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Research Paper on Physical Activity and Obesity
Physical Activity and Obesity Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Obesity. Physical Activity is defined as bodily movement (any form) produced by the contraction of skeletal muscles that increases energy expenditure above the basal level, and can be categorized in various ways, including type, intensity or strenuousness and purpose. Obesity is a condition describing excess body weight in the form of fat, with a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or greater...
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You Are Here: Home > Essay Topics > Environmental Essays and Research Papers > Climate Change  

  Climate Change
Essay on U.S. and European Politics on Climate Change
U.S. and European Politics on Climate Change Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Climate Change. The United States accounts for about 25 percent of the world's GHG emissions, while the countries of Europe account for about 14 percent. The technological capabilities and innovative potential of these nations create an opportunity for major reductions in GHG emissions, but such reductions would almost certainly need to be mandated by the American and European governments, subjecting them to the vagaries of democratic political practices (Gerrard, 2007). Politics is a social choice mechanism established to create an orderly society. Democratic theory assumes that people will vote for candidates who will best serve the interests of the people. Most European...
Essay on U.S. and European Politics on Climate Change » 
Essay on Climate Change and World Heritage Sites
Climate Change and World Heritage Sites Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Climate Change. World Heritage Sites are locations that have been designated by The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having "outstanding value to humanity." Locations can be of natural significance, such as Australia's Great Barrier Reef, or cultural significance, such as the Egyptian pyramids. UNESCO encourages the identification and preservation of these locations, keeping them in trust for humanity as a whole, not just for the country in which they are located. One of the earliest examples of preservation on a global scale was the effort to protect the Abu Simbel and Philae temples in Egypt. The temples, which date...
Essay on Climate Change and World Heritage Sites » 
Essay on Solar Energy and Climate
Solar Energy and Climate Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Climate Change. Solar energy includes all human-derived means of collecting and utilizing energy from the Sun, for such applications as heat, air conditioning, or electric power generation. Two primary classes of solar energy are photovoltaics, converting radiant energy into electricity, and thermal solar, using radiant energy for heat or directly to power air-conditioning units. Thermal solar energy may be subdivided into active systems and passive systems. Active systems require another source of energy, typically electricity, to power pumps or fans. These systems may be used to provide domestic hot water, to heat the interior of a building, or in some cases to provide steam. Active systems...
Essay on Solar Energy and Climate » 
Essay on Weather vs. Climate
Weather vs. Climate Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Climate Change. Weather is the set of temporally or spatially local meteorological phenomena: It is the concrete set of events that actually occur over time. Climate is an abstraction from weather: It is the set of the averages of meteorological measurements taken in a given place over a given time period. Changes in climate may be used as predictors of future weather patterns. The weather is one of the most obvious and tangible aspects of Earth's atmospheric environment. One can see, feel, hear, smell, and even taste weather. It consists of the measurable meteorological conditions of the atmosphere at any given time. In contrast, climate is a concept that is constructed by the averages...
Essay on Weather vs. Climate » 
Essay on Venice, Flooding, and Climate Change
Venice, Flooding, and Climate Change Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Climate Change. Venice is susceptible to episodic flooding, owing to a concurrence of high tides, storm surges, and excessive rainfall. Therefore, Venice serves as an excellent indicator of long-term changes in sea level, such as those due to global warming. On November 4, 1966, Venice was inundated by a flood of 1.94 meters above mean high water. This remains the record for high water (acqua alta) in the city. The extent of the flood reflected the combination of high lunar tides, heavy rainfall, and fierce, persistent winds. The storm surge overwhelmed the Lidi, destroying sea walls. Meanwhile, flooding rivers poured freshwater into the brackish lagoon, causing ecological...
Essay on Venice, Flooding, and Climate Change » 
Essay on Younger Dryas Climate
Younger Dryas Climate Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Climate Change. After the Pleistocene epoch ended, Earth's climate began a variable warming trend, punctuated by episodes of cooler temperatures and reglaciations. The Younger Dryas, occurring 12,900 to 11,600 years ago, was a well-defined climatic event during which cool temperatures returned and ice sheets reformed. The term "Dryas" denotes the arcticalpine herb, Dryas octopetala. Early evidence for the Younger Dryas were Dryas octopetala macrofossils found in Scandinavian terrestrial deposits that overlie warmer climate deposits (Broecker, 2005). After the Scandinavian discovery, pollen studies of European lake and bog sediments were undertaken during the 1930's. This field research found...
Essay on Younger Dryas Climate » 
Essay on World Health Organization and Climate Change
World Health Organization and Climate Change Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Climate Change. The World Health Organization (WHO) is the directing and coordinating agency on health within the United Nations system. The WHO is responsible for providing leadership on health issues, supporting and promoting health research, establishing guidelines and standards in health, developing health policies, and building the capacity of countries. The headquarters of the WHO are in Geneva, Switzerland. It has six regional offices in Copenhagen, Denmark; Cairo, Egypt; Washington, D.C.; Brazzaville, Congo; New Delhi, India; and Manila, Philippines. The membership of the WHO consists of 193 countries and two associate members. Together, they constitute...
Essay on World Health Organization and Climate Change » 
Essay on World Bank and Climate Change Funds
World Bank and Climate Change Funds Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Climate Change. Named the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the World Bank was established in 1945 with the aim of promoting the post-World War II reconstruction. It has since evolved and become strongly focused on worldwide poverty alleviation, in conjunction with its affiliate, the International Development Association. The bank also deals with humanitarian emergencies and post-conflict rehabilitation affecting developing and transition economies. In December, 2007, Robert Zoellick, president of the World Bank Group, said at the Climate Change Conference in Bali, Indonesia: "Climate change is a development, economic, and investment challenge...
Essay on World Bank and Climate Change Funds » 
Essay on WGII LESS Scenarios
WGII LESS Scenarios Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Climate Change. WGII LESS scenarios were developed for the Second Assessment Report of Working Group II (WGII) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to assess low-emissions supply systems (LESS). The mission of Working Group II was to study the physical, ecological, human-healthrelated, and socioeconomic impacts of climate change. The overall goal of the IPCC is to determine the history, present situation, and likely future of Earth's climate and to make recommendations as to the best climate policies to preserve the health and welfare of the world's peoples and ecosystems. As part of that mission, WGII was tasked to review the technical and economic feasibility of various...
Essay on WGII LESS Scenarios » 
Essay on Wetlands and Climate Change
Wetlands and Climate Change Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Climate Change. Wetlands are found from the equatorial region to the arctic regions of Canada. Even in the deserts, wetlands are found near oases. Wetlands are important to society as they provide sanctuary for fish and wildlife, water resources for streams and aquifers, and, in most cases, serve to mitigate the severity of flooding. Wetlands also provide support for fishing, hunting, and other recreational and educational activities such as bird watching, photography, painting, tourism, and research. They provide humans and wildlife with food sources and function as sources of energy and sinks for greenhouse gases (GHGs), sequestering carbon through the formation of peat, a precursor...
Essay on Wetlands and Climate Change » 
Essay on United States and International Climate-Related Laws
United States and International Climate-Related Laws Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Climate Change. The first significant international agreement related to climate change was the Montreal Protocol, which entered into force in 1989. Its goal was to eliminate the use of substances that deplete the ozone layer. In 1997, the Kyoto Protocol was adopted as an amendment to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The UNFCCC recognized that climate resources are shared among nations and that the stability of Earth is dependent upon all countries' compliance with efforts to reduce emissions of GHGs. The UNFCCC outlined intergovernmental efforts necessary to provide financial and technological cooperation in adapting...
Essay on United States and International Climate-Related Laws » 
Essay on Climate-Related Legislation in the U.S.
Climate-Related Legislation in the U.S. Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Climate Change. U.S. climate-related legislation has attempted to reverse or reduce some of the damage done to the environment, to minimize resource depletion, and to prevent or mitigate GHG emissions and other climate-related pollution. Climate change is the result of a complex of changes in atmospheric and oceanic composition and dynamics, and it has been suspected that Earth's climate is warming. Many scientists believe that available data indicate that human activity--particularly increased emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) -- is contributing to this warming. Global warming, in turn, is expected to affect supplies of food and water, air quality, energy resources, biodiversity...
Essay on Climate-Related Legislation in the U.S. » 
Essay on U.S. Climate Action Report
U.S. Climate Action Report Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Climate Change. With the U.S. Climate Action Report, 2002, the Bush administration acknowledged for the first time that global warming has anthropogenic causes and that if warming remains unchecked it will seriously harm the environment of the United States. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was signed by President George H. W. Bush in June, 1992. Under the terms of the convention and of later agreements of the UNFCCC Conference of the Parties (COP), signatory nations were to report their progress toward reducing global warming. The United States submitted its first two climate action reports in 1994 and 1997 under President Bill Clinton and its third...
Essay on U.S. Climate Action Report » 
Essay on Urban Heat Island and Urban Climate
Urban Heat Island and Urban Climate Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Climate Change. An urban heat island is a metropolitan area that is significantly warmer in surface and air temperature than its suburban and rural surroundings. English amateur meteorologist Luke Howard, in his book The Climate of London (1818), described temperature differences between London and its surrounding countryside. He noted that it was warmer at night in London than in the country and speculated that the cause might be the burning of fuels. Research over the subsequent two centuries has charted a variety of differences between cities and their surroundings, as distinctive urban landscapes, domestic and industrial structures, and the behavior of urban...
Essay on Urban Heat Island and Urban Climate » 
Essay on United States and Climate Change Impact
United States and Climate Change Impact Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Climate Change. The United States is bordered by Canada on the north, Mexico on the south, the Atlantic Ocean on the east, and the Pacific Ocean to the west. It includes the island state of Hawaii, and the state of Alaska is located northwest of Canada. Despite its relatively self-contained and geographically isolated situation, the country has eschewed isolationism and assumed a leadership role in the free world. The United States is a relatively young nation but a rich one, though the U.S. national debt may climb to between $10 and $15 trillion. On January 20, 2009, the forty-fourth president of the United States, Barack Obama, was inaugurated in Washington, D.C., the...
Essay on United States and Climate Change Impact » 
Essay on United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Climate Change. The UNFCCC was the first comprehensive global agreement seeking to control the atmospheric factors contributing to global warming. Although the initial agreement did not identify specific environmental changes, it established a process through which pollution-control agreements could be made. The Kyoto Protocol is the most well known of these subsequent agreements. Although the environmental movement had been around for decades, it initially dealt with localized problems or changes that could be easily seen. Some individuals considered the broader picture, but the size of the Earth made many assume that people could not make significant changes...
Essay on United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change » 
Essay on United Nations Climate Change Conference
United Nations Climate Change Conference Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Climate Change. In 1994, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) entered into force, and the nations, or parties, that ratified it have met annually in different cities in what are called the Conferences of the Parties to the Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP). It was during the third annual meeting in 1997, or COP-3, that the Kyoto Protocol was adopted. COP-11, held in Montreal, Canada, included the first official meeting of the parties (MOP) of the Kyoto Protocol since the protocol was adopted, and the group agreed to continue to meet annually. The United Nations Climate Change Conference (also known as the Bali Conference) was hosted...
Essay on United Nations Climate Change Conference » 
Essay on Tundra and Its Climate
Tundra and Its Climate Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Climate Change. Tundra ecosystems are treeless regions found in the Arctic and on mountaintops. The word "tundra" is derived from the Finnish word tunturi, which refers to treeless areas of hills and mountains. There are two types of tundra: those in the north, called Arctic tundra, and those in high mountains, called alpine tundra. Antarctica has some tundra as well. Tundra climate is very harsh, involving extremely cold and snowy winters and short, cool summers with very little precipitation. In the Arctic tundra, the average temperature is between 12 and 7 Celsius. Most Arctic tundra regions have permafrost, a layer of ground below the surface soil that remains permanently frozen. The tundra...
Essay on Tundra and Its Climate » 
Essay on Troposphere and Climate Change
Troposphere and Climate Change Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Climate Change. The troposphere is the lowest layer of the Earth's atmosphere. It typically extends from the Earth's surface to an altitude of about 10-16 kilometers high, varying by latitude. In the tropics, the troposphere extends relatively high, whereas in the polar region, its upper boundary is significantly lower. Because gravity weakens as the distance from a body increases, the atmosphere's density and pressure decrease exponentially with altitude. Most of the air molecules in the atmosphere are located in the atmospheric layers closest to Earth's surface. As altitude increases, the number of atmospheric molecules per unit of volume decreases, so the air becomes thinner. By contrast...
Essay on Troposphere and Climate Change » 
Essay on Tropical Climate
Tropical Climate Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Climate Change. The tropics are the equatorial region between the Tropic of Cancer (23.5 north latitude) and the Tropic of Capricorn (23.5 south latitude) (Lomborg, 2007). Because of an atmospheric circulation pattern known as the Hadley circulation, the tropics tend to be warm and wet. This region contains a variety of ecosystems, including deserts, rain forests, savannas, and several islands. Although each of these ecosystems resembles the others in having hot weather (with the exception of a few mountains, such as Kilimanjaro in Tanzania, which lies only a few degrees south of the equator), they differ widely in average annual rainfall. In parts of Asia, Latin America, and Africa, rain forests...
Essay on Tropical Climate » 
Essay on Tree Rings and Changes in Climate
Tree Rings and Changes in Climate Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Climate Change. Tree rings, also known as growth rings or annual rings, are visible in the woody stems of trees. A woody stem is composed of cells collectively known as secondary xylem. These cells are responsible for moving water and nutrients upward in the plant and provide support for the aboveground portion of the tree. Tree rings are formed by the production of cells of different widths. When growing conditions are more optimal, as is typical in the earlier part of the temperate growing season, the diameters or width of the cells are large and the cells appear light to the naked eye. This growth is typically called early wood. During less optimal growing conditions...
Essay on Tree Rings and Changes in Climate » 
Essay on Trace Gases Impacts on the Earth's Changing Climate
Trace Gases Impacts on the Earth's Changing Climate Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Climate Change. Trace gases are gases that exist at low concentrations in an atmosphere, generally less than one part per thousand. The bulk of Earth's atmosphere is made up of "permanent" gases--molecular oxygen and nitrogen--and argon, as well as the "variable" gas water vapor. In addition to these gases, thousands of trace gases are present, including many compounds of such common elements as carbon, sulfur, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen. The atmosphere also contains small amounts of the halogens (fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine) and the noble gases (helium, neon, krypton, and radon), as well as very small quantities of some metallic species such as...
Essay on Trace Gases Impacts on the Earth's Changing Climate » 
Essay on Thermosphere and Climate Change
Thermosphere and Climate Change Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Climate Change. High levels of solar activity, including increases in extreme ultraviolet radiation and soft solar X rays, influence the atmospheric chemistry of the thermosphere. Increasing concentrations of CO2 in the atmosphere have decreased the density of the thermosphere by about 10 percent over thirty-five years, lessening drag and extending satellite lifetimes. The lower thermosphere is the region of the atmosphere above the mesopause-lower thermosphere boundary (MLT, about 90 kilometers above the Earth's surface). It extends to an altitude of about 550 kilometers. Atmospheric density decreases with altitude, as the numbers of atoms and molecules decrease and...
Essay on Thermosphere and Climate Change » 
Essay on Thermohaline Circulation Effect on Climate
Thermohaline Circulation Effect on Climate Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Climate Change. Thermohaline circulation (THC) is the large-scale circulation of water in the ocean basins, driven by the dense deep water of the polar regions. The density of ocean water is a function of both temperature and salinity. Water increases in density in the polar regions, as surface water cools and its salinity is increased through sea-ice formation. (Salt excluded from sea ice increases the salt content of polar liquid water.) A column of water becomes unstable when surface water has a higher density than deeper water, causing the high-density surface water to sink until it reaches a depth at which it is neutrally buoyant. At that depth, the water will flow...
Essay on Thermohaline Circulation Effect on Climate » 
Essay on Thermocline and Climate
Thermocline and Climate Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Climate Change. The global ocean consists of three layers of varying density. The density of ocean water is a function of changes in salinity and temperature. A shallow, mixed layer extends from the surface to a depth of approximately 30 meters (Botterill, 2003). At the bottom of the ocean is a cold layer that extends from approximately 500 meters deep to the ocean floor. The thermocline is the middle layer between these two. Within the thermocline, the temperature of the ocean changes rapidly from approximately 20 Celsius in the mixed layer to 2 Celsius in deep waters. The thermocline is found only in waters between 60 north and 60 south latitude; it is replaced by a halocline...
Essay on Thermocline and Climate » 
Essay on Technological Change and Global Climate
Technological Change and Global Climate Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Climate Change. The growth and continued evolution of technological systems and artifacts pose significant challenges and opportunities relating to global climate change. New technologies may damage the environment, but technologies may also be created to protect or restore that environment. In either case, technology is the driving force behind anthropogenic climate change. Human beings have an inherent capacity to create and re-create their environments. Human technological prowess far outstrips that of any other species. The ability of human beings to reshape landscapes, for example, can be easily observed from orbit. With the advent of industrialization and mass production...
Essay on Technological Change and Global Climate » 
Essay on Sun, Solar Radiation, and Earth's Climate
Sun, Solar Radiation, and Earth's Climate Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Climate Change. Solar radiation is the fuel that drives Earth's climate engine. Global average temperatures respond to variations in both the amount of energy emitted by the Sun and the amount of that energy absorbed and retained by the Earth. The Sun is a typical yellow dwarf star. It is a mixture of incandescent gases, primarily hydrogen (80 percent by mass) and helium (20 percent by mass) with trace amounts of heavier elements. The Sun has a total mass of 1.99 ? 1030 kilograms and a radius of 6.96 ? 108 meters. The Earth orbits the Sun at an average distance of 1.5 ? 1011 meters. The surface of the Sun has a temperature of 5,800 Kelvins, the temperature at which thermal radiation...
Essay on Sun, Solar Radiation, and Earth's Climate » 
Essay on Sulfur Cycle and Its Effect on Climate
Sulfur Cycle and Its Effect on Climate Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Climate Change. The ancients referred to hell as a place of fire and burning brimstone. Brimstone was their term for the rotten-egg-smelling gas of sulfur dioxide (SO2). Sulfur is also present in other, less odious forms owing to a series of transforming oxidation-reduction reactions, and in one form or another it is in constant flux between Earth and sky and back again to Earth. This is the sulfur cycle. Technically, the sulfur cycle describes the mineralization of organic sulfur to sulfide, its oxidation to sulfate, and the reduction of sulfate to sulfide, followed by microbial conversion into organic compounds. Oxidation is most simply defined as the addition of oxygen...
Essay on Sulfur Cycle and Its Effect on Climate » 
Essay on Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice
Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Climate Change. Established by Article 9 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA) provides the UNFCCC Conference of the Parties (COP) with information and advice on scientific and technological issues relating to the convention. The SBSTA serves as the link between the scientific, technical, and technological assessments and the information provided by competent international bodies, and the policy-oriented needs of the COP (Axelrod, 2004). The SBSTA is open to participation to all parties to the UNFCCC and comprises government representatives competent...
Essay on Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice » 
Essay on Stratosphere and Climate Change
Stratosphere and Climate Change Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Climate Change. The stratosphere is a highly stratified region of the atmosphere that is bounded below by the troposphere and above by the mesosphere. The stratosphere ranges from about 15 kilometers above the Earth's surface at its lower boundary to about 50 kilometers at its upper boundary. The stratosphere contains about 90 percent of the ozone in the atmosphere. Because of the ozone layer in the stratosphere, which absorbs much of the ultraviolet radiation reaching Earth from the Sun, the temperature increases with increasing height throughout the stratosphere. This ozone-induced increase in temperature with height corresponds to stable stratification, which has a strong impact...
Essay on Stratosphere and Climate Change » 
Essay on SourceWatch and Climate Change Controversy
SourceWatch and Climate Change Controversy Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Climate Change. SourceWatch has a general mission of monitoring and reporting on efforts by propagandists and public relations organizations to shape public opinion. Although climate change is not its sole mission, the large number of front organizations active in the controversy make climate change a major area of concern, and SourceWatch has a portal dedicated to climate change. SourceWatch is a Web site run by the Center for Media and Democracy. It began as Disinfopedia in March, 2003. The name was a conscious play on Wikipedia, and, like Wikipedia, Disinfopedia was a wiki-based (user-written and -edited) reference site (Herman, 2002). The name was changed to the present...
Essay on SourceWatch and Climate Change Controversy » 
Essay on Solar Cycle Effect on Climate
Solar Cycle Effect on Climate Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Climate Change. Temporary dark markings on the surface of the Sun, known as sunspots, have been observed since ancient times. As seen from Earth, though, most sunspots are too small to be observed with the naked eye. It was not until the invention of the telescope that sunspots could be observed with regularity. Sunspots were a regular feature on the face of the Sun in the early seventeenth century; however, sunspots all but disappeared later in that century for a period of time lasting into the eighteenth century. This period with almost no sunspots is called the Maunder Minimum. By the beginning of the nineteenth century, astronomers had recognized that the number of sunspots increased...
Essay on Solar Cycle Effect on Climate » 
Essay on Skeptics in Climate Change Controversy
Skeptics in Climate Change Controversy Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Climate Change. In the climate change controversy, the term "skeptic" is a generic term widely used to denote people who question some or all notions of anthropogenic climate change. The term "denier" was used earlier in the controversy but is unsatisfactory for several reasons (Pearce, 2007). First, many skeptics accept some aspects of anthropogenic climate change. Also, the term "denier" implies arbitrary or unreasonable doubt about anthropogenic climate change, whereas many doubters believe they have sound reason for being skeptical. The term "skeptic" has emerged as a general label used by both sides in the debate, because it is reasonably neutral. There remain people on both...
Essay on Skeptics in Climate Change Controversy » 
Essay on Climate Change Effect on Security
Climate Change Effect on Security Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Climate Change. Security refers to the general stability of a nation; it includes military defense against other nations and threats, as well as defenses against lower-level threats to stability, including civil unrest, political instability, disruptions of resources, and terrorism. Climate change has the potential to affect many of the resources that industrialized nations take for granted. Those resources are necessary to protect the land, air, and sea, as well as nations' military capabilities. Provisions for food, shelter, health, longevity, space, and transportation may suffer, as may the general level of emotional security that helps maintain civil order in any nation where the populace...
Essay on Climate Change Effect on Security » 
Essay on Seasonal Climate Changes
Seasonal Climate Changes Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Climate Change. Weather and climate are variable phenomena in all regions of the world. Thus, irrespective of whether climate is undergoing a linear change to a new climate regime, climate is in some sense always changing. For example, an arid region in Peru may well have several years without any appreciable rain, followed by one or two weeks of relatively wet conditions. This might in turn be followed by another long period with no appreciable rain (Botterill, 2003). Such climatic changes are quite normal. To determine whether climate change is of the type generally referred to by such phrases as "global warming," one would look at a relatively significant change in the overall weather pattern...
Essay on Seasonal Climate Changes » 
Essay on Climate Change and Sea Sediments
Climate Change and Sea Sediments Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Climate Change. Sea sediments collect on the sea bottom, constituting the upper layer of the ocean floor. They consist of materials weathered from the continents, the remains of planktonic organisms, and minerals that are deposited by hydrothermal vents. Marine sediments are generally classified according to their source as terrigenous, metalliferous, or biogenic. Terrigenous sediments are derived from the weathering of continental material, and are transported to the oceans by rivers, wind, and even glaciers. Terrigenous sediments are found most often near the continental margins, where rivers deposit much of their load. Very fine grained terrigenous sediments (clays) are transported...
Essay on Climate Change and Sea Sediments » 
Essay on Sea Ice and Global Climate
Sea Ice and Global Climate Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Climate Change. Sea ice is formed when the surface layer of the ocean reaches the freezing point. For salt water, this occurs at a temperature of -1.8 Celsius, slightly colder than the freezing point of freshwater. Because water is more buoyant in its solid state, the newly formed ice floats on top of the ocean, forming a barrier between the cool air and the warm water. There are two types of sea ice. Fast ice (also known as land fast ice) is seawater that has frozen along the shore line, or, in shallow areas, has frozen to the ocean floor. These formations are, by their very nature, stationary. Drift ice is frozen salt water that floats and is affected by winds and currents...
Essay on Sea Ice and Global Climate » 
Essay on Saudi Arabia: Ecology and Climate Change
Saudi Arabia: Ecology and Global Warming Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Climate Change. Saudi Arabia is located in the Middle East and borders the Persian Gulf, the Red Sea, Yemen, the United Arab Emirates, Iraq, Qatar, Oman, Jordan, and Kuwait. Riyadh is its capital city, with a population of 4,193,000. Saudi Arabia is a monarchy led by King Abdullah, who has been head of state since 2005, and an appointed 150-member consultative council. Saudi Arabia is the historical home of Islam, its official religion, and Arabic is its official language. Like most of its Gulf State neighbors...
Essay on Saudi Arabia: Ecology and Climate Change » 
Essay on Russian Federation: Ecology and Climate Change Impact
Russian Federation: Ecology and Global Warming Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Climate Change. Several major themes in Russia's history influence the nation's political, military, and economic actions to the present day. Among them are its geographic and cultural isolation from the rest of Europe and repeated invasions from both Europe and Asia. The hardships endured by Russians throughout their history have created a deep sense of tragedy that is readily apparent in Russian literature and music and that has led to a pervasive political culture of suspicion against...
Essay on Russian Federation: Ecology and Climate Change Impact » 
Essay on Climate Response Time
Response Time Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Climate Change. The response time of a natural system is the amount of time it takes for the system to respond to a change in the forcing mechanisms. In the case of the climate system, the forcing mechanism of most importance is radiative forcing, which is defined as the net irradiance at the top of the tropopause (boundary between the troposphere and the stratosphere). There are many processes that can affect radiative forcing, including natural phenomena such as variations in the Earth's orbit or in the output of solar radiation...
Essay on Climate Response Time » 
Essay on Regional, Local, and Microclimates
Regional, Local, and Microclimates Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Climate Change. Climate change is not uniform across the world. Regional, local, and microscale processes often determine how the climate of a particular location will change in response to increasing concentrations of GHGs or other factors. Climate is the long-term average of weather patterns. Due to the spherical shape of the Earth, the climate at any location is primarily determined by its latitude. However, the climates of certain regions can be significantly different from those at similar latitudes...
Essay on Regional, Local, and Microclimates » 
Essay on Polar Climate
Polar Climate Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Climate Change. Polar climate is characterized by year-round cold conditions, tundra or ice cap, and permafrost. At Earth's South Pole is Antarctica, 95 percent of which is covered in ice. Temperatures on the continent range from 0 Celsius to -70 Celsius. At Earth's north pole is the Arctic tundra, as well as treeless vegetation zones. The tundra is bordered on the south by forests and on the north by the Arctic lands and has a layer of permafrost. The Arctic is characterized by short, cool summers and long, cold winters...
Essay on Polar Climate » 
Essay on Poland: Ecology and Climate Change
Poland: Ecology and Global Warming Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Climate Change. Poland is a central European country located south of the Baltic Sea, between Germany and Ukraine. It has historically been the site of conflict among its neighbors, and has at times ceased to exist, when the entire area of the nation was annexed by other states. In 966, during the kingdom of Mieszko I, Poland accepted Christianity. In 1386, under the Jagiellon dynasty, Poland became an economic power, and that power increased in 1410. The decline of the Polish economy began in 1795...
Essay on Poland: Ecology and Climate Change » 
Essay on Planetary Atmospheres and Evolution
Planetary Atmospheres and Evolution Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Climate Change. Comparisons of Earth's atmosphere with similar atmospheres such as those of Venus, Mars, and Titan provide insight into atmospheric evolution and physics. The atmosphere of Earth defines the category of terrestrial atmospheres. Similar atmospheres are those of Venus, Mars, and Titan--the largest moon of Saturn. These atmospheres share the basic qualities of terrestrial atmospheres, yet they are quite different from one another. Using comparative planetology, the causes for these differences...
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Essay on Parameterization in Climate Models
Parameterization in Climate Models Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Climate Change. In climate models, parameterization is the technique of representing processes that are too complex or otherwise cannot be effectively simulated in the model. Climate models are based on a series of mathematical equations that represent different chemical and physical processes--such as the evaporation of water from the ocean, the condensation of water vapor in the atmosphere to form clouds, and the direction of cloud transport based on wind directions and strengths. While processes such...
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Essay on The National Climate Program Act
The National Climate Program Act Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Climate Change. The National Climate Program Act created an interagency program that conducts climate research, provides climate information, and supports policy decisions in the United States. Following a period of reduced global average temperatures in the early 1970's, and growing out of years of effort by groups of climatologists, several bills were introduced in the U.S. Congress to coordinate climate research, prediction, and planning. One such bill, the National Climate Program Bill of 1975, failed to pass...
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Essay on Middle East: Ecology and Climate Change
Middle East: Ecology and Global Warming Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Climate Change. The Middle East is largely desert, with limited annual precipitation and limited usable freshwater sources. Increased consumption of Middle Eastern petroleum and related fossil fuels appears to be increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and reliance upon those resources causes the relative political instability of the region to have disproportionate effects on global socioeconomic stability. The Middle East comprises the sovereign states of the Eastern Mediterranean and North Africa...
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Essay on Mexico: Ecology and Climate Change Impact
Mexico: Ecology and Global Warming Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Climate Change. Mexico has experienced political strife throughout its history, including major wars and executions of leaders. The Spaniards invaded the region in 1519, conquering the Aztec and Mayan native cultures. Mexico attempted to declare independence from Spain in 1810, resulting in war and the execution of a number of leaders from Mexico. This war of independence lasted until 1821, when Spain finally granted Mexico its autonomy. The Mexico of 1821 included most of present-day Central America...
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Essay on Mediterranean Sea and Climate Change
Mediterranean Sea and Global Warming Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Climate Change. Bounded by Africa to the south, Asia to the east, and Europe to the north and west, the Mediterranean Sea is virtually landlocked. It is approximately 2,510,000 square kilometers in area, has an average depth of 1,501 meters, and reaches a maximum depth of 5,092 meters (Hughes, 2005). It is believed that the Mediterranean was created as a result of interactions over millions of years between the Eurasian and African continental plates. The major source of the Mediterranean's water...
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Essay on The Medieval Warm Period
The Medieval Warm Period Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Climate Change. The Medieval Warm Period (MWP) is a term used to describe a period of several centuries that preceded the Little Ice Age (LIA). The MWP (also the Medieval Warm Epoch or the Little Climatic Optimum) was proposed in 1965 by Hubert Horace Lamb, a British meteorologist and groundbreaking climate historian, who believed it lasted from roughly 900 to 1300 AD. During the MWP, Lamb believed, the North Atlantic and northern and western Europe experienced warmer conditions on average. He presented evidence...
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Essay on Media and Climate Change
Media and Global Warming Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Climate Change. The battle over climate change has played out publicly in the media. Conservatives have charged the media with bias against questioning anthropogenic climate change. Liberals have argued that there is a scientific consensus and the media are irresponsible to portray the issue as subject to debate. Modern media climate coverage dates to the 1890's. In the late nineteenth century, The New York Times warned of a possible return to an ice age. That coverage continued until the 1920's and 1930's, when media...
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Essay on Maldives and Climate Change
Maldives and Global Warming Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Climate Change. Maldives is an archipelago grouped into nineteen atolls located on the Indian Ocean, south-southwest of India. It is an Islamic republic and became independent from England on July 26, 1965. The majority of its people are Sunni Muslims who were originally Buddhists. The official language is Dhivehi, an Indo-European language related to Sinhala, the major language of Sri Lanka. Maldives became a republic under the 1968 constitution, which established executive, legislative, and judicial branches...
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Essay on Little Ice Age
Little Ice Age Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Climate Change. A brief cold period may have occurred during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Some researchers think that the lower temperatures resulted from a reduced solar energy output related to the Maunder Minimum in sunspot activity. The possibility that climate variations may be induced by solar activity complicates the conventional theory that human activity is causing global warming. Indirect and anecdotal evidence indicates that it was colder than normal during the seventeenth century...
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Essay on Liberalism and Climate Change
Liberalism and Global Warming Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Climate Change. Liberalism has an important impact on the modern mindset regarding the human relationship with nature. Liberal individualist viewpoints affect debates about global warming in diverse and sometimes contradictory ways. Examining liberalism is crucial in interpreting U.S. public policy regarding global warming. Liberalism is a political philosophy founded during the Enlightenment in Europe. Prominent liberal philosophers include John Locke, Adam Smith, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Immanuel Kant...
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Essay on Italy: Ecology and Climate Change Impact
Italy: Ecology and Global Warming Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Climate Change. Italy has played a major role in the religious, philosophical, and artistic development of the world. For centuries, Italy served as the central point from which empire, religion, thought, and artistic creation emanated. The Roman Empire spread its political system and its culture throughout Europe and the Mediterranean. After its collapse, Rome became the center of Catholicism, and it was in Italy that the Renaissance began in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, eventually spreading...
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Essay on Invasive Exotic Species
Invasive Exotic Species Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Climate Change. With climate change come changes in species distributions. Invasive exotic species in particular can have significant effects upon other species and the structure and function of entire ecosystems. An exotic species is a creature found in an area to which it is not native. Species that succeed after arriving in new areas, whose population growth is not limited by natural controls, and that negatively affect other species in their new ecosystems are considered invasive exotics. Such species often evince...
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Essay on International Waters Regulation
International Waters Regulation Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Climate Change. International waters are less regulated than national waters, allowing environmentally damaging activities to occur. In addition, as global warming continues, changes in shorelines and the melting of the Arctic ice cap may create international complications. Nearly three-fourths of the world's surface is covered by water. Each terrestrial or oceanic ecosystem has developed depending upon the availability of a certain type and quantity of water. Major bodies of water and the atmosphere...
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Essay on Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Climate Change. Since its creation in 1988, the IPCC has proven to be one of the most credible sources of information regarding the state of scientific knowledge about climate change, its impacts, and possible policy responses. Its input has been instrumental in the global effort to reduce GHG emissions. The first call for an international effort to study the effects of anthropogenic climate change on the global community was issued by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) at its 1979 World Climate...
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Essay on India: Ecology and Climate Change Impact
India: Ecology and Global Warming Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Climate Change. Great Britain's colonial occupation of India destroyed and replaced the region's traditional, cottage- based textile, metal, and crafts industries with plantations and infrastructure to export raw materials and mined ores through a few ports to the factories of the British Empire. By the early 1900's, India had a desperately poor subsistence economy that was dependent on the monsoons and experienced frequent famines when crops failed. The world wars necessitated steel plants to be located in India...
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Essay on Ice Cores and Climate Change
Ice Cores and Climate Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Climate Change. Ice cores contain evidence of an orderly sequence of changes that occurred in the Earth's atmosphere, including changes in temperature and trace gases. They therefore provide a history of the Earth's climates. An ice core is a cylinder of ice measuring 10 centimeters in diameter and obtained by drilling vertically into a glacier. Glacial ice is produced by the natural, gradual transformation of snow into ice. Snow is made of fragile ice crystals surrounded by air. In the process that transforms snow...
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Essay on Prehistoric Climate Change
Prehistoric Climate Change Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Climate Change. The tenure of modern humans on Earth encompasses the last Pleistocene glaciation and the ten thousand years of the Holocene, during which the Earth's climate has fluctuated, with a temperature maximum roughly six thousand years ago. There are many studies correlating prehistoric cultural changes with climatic changes. For agricultural societies, the droughts associated with colder periods are more devastating than are lower temperatures themselves. The Holocene historical and geologic records...
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Term Paper on Global Climate Monitoring
Global Climate Monitoring Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Climate Change. To know what is happening with global climate, researchers must be able to determine exactly what has happened in the past, which requires good data taken at the same place over a period of several decades. Global monitoring is a collective term used in relation to the measurement of a wide variety of atmospheric and surface properties on a global or regional scale at frequent intervals. The monitoring of the climate and related variables on global and regional scales is essential if correct analyses of what...
Term Paper on Global Climate Monitoring » 
Essay on Glaciations and Climate Science
Glaciations and Climate Science Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. Glaciations presented a challenge to climate science. With ice sheets today only on Greenland and Antarctica, huge continental glaciers were difficult even to imagine. As the idea took root, however, evidence for glaciations throughout geologic history became apparent. What controls the timing of glaciations is now largely understood, but how they grow or retreat--and why--continue to be important subjects of research. The temperature of the surface of the Earth is a function of how much energy...
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Essay on Faculae and Climate
Faculae and Climate Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Environmental Issues. The word facula (plural: faculae) derives from the Latin word for torch. Faculae are bright spots on the Sun's visible surface or photosphere. Faculae might be thought of as the opposite of sunspots. Sunspots are dark areas on the Sun's surface caused by the solar magnetic field deflecting energy coming up from within the Sun. Faculae are bright areas on the Sun's surface that are also caused by the solar magnetic field. However, for faculae, the magnetic field concentrates rather than deflects energy from the interior...
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Essay on Gradual Climate Change and Employment
Gradual Climate Change and Employment Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Environmental Issues. Even when regions do not suffer from extreme weather, warming can lead to a gradual rise in sea level, flooding some coastal areas. In other cases, increased precipitation or snow melt will cause rivers to flood, affecting nearby communities. When combined with extreme events, this pattern can lead to substantial migration. Already, this is beginning to happen in Bangladesh. Farmers are losing productive land to water incursions and are crossing the border into the neighboring Indian province of Assam...
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Essay on Emissions Standards
Emissions Standards Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Environmental Issues. Emissions standards seek to protect the environment and the climate by setting limits on the amount of pollutants and GHGs that may be emitted by motor vehicles, factories, and other sources of anthropogenic air pollution. The evolution of emissions standards began largely in response to the heavy vehicular traffic and industrialization of major urban areas. At the beginning of the twentieth century, the word "smog" was used to describe the grim atmospheric haze created by smoke and sulfur dioxide from burning coal...
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Essay on How Species Cope with Climate Change
How Species Cope with Climate Change Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Environmental Issues. Nature has provided species of plants and animals with a powerful mechanism of coping with environmental changes, including climate changes. Charles Darwin, who discovered this mechanism and showed how it could account for the origin and evolution of species, called it natural selection. Throughout the long history of life on Earth, plants and animals have had to adapt to changing environmental conditions, often gradually, sometimes dramatically. After the appearance of Homo sapiens and human technology...
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Essay on Earth Motions and Climate Change
Earth Motions and Climate Change Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Environmental Issues. Earth is not fixed in space. Rather, Earth orbits the Sun in a nearly circular orbit once every 365.26 days, a period of time called the sidereal year. As Earth orbits the Sun, it rotates once every 23 hours 56 minutes about a rotational axis that is tilted at approximately 23.5 with respect to its orbital motion. This axial tilt is called obliquity, and Earth's daily rotation is called diurnal motion. Earth's orbit is nearly circular, but it is not a perfect circle. The measure of how far an orbit...
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Essay on Continental Climate
Continental Climate Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Climate Change. Defining a climate is difficult. The accuracy of weather observations and the length of time over which these data have been recorded can seriously affect the statistical understanding of a climate. Additionally, having data to produce statistical averages is no assurance that a climate's classification can accurately describe its conditions. Consider Chicago's humid, continental climate: The average temperature of the city is near 10 Celsius, but the nature of the climate in the region lends itself to extremes...
Essay on Continental Climate » 
Essay on Climate Change and Climatology
Climate Change and Climatology Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Climate Change. Climatology can be defined as the synthesis of weather studies over a time interval long enough to determine statistical properties. In other words, meteorology plus time equals climatology. Climatology differs from meteorology in that meteorology describes the atmospheric conditions at present, what are most often called "the weather." Meteorology also involves forecasting the weather for the very near future. Climatology involves studying the weather and its trends over a long period of time...
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Essay on Climate Variability and Change
Climate Variability and Change Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Climate Change. A stable climate is not necessarily a static climate: Climates can vary within limits over time, and it is important to distinguish between this climate variability and genuine climate change in evaluating climatic history and making future projections. Climate is an abstraction, a synthesis of the day-today weather conditions in a given area over a long period of time. The main climate elements are precipitation, temperature, humidity, sunshine, radiation, wind speed, wind direction, and phenomena...
Essay on Climate Variability and Change » 
Essay on Climate Reconstruction
Climate Reconstruction Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Climate Change. Scientists use a combination of techniques to reconstruct and describe aspects of past climates, such as temperature, precipitation, and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, using historical accounts and proxies. These methods include analysis of preserved pollen, tree rings, and ice-core oxygen isotope ratios and CO2 concentrations, as well as paleobotanical methods. To develop accurate climate-prediction models, scientists require data that predate modern science, forcing them to rely on historical...
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Essay on Climate Models and Modeling
Climate Models and Modeling Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Climate Change. Earth's climate is a system of vast complexity, and modeling that system in useful ways poses significant challenges. Understanding the hierarchy of climate models, however, allows scientists to create models using the minimum complexity necessary for the specific climatic problem under investigation. Climate models are the most important tools for quantitatively estimating how natural and anthropogenic forces affect different aspects of the climate system. A climate model is a numerical representation...
Essay on Climate Models and Modeling » 
Essay on The U.S. Climate Change Science Program
The U.S. Climate Change Science Program Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Climate Change. The U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) is an interagency U.S. government program established by President George W. Bush that coordinates and publishes thirteen federal agencies' research related to the Earth's climate and to human impacts on climate change. The CCSP facilitates communication among the thirteen agencies, as well as coordinating their publications. The CCSP was established in 2002 to bring together scientific research from agencies including the Environmental...
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Essay on Climate and Climate System
Climate and Climate System Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Climate Change. Climate is an aggregation of near-surface atmospheric conditions and weather phenomena over an extended period in a given area. It is characterized by statistical means and such variables as air temperature, precipitation, winds, humidity, and frequency of weather extremes. The time period is typically thirty years, as described by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). World climate is classified by either the empirical method, focusing on the effects of climate, or the genetic method, emphasizing the...
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Essay on Charcoal Significance for Climate Change
Charcoal Significance for Climate Change Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Climate Change. Charcoal is the residue of biomass charring, or the burning of animal or vegetable substances such as wood (usually beech, birch, oak, or willow), peat, nut shells, bark, or bones into a hard material used for fuel. Chemically, it is mainly carbon (85 to 98 percent), with small amounts of oxygen and hydrogen. Microscopically, it retains some of the texture typical of plant structures. Charcoal is formed when trees or other organic matter are burned in the absence of oxygen...
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Essay on Climate Change and Building Decay
Climate Change and Building Decay Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Climate Change. Human-made structures have evolved architecturally for the environmental conditions in which they have traditionally been constructed. They are fixed in their locations and constructed from materials that age at different rates and with different consequences. As a result, most human structures are ill suited to almost any significant environmental change. Their long-term viability will likely be hampered by any change in climate or biological environment. Any change to the global climatic regime...
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Essay on Biofuels and Climate Change
Biofuels and Climate Change Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Climate Change. Biofuels are renewable fuels generated from organisms or by organisms. Biofuels are considered by many as a future substitute for fossil fuels. For millions of years, living organisms played a crucial role in the formation of fossil fuels such as oil, natural gas, and coal. As fossil fuels are being depleted, humankind is looking for alternative energy sources. Once again, living organisms can be used to generate such fuels, including ethanol, biodiesel, butanol, biohydrogen, and biogas (mostly methane)...
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Essay on Anthropogenic Climate Change
Anthropogenic Climate Change Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. Since the Industrial Revolution, two types of human activity have contributed significantly to changes in Earth's climate: modifications of the planet's surface and the invention and deployment of new energy technologies. Large-scale human impact on the Earth extends back many centuries. However, at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, in the mid-eighteenth century, the pace of human effects on the natural environment increased. The invention of power sources such as the steam engine, the internal...
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Essay on Abrupt Climate Change
Abrupt Climate Change Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. Abrupt climate change entails drastic warming or cooling, regionally or globally, that takes place within a few years or decades and that persists for at least a few decades. Such a transformation would have a lasting effect on human institutions and infrastructure. In 1840, Louis Agassiz published his theory that the Earth had passed through an ice age. As a result of Agassiz's work, the corollary idea that the globe's climate could change dramatically for extended periods entered scientific thinking...
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see also:
  Research paper on Air Pollution
  Essay Writings on Ecology and Environment
  Term Papers on Global Warming
  Research paper on Pollution and Contamination
  Essay on Water Pollution




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