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Research Paper on Physical Activity and Obesity
Physical Activity and Obesity Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Obesity. Physical Activity is defined as bodily movement (any form) produced by the contraction of skeletal muscles that increases energy expenditure above the basal level, and can be categorized in various ways, including type, intensity or strenuousness and purpose. Obesity is a condition describing excess body weight in the form of fat, with a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or greater...
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Environmental Essays and Research Papers

  Air Pollution
Essay on Water Vapor and Air Pollution
Water Vapor and Air Pollution Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Air Pollution. Water vapor is water in its gaseous state. Water vapor may form by evaporation of liquid water or by sublimation of solid water (ice). Water vapor (H2O) is a chemical combination of two atoms of hydrogen and one of oxygen in which both the hydrogen and oxygen possess isotopes. Thus, the molecular weight of water vapor may vary from a low of 18 u to a high of (typically) 22 u. A u is equal to 1.66, 10-27 kilogram (Ruddiman, 2005). For a sample of water at a given temperature, the molecules of lower mass move with higher speeds than the more massive molecules and therefore more readily evaporate or sublimate. Thus, atmospheric water vapor is enriched in the lighter forms. In epochs of higher average...
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Essay on Industrial Emission Controls
Industrial Emission Controls Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Air Pollution. Governmental regulations and technological innovations have helped reduce the amount of environmental pollutants and GHGs emitted into the environment as byproducts of industrial manufacturing. Since the Industrial Revolution began in the midnineteenth century, factories using combustion to power machinery manufacturing products have released chemicals detrimental to the environment in their emissions. By the twentieth century, power plants generating energy through burning fuels such as coal and...
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Argumentative Paper on Acid Rains: Effects and Solutions
Acid Rains: Effects and Solutions Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Air Pollution. The environmental effects of acid rain are most clearly seen in surface water environments such as streams, lakes, and marshes. Acid rain falls directly on these aquatic habitats, and acidic runoff flows into them after falling on rural and urban areas. The impact can be disastrous. In the United States, many aquatic species are showing the deadly effects of prolonged exposure to acidic conditions, sometimes to such an extent that the overall populations of whole species are reduced and species that are more sensitive to low pH levels become extinct. All of these effects contribute to a reduction in the biodiversity of the affected systems. Some acid lakes no longer have fish in them...
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Argumentative Paper on Air Pollution
Air Pollution Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Air Pollution. Air pollution is almost impossible to contain because of its ability to spread rapidly over a large area. There are many different pollutants in the air, and their effects range from environmental damage to health issues. The effect of pollution on the ozone layer is one example of environmental damage. The ozone layer is a part of the atmosphere that helps absorb radiation from the sun and a portion of ultraviolet light that is responsible for causing, among other things, various types of skin cancer and cataracts. Because substances such as carbon dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons, and sulfur dioxide (the chief cause of air pollution) are being released into the air, the ozone layer is being reduced and could...
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Essay on Enhanced Greenhouse Effect
Enhanced Greenhouse Effect Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Environmental Issues. Greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere--such as carbon dioxide (CO2), methane, nitrous oxide, water vapor, and ozone--absorb infrared radiation from the Sun and reradiate some of it at the surface, warming Earth's atmosphere. The average temperature of the atmosphere has been estimated to be more than 30 Celsius warmer than it would be without these gases. The natural greenhouse effect occurs when this process is the result of nonhuman activities; the enhanced greenhouse effect denotes increases in the effect...
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  Climate Change
Essay on U.S. and European Politics on Climate Change
U.S. and European Politics on Climate Change Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Climate Change. The United States accounts for about 25 percent of the world's GHG emissions, while the countries of Europe account for about 14 percent. The technological capabilities and innovative potential of these nations create an opportunity for major reductions in GHG emissions, but such reductions would almost certainly need to be mandated by the American and European governments, subjecting them to the vagaries of democratic political practices (Gerrard, 2007). Politics is a social choice mechanism established to create an orderly society. Democratic theory assumes that people will vote for candidates who will best serve the interests of the people. Most European...
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Essay on Climate Change and World Heritage Sites
Climate Change and World Heritage Sites Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Climate Change. World Heritage Sites are locations that have been designated by The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having "outstanding value to humanity." Locations can be of natural significance, such as Australia's Great Barrier Reef, or cultural significance, such as the Egyptian pyramids. UNESCO encourages the identification and preservation of these locations, keeping them in trust for humanity as a whole, not just for the country in which they are located. One of the earliest examples of preservation on a global scale was the effort to protect the Abu Simbel and Philae temples in Egypt. The temples, which date...
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Essay on Solar Energy and Climate
Solar Energy and Climate Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Climate Change. Solar energy includes all human-derived means of collecting and utilizing energy from the Sun, for such applications as heat, air conditioning, or electric power generation. Two primary classes of solar energy are photovoltaics, converting radiant energy into electricity, and thermal solar, using radiant energy for heat or directly to power air-conditioning units. Thermal solar energy may be subdivided into active systems and passive systems. Active systems require another source of energy, typically electricity, to power pumps or fans. These systems may be used to provide domestic hot water, to heat the interior of a building, or in some cases to provide steam. Active systems...
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Essay on Weather vs. Climate
Weather vs. Climate Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Climate Change. Weather is the set of temporally or spatially local meteorological phenomena: It is the concrete set of events that actually occur over time. Climate is an abstraction from weather: It is the set of the averages of meteorological measurements taken in a given place over a given time period. Changes in climate may be used as predictors of future weather patterns. The weather is one of the most obvious and tangible aspects of Earth's atmospheric environment. One can see, feel, hear, smell, and even taste weather. It consists of the measurable meteorological conditions of the atmosphere at any given time. In contrast, climate is a concept that is constructed by the averages...
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Essay on Venice, Flooding, and Climate Change
Venice, Flooding, and Climate Change Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Climate Change. Venice is susceptible to episodic flooding, owing to a concurrence of high tides, storm surges, and excessive rainfall. Therefore, Venice serves as an excellent indicator of long-term changes in sea level, such as those due to global warming. On November 4, 1966, Venice was inundated by a flood of 1.94 meters above mean high water. This remains the record for high water (acqua alta) in the city. The extent of the flood reflected the combination of high lunar tides, heavy rainfall, and fierce, persistent winds. The storm surge overwhelmed the Lidi, destroying sea walls. Meanwhile, flooding rivers poured freshwater into the brackish lagoon, causing ecological...
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  Ecology and Environment
Essay on Volcanoes and Their Environmental Role
Volcanoes and Their Environmental Role Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Ecology and Environment. Volcanic activity has played a major geological and environmental role in the evolution of the Earth since the planet's formation. As the proto-planetary Earth cooled and formed a solid crust, widespread volcanic activity dominated its surface. The Earth's interior at this time retained a considerable amount of heat from accretion and the decay of short-lived radioactive isotopes. With interior temperatures well above the melting point of most Earth materials, high-density metals sank to the Earth's center of gravity, while lower-density, silicate-rich materials were displaced toward the surface. It is believed that this process took place within the first 50 million years of...
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Essay on Sustainable Development
Sustainable Development Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Ecology and Environment. In the face of climate change and dwindling environmental resources, sustainable development is key to maintaining the ways of life and standards of living to which industrialized nations have become accustomed, while protecting Earth's environment and the interests of future generations. Sustainable development aims to address a number of interrelated global issues, such as poverty, inequality, hunger, and environmental degradation. The concept emerged out of numerous environmental movements begun in the 1970's and 1980's. The 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, was one of the major international events to bring sustainable development into the mainstream. However, the progress...
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Research Paper on U.S. Energy Policy and Environment
U.S. Energy Policy and Environment Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Ecology and Environment. The energy policy of the United States is set by the president and guides both the recommendations of the executive to Congress and the instructions issued by the executive to the cabinet. Twenty-first century energy policy has dealt largely with the question of the best ways to transition from an economy dependent on foreign and polluting sources of energy to an economy that produces its own, cleaner energy. U.S. energy policy addresses issues of energy production, consumption, and economic and environmental impact. The direction of the policy is established by the president, but it is also defined by legislation, acts, treaties, tax codes, subsidies, and other government actions...
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Essay on Weather Forecasting
Weather Forecasting Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Ecology and Environment. Weather forecasting is the branch of meteorology devoted to making short-term predictions about the weather. Early, nonscientific attempts at weather forecasting were based simply on people's past experience and observations. Modern science is based on more detailed understandings of relevant mechanisms and much more precise observations. However, all weather forecasting, scientific or not, is an extrapolation of human knowledge and observations from the past and present into the future. Advances in science and technology have endowed meteorologists with the ability to make more objective judgments and inferences than were previously possible. Modern weather forecasting includes three...
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Research Paper on Wave Power and Environment
Wave Power and Environment Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Ecology and Environment. Wave-power devices extract mechanical or electric power from the oscillatory motion of water, or from pressure fluctuations below the surface that are due to surface waves. Wave-power plants are set up either on the coast or anchored further out in the ocean. Schemes for extracting steady power from waves are based on the predictable, repetitive nature of waves. However, they must be able to withstand the immense forces of extreme sea states and the corrosiveness of salt water. Installation costs exceed $15 per watt, too high to compete with other power sources. Waves transmit energy through a medium. Ocean surface waves are usually driven by winds. While this kinetic energy itself is transmitted...
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  Global Warming
Research Paper on Transportation Impact on Global Warming
Transportation Impact on Global Warming Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. Transportation is a means to facilitate spatially separated activities: for example, individuals travel to work or for leisure purposes; firms ship raw goods or finished products to clients or distribution centers, and employees travel for business. A small percentage of travel occurs for its own sake, such as walks in parks. The most common modes of personal urban transportation are the automobile, public transportation (buses, rail modes, ferries), motorcycles, bicycles, and walking. Personal intercity travel is commonly associated with intercity rail and buses, airplanes, ships, and the automobile. Freight transportation generally distinguishes between trucks...
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Research Paper on Global Warming and Sea-Level Change
Global Warming and Sea-Level Change Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. Rising sea levels associated with global warming pose a threat to beaches and coastlines, coastal communities, and aquifers, directly or indirectly affecting the lives of hundreds of millions of people. Sea level can change, both globally and locally, as a result of changes in the shape and size of the ocean basins, changes in the total mass of seawater, and variations in water temperature and salinity. It is estimated that the global sea level rose by 10 to 25 centimeters in the twentieth century, and forecasts made in 2007 predicted an increase of 20 to 60 centimeters during the twenty-first century. However, these forecasts were subsequently revised upward...
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Essay on Sea Surface Temperatures
Sea Surface Temperatures Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. Sea surface temperature (SST) is a bulk measurement of the temperature of the surface of the ocean. Average SST ranges from approximately -3 Celsius in the Arctic Ocean to 28 Celsius in equatorial waters (Burroughs, 2007). SST is one of the parameters recorded by ships as part of their standard atmospheric and oceanic observation practices, which are governed by international codes first established in the late nineteenth century. The earliest sea surface temperature measurements were taken using a simple bucket and thermometer. Such measurements reported the average value for the upper 1-2 meters of the ocean. Since the 1940's, it has been standard practice to record the...
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Essay on Sequestration of Greenhouse Gases
Sequestration of Greenhouse Gases Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. Sequestering CO2 and other GHGs from the atmosphere by geological, biological, or chemical processes and storing them in forms that will not affect Earth's climate is a primary mechanism for reducing atmospheric GHG concentrations and limiting global warming. Since the Industrial Revolution began, atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) have risen from 275 parts per million to the present level of 380 parts per million (Archer, 2007). Evidence suggests that this observed rise in atmospheric CO2 levels is due primarily to the use of fossil fuels. There is a worldwide awareness that global warming is a result of the rising levels of CO2 and other...
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Research Paper on Global Warming Impact on Tuvalu
Global Warming Impact on Tuvalu Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. A tiny low-lying archipelago nation in Oceania made up of three reef islands and six coral atolls, Tuvalu began attracting international attention as early as 1995, as rising Pacific Ocean levels, largely from global warming, began to threaten to submerge the nation, likely making its roughly twelve thousand residents the world's first climate-refugees. Located in the South Pacific just below the equator, roughly 3,200 kilometers northeast of Australia, Tuvalu's nine islands are in area roughly 26 square kilometers, 90 percent of which is coastline, making it the world's fourth-smallest country. None of Tuvalu's nine islands rises more than 5 meters above sea level...
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  Pollution and Contamination
Essay on The Polluter Pays Principle
The Polluter Pays Principle Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Pollution and Contamination. The polluter pays principle is a moral and sometimes legal principle in which the cost of curtailing and remediating environmental damages is assessed against those who have (knowingly or not) engaged in environmentally destructive actions. Legally, the polluter pays principle is an application of the doctrine of strict liability. This stands in contrast with remediation approaches in which a governmental entity remediates, or subsidizes remediation of, an environmental harm using tax revenues...
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Argumentative Paper on Environmental Pollution Trends
Environmental Pollution Trends Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Argumentative Topics. The environment is an important part of life that must be safeguarded and preserved in the best way possible, because without it there would be no life. People have always used the environment to advance their own goals, but this can lead to environmental pollution, which in turn affects the world's population. In other words, human beings must be consciously concerned with the environment--whether air, water, or soil--because it affects them as much as they affect it. To assess the health of the environment and the effects of environmental pollution, we must look at the environment's different facets individually and how they interact. Discussing environmental pollution is only one part...
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Essay on Cement, Concrete, and Environment
Cement, Concrete, and Environment Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Pollution and Contamination. Concrete, at its most basic, is composed of aggregates and a binding material (cement). Concrete aggregates are coarse, greater than 4.75 millimeters; fine aggregates are less than 4.75 millimeters in size. Aggregates--which are free of silt, organics, sugars, and oils--include sand, gravel, crushed stone, and iron blast-furnace slag. By volume, they make up about 75 percent of a concrete-cement mixture. The aggregates' size plays an important role in achieving maximum particle packing. Optimum packing...
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Essay on Reducing Nutrient Pollution
Reducing Nutrient Pollution Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Pollution and Contamination. Nutrient pollution is thought to be the most serious problem facing many waterways in the United States. Many scientists think that current voluntary measures are not sufficient to reduce nutrient pollution significantly in areas such as the Gulf of Mexico dead zone. Suggestions for a remedy include a designated federal cap on nitrate emissions for each state, with a provision that would give states the flexibility to target the regions where a reduction in nitrate pollution would have the greatest impact. A cap-and-trade program has been proposed for nutrients. Under this program, the federal government would evaluate watersheds to determine the amount of nutrients that could be released within...
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Essay on Industrial Waste Sites
Industrial Waste Sites Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Pollution and Contamination. At the same time that sewage treatment was becoming more widespread, industrial wastes were becoming more of a problem. Before state and federal regulations were enacted in the late 1970s, most industrial waste was disposed of in landfills, stored in lagoons or pits, discharged into surface waters with little or no treatment, or burned. Waste mismanagement polluted surface waters, harmed ecosystems, and endangered the health of nearby populations. Three major federal laws--the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act; the Comprehensive Emergency Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA, also known as Superfund); and the Safe Drinking Water Act--guide the management of hazardous waste. Industrial waste...
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  Water Pollution
Essay on North American Water Resources
North American Water Resources Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Water Pollution. The climate of the western United States has been predicted to become drier with global warming. This could result in the United States asking Canada or even Mexico for additional water supplies. The United States will need to encourage water conservation in the use of water and potentially move water from wetter areas to drier areas. For example, much of the water from the Colorado River system has been diverted for many years to areas such as southern California to help quench the thirst of the growing population. Even larger scale water diversions have been proposed, such as moving freshwater from the Great Lakes or from other large bodies of water in Canada such as James Bay...
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Essay on Changes in the Quality of Water Resources
Changes in the Quality of Water Resources Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Water Pollution. Climate change can greatly affect water quality. Melting snow in the mountains increases river flow and erosion and transports large amounts of sediment, usually in winter or in rainy seasons. Such increased river flow can create flood hazards and heighten the potential for destruction of dams and levees. On the other hand, reduced river flow in summer can also have severe implications, because demand for water for irrigation, hydropower, and other uses is at its peak in summertime. Evaporation rates increase with temperature. High evaporation rates in some areas reduce the ratio of water to its solutes, increasing the concentration of salts and chemicals and thereby decreasing water...
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Essay on Global Water Resources
Global Water Resources Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Water Pollution. Global warming is anticipated to have a significant negative effect on the global supply and quality of water. Potential factors contributing to this effect include warmer winters, changes in precipitation patterns, increasing evaporation, melting snow peaks, rising sea levels, saltwater intrusion into coastal aquifers, dry soil, and increasing storm-water runoff. A water resource is any surface or underground source of water that can be utilized by humans (Gleick, 2006). Typical resources include water basins, aquifers, oceans, rivers, lakes, natural and artificial reservoirs, ice, snow, and wetlands. The hydrologic cycle renews freshwater resources, but these resources decrease when their withdrawal rate...
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Essay on Water Quality
Water Quality Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Water Pollution. Water quality refers to the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of water in relation to the standards created to test its suitability for a particular use, such as irrigating, swimming, fishing, or drinking. Water quality standards for drinking are more stringent than those for any other use. A variety of impurities or pollutants are able to harm water quality, and they may enter into water bodies from various sources, such as agricultural, industrial, and municipal activities (Botterill, 2003). Typical harmful materials include organic wastes, nutrients, sediments, minerals, persistent synthetic chemicals, toxic chemicals, and radiological waste products. While some pollutants, such as...
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Essay on Water Rights
Water Rights Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Water Pollution. Water rights are legal rights to draw water from a particular source, such as rivers, streams, and groundwater, for some beneficial purposes, such as drinking or irrigating. In areas where sources of water are plentiful relative to the demand of the users, the allocation of water rights does not matter. However, in areas where available water is insufficient to meet demand, conflicting claims to that water must be resolved (Tietenberg, 2009). Over time, population growth together with economic development have increased water demand and consequently inflated the relative scarcity of the resource. In order to resolve conflicts between users of water, there exist various mechanisms across regions to allocate water...
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