enclosure of the commons in England and the mass evictions of peasants displaced large numbers of people from the lands that had sustained them. Some, unable to find work in the emerging industries of the industrial revolution...
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  Prostitution Research Paper Topics
Essay on Whore: History of the Term
Whore: History of the Term Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Sex and Gender Issues. A whore is a woman prostitute or any woman or man who engages in sexual activity that is deemed immoral or culturally unacceptable. Throughout much of modern history, the term has been used negatively, to condemn or chastise and to indicate wrongdoing. However, historical evidence suggests that, prior to the advent of Christianity, some women acted as sacred whores in the service of religions that revered such sexual service instead of condemning it. In such societies, the term whore was a label of respect. In ancient cultures such as Babylonia, India, and Israel, temples dedicated to certain goddesses included temple prostitutes, sacred women whose sexual service functioned as both a self-sacrifice...
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Essay on Rent Boy (Rentboy)
Rent Boy (Rentboy) Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Sex and Gender Issues. Rent boy, or rentboy, is a term that is used to describe a particular type of male prostitute. It refers primarily to young men (although its use extends to male prostitutes of all ages) who have sex with men. The term originated in Great Britain, Ireland, and New Zealand and originally was applied to a male prostitute who was both young and working-class. Middle-class and upper-class male prostitutes more commonly would have been called escorts, and older male prostitutes would have been referred to as hustlers. The rent boy was almost exclusively a street worker who charged low rates for his service. Although the term retains its original meaning, it has gained a certain cachet within the sex-worker...
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Essay on Public Policy on Prostitution
Public Policy on Prostitution Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Sex and Gender Issues. There are three main government policies toward prostitution. Under criminalization prostitution and related conduct, such as pimping, trafficking, and running a house of prostitution, are illegal. Legalization refers to some type of government regulation, including special taxes, mandatory health checks, registration or licensing, and stipulations on the locations in which prostitution is permitted. Under decriminalization prostitution is not subject to a criminal sanction, and under total decriminalization it is entirely free of legal regulation. Total decriminalization is rare throughout the world, whereas legalization exists in several nations. In the United States criminalization...
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Essay on Contemporary Prostitution
Contemporary Prostitution Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Sex and Gender Issues. The contemporary sex trade is big business worldwide, with numerous providers, customers, and third-party profiteers. Prostitution takes various forms. Independent call girls operate out of their own residences, where they do both in-call and out-call service. Escorts, who provide out-call service, are employed by agencies that advertise in the telephone book and on the Internet. Others work in bars, massage parlors, saunas, tanning salons, and brothels and on the street. Male and transgender prostitution also exists in many cities. Because prostitution involves direct sexual contact, it is stigmatized more heavily than is ''hands-off'' sex work such as stripping and commercial telephone sex. In general...
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Essay on History of Prostitution
History of Prostitution Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Sex and Gender Issues. In ancient times some forms of prostitution had positive associations. ''Sacred prostitution,'' in which men had sex with a temple priestess, was a way of worshipping a deity. Prostitution existed in ancient Greece and Rome, where it was an accepted part of life. In Greece prostitutes at the lowest level worked in licensed brothels. Those in the highest echelon, the hetaerae, were courtesans who were valued for their intellect and beauty. They kept salons where they fraternized with politicians, artists, and intellectuals. Hetaerae enjoyed great freedom and mobility unknown to other Greek women of the time (Roberts 1993). The Romans did not operate state brothels but did attempt to regulate...
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  Racism Research Paper Topics
Hate-Crime Laws Essay
Hate-Crime Laws Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Social Issues. The FBI has defined hate crime, sometimes called bias crime, as "a criminal offense committed against a person, property, or society which is motivated, in whole or in part, by the off ender's bias against a race, religion, disability, sexual orientation or ethnicity/national origin" (Shively 2005: 2). Almost all states have established criminal penalties for hate crimes. These penalties enhance the severity of punishment for a hate- or bias-motivated crime or establish hate crimes as a new category of crime (a process conceptualized by social scientists as criminalization). Federal statutes require mandatory reporting of all crime, including hate crime, but there is inconsistency in reporting across all states...
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Characteristics of Extremist and Hate Groups Essay
Characteristics of Extremist and Hate Groups Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Social Issues. George Michael lists a number of characteristics that he suggests are generally common among extremist groups: 1. Small locus of identity. Groups tend to strongly identify themselves with very locally defined groups--at most a nation, but often a race within a nation or a race within a region. Members are not interested in recruiting beyond a select few because they view the rest of the world in highly negative terms. 2. Low regard for democracy. Although most groups abide by federal rules, they often have a low regard for systems that give too much freedom to all people--including, of course, the excluded groups. This violates their sense of privilege and the feeling that their...
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Right-Wing Extremism Essay
Right-Wing Extremism Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Social Issues. In both the United States and Europe, the late 20th century saw an upsurge in the formation of right-wing extremist groups and other groups often labeled hate groups (advocating the expulsion or destruction of an entire people because of race or religion). At the same time, there was an accompanying upsurge in the number of anti-Semitic and racist incidents of harassment and violence. Although most of these groups do not use explicitly religious arguments in defense of their ideologies and ideas, some of them most certainly do. In fact, in one recent study, it is stated that "if there were one thread that runs through the various far-right movements in American history it would be fundamentalist...
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Xenophobia Definition Essay
Xenophobia Definition Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Argumentative Topics. The term xenophobia derives from the Greek words xenos ("foreign") and phobos ("fear"), literally meaning a fear of foreigners. This origin is reflected in dictionary definitions, which almost inevitably describe it as a fear or hatred of strangers or foreigners. Despite a clear parallel between xenophobia and prejudice, the former refers solely to an emotional reaction to the other, while the latter is typically defined in ways that suggest both cognitive and emotional components. To the extent that this is the case, xenophobia has a more restrictive usage than prejudice...
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Argumentative Essay on Segregation as a Social Problem
Segregation as a Social Problem Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Argumentative Topics. Segregation, per se, may not necessarily be bad for a group. Many of the negative consequences of segregation stem from the embeddedness of forms of involuntary segregation in the social fabric. In the United States, institutions that have a history of segregation include education and housing. Many public school districts are based on neighborhoods that are racially and economically segregated...
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  School Violence Research Paper Topics
Research Paper on Child Abuse and School Violence
Children and youth who have experienced abuse are at risk for subsequent victimization. Additionally, those who have experienced abuse at home are more likely to become perpetrators of violent crime. A number of forms of child abuse exist, including verbal abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, negligence, and maltreatment. Although it is sometimes difficult to clearly differentiate between child abuse and parental discipline, the difference generally lies in societal norms and in long-term impact. Corporal punishment, or spanking, results in immediate pain but does not generally leave red marks or bruising. Abuse violates current conceptions of what is appropriate parental discipline in a given culture. Child sexual abuse involves an adult utilizing his or her position of power to force or coerce a child into sexual activity. Sexual intercourse is the most severe form of sexual abuse. Sexual exploitation involves allowing, permitting, or encouraging a child to engage in prostitution; or allowing...
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Research Paper on ADD/ADHD and School Violence
Attention-deficit disorder (ADD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are among the most frequent diagnoses in child and adolescent psychiatry. Diagnosis for these disorders began around 1980. Before that time, they were called different things, such as hyperkinetic disorder. In 1987, the American Psychiatric Association added ADHD to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. A child or adolescent may be diagnosed with ADD or ADHD if he or she exhibits the following behaviors: attention difficulties/short attention span, motor hyper-activity, restless behavior, impulsivity, temper outbursts, and distractibility. Persons with ADHD or ADD often struggle in educational settings. Many are chronically truant as a result of their disorder. Children and youth with ADD/ ADHD often exhibit hostile attributional biases, which refers to the tendency to interpret ambiguous social cues as being hostile. This problem may lead to verbally or physically aggressive behavior, which can then result...
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Research Paper on Adult Trials for Juveniles
In recent years, more juveniles have been tried as adults in criminal courts. What juveniles experience in adult court stands in stark contrast to their experiences in juvenile court. The first juvenile court was created around the turn of the 20th century. It was purposely set up to meet the unique needs of young people. Procedures in the juvenile court differ from those used in the criminal courts. Because of those differences, juveniles are not afforded some of the same legal protections as are adults. Most laws allowing for juveniles to be tried as adults were passed in the 1990s in response to moral panics about youth and school violence. The case of 11-year-old Nathaniel Abraham in Michigan highlighted this issue. Although the United States has a separate juvenile court system, there are several ways juveniles can be tried as adults. Judicial waivers, also known as discretionary waivers, allow juvenile court judges to make the decision that a specific individual should be tried in adult court...
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Research Paper on School Violence in Africa
Existing data indicate that the rate of school violence and crime in Africa has increased in the last two decades, becoming one of the most challenging social problems in that region. School violence is a multifaceted construct that involves both criminal acts and aggression that inhibit development and learning as well as harm the school's climate. Such violence may consist of anything ranging from corporal punishment to bullying, verbal abuse and harassment, and criminal behavior, including assault, gender-based violence, arson, and murder--all of which may occur in classrooms, hallways, school yards, or school bathrooms. In Africa, physical punishment occurs not only at home, but also at school, a place where children are supposed to be given an education. Most school children in Africa are too familiar with bruises and stinging from whips, canes, and slaps. While school violence is endemic continent-wide, much of the violence remains hidden, because victims are afraid to come forward for fear of...
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Research Paper on Alcohol and School Violence
Alcohol is a depressant that affects the brain's chemistry, causing the brain to release dopamine and serotonin. It is the drug most commonly used by people ages 12 to 20. It is also the drug most commonly associated with violence. Alcohol consumption increases the risk of being victimized and of becoming a perpetrator of criminal or violent activity. Additionally, heavy drinking can negatively affect brain development among adolescents, which means it poses a significant risk to the physical, psychological, and social well-being of both juveniles and adults. Even before a child is born, alcohol consumption can create a propensity toward violence. Prenatal alcohol exposure, which can result in fetal alcohol syndrome or fetal alcohol effects, is associated with a host of behavioral and social problems, including delinquent behavior. The effects of fetal alcohol syndrome are generally experienced throughout the duration of one's life. Although drinking by persons younger than the age of 21 is illegal in the United...
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  Sex Crimes Research Paper Topics
Essay on Sex Trafficking Of Women
Sex Trafficking Of Women Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Sex and Gender Issues. Human sex trafficking is an international commercial activity in which force, coercion, and fraud are used to transport women and children across international boundaries for economic gain. As a complex organized criminal activity, human trafficking is comparable to the trafficking of drugs and weapons, but it is more profitable and less risky because many forms of the trade appear legitimate. Within the global practice of human trafficking, 70 percent of the victims are women and 50 percent are children under age eighteen. Estimates of the number of women and children trafficked each year range from 700,000 to four million, and annual profits are estimated at $7 billion. Demand for human trafficking...
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Essay on Prevention of Sexual Abuse
Prevention of Sexual Abuse Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Sex and Gender Issues. Young argues that one way of preventing sexual abuse (by men or women) is to create attention for it in public media. Though she addresses child sexual abuse, her points apply to sexual abuse in general as well. She speaks of the need to state explicitly that sexual abuse is wrong, harmful to its victims, and punishable by law. An added benefit of publicity is that children (and other victims) learn that what is being done to them is unacceptable and not their fault, so they are more likely to seek help. Reactions of victims after any kind of sexual abuse often include feelings of shame or isolation, and a sense that they invited it upon themselves, that they are to blame. Public attention...
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Essay on Sexual Abuse
Sexual Abuse Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Sex and Gender Issues. Sexual abuse includes many different forms of unwanted sexual attention or actions toward an individual. Psychologist Jon Shaw summarized it as ''any sexual behavior which occurs: (1) without consent, (2) without equality, or (3) as a result of coercion'' (1999 p. 4). Victims can be female or male, adults or children. Sexually abusive acts include forced entry of the vagina or anus with penis or object, forced manipulation of the perpetrator's genitals, forced masturbation, frottage, exhibitionism on the part of the perpetrator (exposing genitals), exposure to pornography or explicit sexual language, forced sexual contact with another person while perpetrator watches, and forced prostitution or forced...
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Essay on Sex Crimes Reflecting Ideas of Immorality
Sex Crimes Reflecting Ideas of Immorality Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Sex and Gender Issues. Many acts that are considered to be sex crimes involve parties who participate in such acts willingly. These crimes relate to issues of marriage and infidelity, nonreproductive sexual activities, prostitution and pandering, and pornography and obscenity. Crimes surrounding marriage include adultery, defined as sexual intercourse between two persons, one of whom is married to a third person; polygamy, or being married to more than one person at a time; compelling a woman to marry by force; and, in some states, having sexual relations outside of marriage. This last crime is referred to as gross lewdness or lewd and lascivious cohabitation. Some of the statutes are rarely...
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Essay on Sex Crimes Involving Nonconsensual Behavior
Sex Crimes Involving Nonconsensual Behavior Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Sex and Gender Issues. Such acts as indecent exposure or exhibitionism, voyeurism, sexual touching, stalking and Internet stalking, sexual assault and rape, domestic violence, and abuse by caregivers involve the attempted imposition of sexual behaviors and desires on others who are unaware of the attention, who are unwilling participants in an exchange involving sexual behaviors, or who have no power to refuse unwanted attentions. Most of these actions involve some degree of violence or the threat of violence and it may be argued are less sexual crimes than they are crimes of anger or power. Indecent exposure and voyeurism are threatening but are perhaps the least violent of these crimes...
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  Sex Industry Research Paper Topics
Essay on Sex Tourism
Sex Tourism Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Sex and Gender Issues. For many in the immediate post-Vietnam War era, the words sex tourism were associated with organized trips to the massage parlors and brothels of Thailand or to the red-light districts of cities such as Amsterdam and Hamburg. The phenomenon seemed apparently simple and was explained in terms of men exercising the dominion of the wallet over women, who were generally perceived as unwilling victims. Where women were categorized as other than victims, the conceptualization often owed much to Victorian concepts of the diseased woman, an outcast from mainstream society, to be banished from respectable society. However, the nature of the debate as to what constitutes sex tourism, and the impacts it has, had widened...
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Essay on The Sex Shops
The Sex Shops Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Sex and Gender Issues. The sex shop--or, as it is often called, the adult bookstore or novelty store--is a store that sells products, occasionally referred to as marital aides, designed for the promotion and enhancement of sexual activity. Sex shops typically sell personal vibrators and dildos, anal plugs, masturbation aides, herbal aphrodisiacs, condoms, lubricants, nipple rings and clamps, various bondage and discipline and sadism and masochism (BDSM) accessories, instructional and sexual self-help books, and pornography. The world's first sex shop, opened by the German sex industry group Beate Uhse AG, opened in Flensburg in 1962. Founded in 1946 by Germany's first female stunt pilot, Beate Uhse-Rotermund, Beate Uhse AG began...
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Essay on Sex Museums
Sex Museums Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Sex and Gender Issues. Beginning in 1985 with Amsterdam's Venus Temple, sex museums have become a special genre of museum display. Their subject matter is sexuality in all of its manifestations, from masturbation to group sex, erotic art, erotic objects, books and manuscripts, furniture, sex toys, and sexual subcultures. The collections of such museums span histories and cultures from ancient China, Africa, and Central America to modern Europe and North America. By the beginning of the twenty-first century, there were sex museums on four continents: the Ancient Chinese Sex Culture Museum in Tongli, China, and in Seoul, New York, Paris, Barcelona, Amsterdam, Berlin, Hamburg, Copenhagen, and Canberra, Australia. Most sex museums...
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Essay on Sex Trafficking, Tourism, And Legal Issues
Sex Trafficking, Tourism, And Legal Issues Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Sex and Gender Issues. Migration and tourism has raised awareness of the global nature of the sex industry. Both Germany and the Netherlands have large red-light districts in major cities; studies suggest that many of the prostitutes are immigrants, and a substantial percentage of the districts' clients are tourists. Though sex tourism occurs in most areas of the world, some countries, such as Thailand and the Philippines, are particularly known for it. Although the Europe and North America tends to conceive of the sex tourist as a white heterosexual male visiting an exotic Asian or tropical locale, the evidence provides a more varied picture. In Thailand, for example, the vast majority of sex tourists...
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Essay on Sex Industry
Sex Industry Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Sex and Gender Issues. The term sex industry refers to the people and organizations that provide sexual products, services, or performances in exchange for monetary compensation. The term encompasses a variety of enterprises, including print, video, and Internet pornography, prostitution, sex shows, phone sex operations, sex shops, peep shows, massage parlors, sex tourism, and strip clubs. Those employed in the sex industry are typically known as sex workers and might include street prostitutes, call girls, escorts, strippers, exotic dancers, lap dancers, phone sex operators, brothel workers, actors and actresses in pornographic films, models for pornographic magazines, dominatrices, and bodyworkers or erotic masseuses...
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  Smoking Research Paper Topics
Smoking Research Essay
Research on Smoking Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Argumentative Topics. Agencies, both public and private, have funded research with definitive conclusions as to the ill effects of tobacco use, including lung cancer, heart and circulatory disease, infertility, sexual dysfunction in men, pregnancy and newborn complications, respiratory disease, and dental problems. Given this enormous research effort during the past 30 years, few individuals doubt that cigarettes...
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Smoking in America Essay
Smoking in America Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Argumentative Topics. Death from smoking remains the single most preventable cause of death in the United States today. A direct relationship exists between nearly all lung cancers and exposure to tobacco smoke, yet in 2005 an estimated 39 million Americans smoked. Smoking is currently responsible for a third of all cancer deaths in many Western countries. Health experts estimate that 1 of every 2 smokers will be killed by tobacco...
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Smoking Bans and Secondhand Smoke Essay
Smoking Bans and Secondhand Smoke Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Argumentative Topics. The first smoking bans in the United States, in the late 1980s, restricted smoking on domestic flights. In the following decade, EPA, the U.S. National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, and other government agencies joined the U.S. Surgeon General in the fight against secondhand smoke. In 1995, New York City and California became the first major regions to enact tobacco restrictions...
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  Terrorism Research Paper Topics
Terrorism and Domestic Spying Essay
Terrorism and Domestic Spying Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Controversial Topics. Domestic spying is a cultural construct that is used, especially among civil libertarians and the media, to refer to internally directed surveillance programs initiated by a variety of formal agencies of social control and intelligence. In the current U.S. context, domestic spying primarily refers to the debate that erupted following several revelations about surveillance programs set up...
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The Centrality of September 11, 2001 Essay
The Centrality of September 11, 2001 Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Controversial Topics. Despite the gradual increase in legislative and political responses to terrorism during the late 20th century, the enormous impact of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, on counterterrorism approaches was unpredictable, as counterterrorism efforts expanded considerably on both the national and international levels. The United States took the lead in passing the USA PATRIOT Act...
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Patterns of Global Terrorism Essay
Patterns of Global Terrorism Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Controversial Topics. The randomness, unpredictability, and uncontrollable nature of ongoing terrorist attacks ensures maximum psychological impact. Individuals exposed to terrorism (either directly or indirectly through the media) often experience a number of emotions: shock or emotional numbness in the immediate aftermath, intense fear or anxiety about the future, and a sense of sadness or depression about the losses incurred...
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History of Terrorism Essay
Terrorism in History Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Controversial Topics. Terrorism is a fluid and adaptable form of political behavior that defies precise definition. It typically involves the illegal use or threatened use of violence against individuals unable or unprepared to defend themselves in order to elicit fear and advance a political, ideological, or religious cause. Attacks can range from isolated events perpetrated by "home-grown" terrorists such as...
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Christmas Attacks Essay
Christmas Attacks, Violence, and Bombings Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Controversial Topics. The holiday of Christmas has become a global social problem because it invites terrorism and other forms of violence. In fact, violence is a part of many religious holidays. On Purim in 1996, Palestinian terrorists killed 13 people and injured 125. During 2006 Ramadan, the spike in U.S. military deaths showed how religious holidays can motivate violence. Around the world, people remember Christmas violence...
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