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Research Paper on Physical Activity and Obesity
Physical Activity and Obesity Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Obesity. Physical Activity is defined as bodily movement (any form) produced by the contraction of skeletal muscles that increases energy expenditure above the basal level, and can be categorized in various ways, including type, intensity or strenuousness and purpose. Obesity is a condition describing excess body weight in the form of fat, with a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or greater...
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  Global Warming
Research Paper on Transportation Impact on Global Warming
Transportation Impact on Global Warming Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. Transportation is a means to facilitate spatially separated activities: for example, individuals travel to work or for leisure purposes; firms ship raw goods or finished products to clients or distribution centers, and employees travel for business. A small percentage of travel occurs for its own sake, such as walks in parks. The most common modes of personal urban transportation are the automobile, public transportation (buses, rail modes, ferries), motorcycles, bicycles, and walking. Personal intercity travel is commonly associated with intercity rail and buses, airplanes, ships, and the automobile. Freight transportation generally distinguishes between trucks...
Research Paper on Transportation Impact on Global Warming » 
Research Paper on Global Warming and Sea-Level Change
Global Warming and Sea-Level Change Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. Rising sea levels associated with global warming pose a threat to beaches and coastlines, coastal communities, and aquifers, directly or indirectly affecting the lives of hundreds of millions of people. Sea level can change, both globally and locally, as a result of changes in the shape and size of the ocean basins, changes in the total mass of seawater, and variations in water temperature and salinity. It is estimated that the global sea level rose by 10 to 25 centimeters in the twentieth century, and forecasts made in 2007 predicted an increase of 20 to 60 centimeters during the twenty-first century. However, these forecasts were subsequently revised upward...
Research Paper on Global Warming and Sea-Level Change » 
Essay on Sea Surface Temperatures
Sea Surface Temperatures Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. Sea surface temperature (SST) is a bulk measurement of the temperature of the surface of the ocean. Average SST ranges from approximately -3ť Celsius in the Arctic Ocean to 28ť Celsius in equatorial waters (Burroughs, 2007). SST is one of the parameters recorded by ships as part of their standard atmospheric and oceanic observation practices, which are governed by international codes first established in the late nineteenth century. The earliest sea surface temperature measurements were taken using a simple bucket and thermometer. Such measurements reported the average value for the upper 1-2 meters of the ocean. Since the 1940's, it has been standard practice to record the...
Essay on Sea Surface Temperatures » 
Essay on Sequestration of Greenhouse Gases
Sequestration of Greenhouse Gases Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. Sequestering CO2 and other GHGs from the atmosphere by geological, biological, or chemical processes and storing them in forms that will not affect Earth's climate is a primary mechanism for reducing atmospheric GHG concentrations and limiting global warming. Since the Industrial Revolution began, atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) have risen from 275 parts per million to the present level of 380 parts per million (Archer, 2007). Evidence suggests that this observed rise in atmospheric CO2 levels is due primarily to the use of fossil fuels. There is a worldwide awareness that global warming is a result of the rising levels of CO2 and other...
Essay on Sequestration of Greenhouse Gases » 
Research Paper on Global Warming Impact on Tuvalu
Global Warming Impact on Tuvalu Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. A tiny low-lying archipelago nation in Oceania made up of three reef islands and six coral atolls, Tuvalu began attracting international attention as early as 1995, as rising Pacific Ocean levels, largely from global warming, began to threaten to submerge the nation, likely making its roughly twelve thousand residents the world's first climate-refugees. Located in the South Pacific just below the equator, roughly 3,200 kilometers northeast of Australia, Tuvalu's nine islands are in area roughly 26 square kilometers, 90 percent of which is coastline, making it the world's fourth-smallest country. None of Tuvalu's nine islands rises more than 5 meters above sea level...
Research Paper on Global Warming Impact on Tuvalu » 
Essay on Sulfur Hexafluoride as a Greenhouse Gas
Sulfur Hexafluoride as a Greenhouse Gas Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. Sulfur hexafluoride, also called sulfur (VI) fluoride, is a gas that is about five times as dense as air, tasteless, odorless, nonflammable, nontoxic, and with very little chemical reactivity. Thus, it will not corrode metals with which it is in contact at ordinary temperatures. In 1937, it was discovered to have a higher dielectric strength than air and was suggested for use as an insulating material in electrical equipment--a use that continues to the present. About 80 percent of the sulfur hexafluoride used is in the electric power industry. Other than its electrical uses, sulfur hexafluoride has found application in etching silicon films for liquid crystal display...
Essay on Sulfur Hexafluoride as a Greenhouse Gas » 
Essay on Sulfate Aerosols Impact on Global Warming
Sulfate Aerosols Impact on Global Warming Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. Sulfate aerosols are tiny (submicron) liquid or solid particles suspended in the atmosphere. Anthropogenic emissions are probably the leading source of sulfate aerosols in the atmosphere. The global dimming from sulfates and certain other aerosols may partly counterbalance global warming, masking the greenhouse effect. The most important anthropogenic sources of sulfate aerosols are sulfur impurities in coal, petroleum products, and natural gas. Health and environmental concerns have caused Western countries to sharply curtail these emissions, but rapidly industrializing developing nations are more than compensating for this reduction in the developed world...
Essay on Sulfate Aerosols Impact on Global Warming » 
Essay on Sinks and Greenhouse Gas Absorption
Sinks and Greenhouse Gas Absorption Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. A sink is a process or mechanism that removes or absorbs carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases (GHGs) from the atmosphere. The 1992 U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) defines a sink as any process, activity, or mechanism that removes or absorbs a GHG, aerosol, or precursor of a GHG from the atmosphere. Sinks, to be so called, must be net sinks--that is, if they also release GHGs into the atmosphere, they must remove more GHGs than they emit. Otherwise, they would count as sources of GHG emissions. The most common sinks are carbon sinks, which include oceans and terrestrial ecosystems such as forestry and soil. Carbon sinks remove carbon from the...
Essay on Sinks and Greenhouse Gas Absorption » 
Essay on The Scientific Alliance
The Scientific Alliance Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. The Scientific Alliance is a nonprofit organization that was formed in 2001 in the United Kingdom in order to deal with issues facing the environment. Businessman Robert Durward started it in conjunction with political consultant Mark Adams (Botterill, 2003). The organization's membership consists of individuals interested in the field of biotechnology and environmental change; some are scientists and others are nonscientists. Its present director is Martin Livermore, the author of Climate Change...
Essay on The Scientific Alliance » 
Essay on E. F. Schumacher
E. F. Schumacher Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. E. F. Schumacher was the third of five children born to Edith Zitelmann and Hermann Albert Schumacher, a professor of economics at Bonn and Berlin Universities. Schumacher matriculated from Ardnt Gymnasium and moved to New College, Oxford, and then to Columbia University, New York, to study economics and politics as a Rhodes Scholar from 1930 to 1933. He was not comfortable with the Nazi government, and, after marrying Anna Maria (Muschi) Petersen on October 10, 1936, he and Muschi moved to London...
Essay on E. F. Schumacher » 
Essay on The Sahel Drought
The Sahel Drought Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. The Sahel (meaning "shore" or "edge" in Arabic) is the region in Africa between the Sahara Desert and the savanna and stretches from the Atlantic Ocean to the Red Sea and Indian Ocean. The area covers all or part of twenty-three countries, the majority of which are in West Africa. Sahel in West Africa is also a geopolitical group made up of nine countries. The Sahel experienced droughts in 1968, 1973, 1983, 1985, and the late 1980's and 1990's that brought untold hardships to several millions inhabiting the region...
Essay on The Sahel Drought » 
Essay on F. Sherwood Rowland
F. Sherwood Rowland Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. F. Sherwood Rowland was the second of three sons born to Sidney Rowland and Margaret Lois Rowland (nee Drake). His father was a professor of mathematics and chair of the Department of Mathematics at Ohio Wesleyan University in Delaware. Frank received his elementary and high school education in the Delaware public school system. Accelerated promotion policy allowed him to enter first grade at age five, skip fourth grade, enter high school at age twelve, and graduate at age fifteen. During summers...
Essay on F. Sherwood Rowland » 
Essay on Renewable Energy
Renewable Energy Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. Renewable energy is derived from inexhaustible sources, such as solar energy, wind, biomass, geothermal energy, and the ocean's tides. Solar energy is captured through passive or active means and can be used as heat or electricity. Passive solar energy can be captured by constructing buildings and houses, so heat radiating from the Sun can be used to heat interiors through the strategic placement of windows. Active solar energy comes from the use of photovoltaic (PV) technology, concentrating systems...
Essay on Renewable Energy » 
Essay on The Reason Public Policy Institute
The Reason Public Policy Institute Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. The Reason Public Policy Institute works to apply marketplace principles to the issue of global warming, arguing against environmental regulations that might harm business. Many Web sites identify the Reason Public Policy Institute (RPPI) as a global warming skeptic organization funded by Exxon- Mobil, but it is much more than that. RPPI, the research division of the Reason Foundation, generates original research on issues including the environment, education, infrastructure...
Essay on The Reason Public Policy Institute » 
Essay on Global Warming and Rainfall Patterns
Rainfall Patterns Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. Global rainfall patterns are produced by global scale atmospheric motions. In the tropics, warm air at the surface holds considerable moisture. As it is heated and rises, it cools, and the moisture condenses and falls out as rain. High in the atmosphere this air moves away from the equator to descend at latitudes near 30ť north or south. As this dry, descending air approaches the surface, it warms, increasing its capacity to evaporate water. These latitudes contain many of the Earth's major deserts: the Sahara...
Essay on Global Warming and Rainfall Patterns » 
Essay on Radiative Damping
Radiative Damping Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. When the temperatures of the lower atmosphere and surface of the Earth increase as a result of radiation- producing agents, such as the increase of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the amount of infrared radiation emitted into space increases, producing a new energy balance for the Earth. The amount by which emissions of infrared radiation into space increases for a given increase of temperature is termed the radiative damping. The radiative damping coefficient equals the change in incoming radiation and outgoing...
Essay on Radiative Damping » 
Essay on Preindustrial Society
Preindustrial Society Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. Beginning about the second half of the eighteenth century, the Industrial Revolution ushered in the age of machine technology, driven by engines powered through steam and the combustion of wood, coal, and eventually oil. Social life, initially in Europe and ultimately throughout the world, was radically transformed. All aspects of human culture became increasingly mechanized and rationalized. The era of the factory, urban congestion, rapid transportation, and agricultural modification had begun. Patterns...
Essay on Preindustrial Society » 
Essay on The World's Population Growth
The World's Population Growth Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. The world's human population is rapidly approaching seven billion. Human beings have increased the concentration of GHGs in Earth's atmosphere via many processes, including agricultural practices and the burning of fossil fuels. The sheer size and growth rate of the human population is a fundamental driver of global change, including global warming. The human population is a fundamental driving force of climate change. Human activities ranging from agricultural practices to the burning of fossil...
Essay on The World's Population Growth » 
Essay on Polar Vortex
Polar Vortex Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. When circulating, or spinning, liquids or gases occupy a region of space, scientists call that pattern of motion a vortex. A vortex can occur in a bathtub, in a kitchen sink, or in the atmosphere. When it takes place near the poles, it is called a polar vortex. Polar vortices are so large that they surround the polar heights and often straddle the troposphere and the stratosphere. Their strength varies with the seasons; they are strongest in winter, reaching speeds of 100 meters per second, and they are weakest...
Essay on Polar Vortex » 
Essay on Plate Tectonics and Global Warming
Plate Tectonics Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. The Earth's lithosphere moves laterally, from regions in which it is being formed by igneous activity to regions where lithospheric plates are being subducted below other plates, forming more explosive volcanism. The volcanism can produce GHGs, and movement of the lithosphere can slowly move continents, affecting climate over time. The atmosphere of the Earth has varied through geologic time, from times of global warming with no glaciers to times with abundant glaciers. For instance, there was significant...
Essay on Plate Tectonics and Global Warming » 
Essay on Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. Photosynthesis is the process by which plants convert light energy from the Sun into chemical energy in the form of carbohydrates. The name carbohydrate literally means "carbon plus water," a vivid descriptive term for the sugar formed from combining carbon dioxide (CO2) with water. The process of photosynthesis begins with the absorption of photons by plant pigments. As photons reach a reaction center made up of chlorophylls, light energy excites electrons from the splitting of water molecules. A portion of the...
Essay on Photosynthesis » 
Essay on pH Measurement
pH Measurement Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. pH is a quantitative measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. The pH scale assigns a value between 0 and 14 based on the concentration of the hydrogen atoms in the solution. The more hydrogen present, the more acidic the solution and the lower the pH value. The fewer hydrogen ions present, the less acidic the solution and the higher the pH value. Pure water, which is neutral (neither acidic nor alkaline) has a pH of 7, which means that the concentration of the hydrogen ion is 10-7 gramequivalent per liter...
Essay on pH Measurement » 
Essay on Pesticides and Pest Management
Pesticides and Pest Management Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. Pesticides are generally defined as substances intended to prevent, or interfere with, the growth of a given pest (normally an insect, its larval form, or a noxious plant). In the ideal case, the pest is killed, so its descendents can cause no further damage. Most pesticides target more than a single species of pest, and they can be very toxic to animals and humans. Pesticides differ in their chemical structures, and some are difficult or impossible to biodegrade because they are human made...
Essay on Pesticides and Pest Management » 
Essay on Perfluorocarbons
Perfluorocarbons Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. Perfluorocarbons are chemical compounds that are formed when some hydrogen atoms in hydrocarbons are replaced by fluorine atoms. True perfluorocarbons (PFCs) contain only carbon and fluorine atoms and generally include only CF4 and C2F6; PFC derivatives may have other chemical groups attached to them. PFCs are chemically inert. They exist in a clear and colorless liquid form that has two times the density of water because of its high molecular weight. There are also five PFC gases: tetrafluoromethane, hexafluoroethane...
Essay on Perfluorocarbons » 
Essay on Peer Review
Peer Review Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. When a scholar completes a research project, he or she is expected to publish the original findings. Before such publication takes place, however, the research undergoes a process known as peer review: Scholars with expertise in the relevant field read prospective articles to evaluate their conformity to the professional standards and conventions of the field. Peer review is employed in all scholarly fields, from the humanities to the sciences, so criteria of evaluation can vary significantly from field to field...
Essay on Peer Review » 
Essay on Ozone Layer
Ozone Layer Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. Earth's atmosphere is divided into layers, of which the stratosphere and troposphere are significant to climate change. Ozone is present in both layers. In the stratosphere, ozone protects life by absorbing dangerous solar ultraviolet radiation. In the troposphere, ozone is a pollutant that creates smog, affecting air temperature, evaporation, moisture, and precipitation. Ozone in the stratosphere absorbs ultraviolet solar radiation; in the troposphere, it creates pollution with other greenhouse gases (GHGs)...
Essay on Ozone Layer » 
Essay on Atmospheric Oxygen
Atmospheric Oxygen Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. The amount of oxygen in Earth's atmosphere is linked to the biological cycling of carbon via photosynthesis and respiration, as well as to the geological cycling of carbon through the planet's crust, oceans, and atmosphere. As a result, periods of high atmospheric oxygen concentration tend to be periods of low concentration for CO2, an important GHG. Oxygen exists in Earth's atmosphere mainly as dioxygen gas (O2). It is a by-product of photosynthesis and accumulated in the primordial atmosphere primarily...
Essay on Atmospheric Oxygen » 
Essay on The Oregon Institute of Science and Medicine (OISM)
The Oregon Institute of Science and Medicine (OISM) Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. The Oregon Institute of Science and Medicine (OISM) figures in the debate on global climate change mostly because of controversial mailings sent out in 1998 and 2007, and its sponsorship of the Petition Project or Oregon Petition, a petition by scientists opposed to the idea of global warming that as of January, 2009, had more than thirty-one thousand signers. OISM is a small, nonprofit private institution in Cave Junction, Oregon, a small community of about fourteen...
Essay on The Oregon Institute of Science and Medicine (OISM) » 
Essay on Oil Industry and Global Warming
Oil Industry Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. The history, globalization, exploration, and geographic distribution of oil reserves, along with their eventual depletion, will affect not only the future of oil markets but also the way humans react to climate change. The oil industry is a capital-intensive industry, and, therefore, its story generally is one of enormous wealth and, through wealth, one of political power and influence. The modern form of oil industry began when John D. Rockefeller's Standard Oil monopoly was vertically integrated, spanning production...
Essay on Oil Industry and Global Warming » 
Essay on Dead Zones
Dead Zones Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. In a number of parts of the world, extensive areas of ocean have become depleted in oxygen, turning once productive fisheries into wastelands. Most of these dead zones are associated with rivers draining populated areas; one of the largest lies offshore of the mouth of the Mississippi River. This dead zone owes its existence to influxes of nutrient-laden freshwater to the Gulf of Mexico. These nutrients stimulate massive algal blooms. There is an indirect connection to global warming, in that warming generally...
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Essay on Ocean Dynamics
Ocean Dynamics Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. The movement of water in the Earth's oceans is the primary process that transports heat from the tropics to the polar regions, keeps the oceans uniform in chemistry, and transports heat between the ocean's surface and its floor. Motions in the Earth's oceans include tides, which are caused by the gravity of the Sun and Moon; surface currents, which are driven by wind; and thermohaline circulation, which is driven by density differences in seawater. All of these motions move large amounts of water from place...
Essay on Ocean Dynamics » 
Essay on Ocean-Atmosphere Coupling
Ocean-Atmosphere Coupling Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. Ocean-atmosphere coupling describes the interdependency between the temperatures and circulation of water in the ocean and those of air in the atmosphere. Changes in the surface temperature of ocean water produce changes in the atmosphere above the water, which alters wind patterns and leads to further changes in surface ocean temperature. If these changes are significantly large or long-lived, changes in atmospheric patterns capable of producing changes in global weather patterns can result...
Essay on Ocean-Atmosphere Coupling » 
Essay on Nuclear Winter
Nuclear Winter Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. "Nuclear winter" was the term coined in the 1980's to describe the global climatic effects of a major nuclear weapons exchange between the United States and the Soviet Union. The concept arose from scientific theories attempting to explain the extinction of the dinosaurs. Evidence to suggest an unusual geological event was found at the boundary between the Cretaceous and Tertiary periods (65- 70 million years ago). An iridium-rich layer of sediment separated the dinosaur-fossil-bearing layers below from the...
Essay on Nuclear Winter » 
Essay on Northwest Passage
Northwest Passage Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. In the 1400's and early 1500's, Portuguese and Spanish navigators developed routes to the rich oriental spice trade going south of Africa and South America, respectively. Their rivals, England and France, hoped to find another, shorter route. They sought a way west at the north end of North America-- the Northwest Passage. Many expeditions failed, often tragically, to find an ice-free northwest passage through the maze of islands west of Greenland in the Canadian north. Their attempts pitted them against...
Essay on Northwest Passage » 
Essay on The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)
The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is the dominant pattern of atmospheric circulation in the North Atlantic region ranging from central North America to Europe and northern Asia. The NAO is usually developed in the winter and is caused by fluctuations in atmospheric pressure between a sub-polar, low-pressure center near Iceland and a subtropical, high-pressure center near the Azores- Gibraltar region. The NAO is generally described by the North Atlantic Oscillation index, which is a weighted...
Essay on The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) » 
Essay on Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs)
Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs) Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) are broadly defined as private, philanthropic, and nonprofit organizations that aim to provide services for needy people and to challenge sociopolitical inequalities at local, national, or international levels. Oxfam, Greenpeace, the Red Cross, Save the Children, and Doctors Without Borders are a few high-profile NGOs that have been active in shaping climate change policies. An increasing number of NGOs have showed their growing interest and influence...
Essay on Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs) » 
Essay on Noctilucent Clouds
Noctilucent Clouds Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. At very high latitudes, usually farther than 50ť from the equator, very thin, extremely high-altitude clouds sometimes form during the summer. These clouds are very difficult to observe directly from Earth. They are easiest to see at the end of twilight, when darkness has settled on the surface of the Earth but sunlight is still shining at very high altitudes: The ultra-high-altitude clouds appear to shine after dusk, so they are called noctilucent clouds (German for "night-shining" clouds). Noctilucent clouds...
Essay on Noctilucent Clouds » 
Essay on Nitrogen Fertilization
Nitrogen Fertilization Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. Nitrogen fertilization is a phenomenon in which plant growth is unusually stimulated by the addition of reactive nitrogen compounds, such as ammonia and nitrate. Nitrogen compounds are usually applied as fertilizers to soil for uptake by plant roots. They are also often applied through air deposition from the atmosphere to foliage for uptake through leaves and to surface soil for plant-root uptake. Nitrogen fertilizers are usually manufactured through chemical processes, such as the Haber-Bosch process...
Essay on Nitrogen Fertilization » 
Essay on New Orleans After Hurricane Katrina
New Orleans After Hurricane Katrina Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. After Hurricane Katrina devastated New Orleans in 2005, the city's experience became a pivotal point for increasing interest in understanding and mitigating the contribution of global warming to future coastal disasters. New Orleans, the only major American city below sea level (2.4 to 3 meters below in some places), depends on a system of levees and natural buffers, such as coastal wetlands and barrier islands, for flood protection. When Hurricane Katrina's storm surge breached and topped the city's levees in the summer...
Essay on New Orleans After Hurricane Katrina » 
Essay on Natural Resources Stewardship Project (NRSP)
Natural Resources Stewardship Project (NRSP) Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. As a skeptic organization, the Natural Resources Stewardship Project (NRSP) casts doubt on groups that view global warming as an issue that demands immediate attention, calling this stance a "hypothesis" and arguing that "current climate change is within natural variations." The NRSP is a Canadian, federally incorporated, nonprofit, nonpartisan organization that claims to promote responsible environmental stewardship through media and public relations; consumer education; promotion...
Essay on Natural Resources Stewardship Project (NRSP) » 
Essay on Mount Pinatubo
Mount Pinatubo Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. Mount Pinatubo is an explosive volcano located near the tropics at latitude 15.1ť north and longitude 120.4ť east, in the Philippine Islands in the western Pacific Ocean. The volcano erupted on June 15, 1991, producing the second largest eruption of volcanic material in the twentieth century. About 10 billion metric tons of magma (molten rock plus suspended crystals) were brought to the surface, along with abundant volcanic gases, including about 20 million metric tons of sulfur dioxide. This was the largest amount...
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Essay on The Montreal Protocol
The Montreal Protocol Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. The Montreal Protocol initiated a process to restore Earth's ozone layer, which protects the planet's inhabitants from dangerous ultraviolet rays. It has been ratified by most of the world's nations. In September, 1987, representatives of most of the world's nations met in Montreal, Quebec, to draft a protocol that called for a cessation in the production of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs). By July, 1996, this protocol had been subscribed to by representatives of 158 nations...
Essay on The Montreal Protocol » 
Essay on Mold Spores
Mold Spores Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. Mold spores are reproductive structures of filamentous fungi (molds). A single microscopic mold filament, called a hypha, forms a mat that is called a mycelium. Mycelia are visible without a microscope. Molds are very common organisms and can be found where there is moisture, oxygen, and food they need. Molds can be seen on bread, cheese, or fruit. Hot spots of mold growth can be found in basements and bathrooms (especially shower stalls), house plants, and even air conditioners. Molds grow on fallen leaves...
Essay on Mold Spores » 
Essay on Minerals and Mining
Minerals and Mining Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. Minerals are naturally occurring inorganic substances with definite chemical compositions and characteristic physical properties. A rock is an aggregate of minerals. Minerals range in composition from native elements and metals, sulfides, halides, and carbonates to complex silicates, which are the most common rock-forming substances. Contemporary society depends on the availability of mineral resources: Metallic minerals such as iron, copper, aluminum, lead, and zinc; nonmetallic minerals such as salt, clay, gypsum...
Essay on Minerals and Mining » 
Essay on Meteorology and Global Warming
Meteorology and Global Warming Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. Arguably the most important aspect of climate change is its effects on the physical and chemical properties of Earth's atmosphere. Meteorologists can assess those effects and their consequences, informing climate policy decisions. Meteorology is the scientific study of the atmosphere, weather, and climate. It combines most of the basic scientific disciplines, such as mathematics, physics, chemistry, statistics, and computer science, and applies them to Earth's atmosphere and its phenomena...
Essay on Meteorology and Global Warming » 
Essay on Meridional Overturning Circulation
Meridional Overturning Circulation Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. Meridional overturning circulation (MOC) is an oceanographic term for water flows in the plane defined by the vertical and meridional (or northsouth) axes. It is calculated by averaging those north-south, up-down flows from east to west across the width of an ocean basin. Most discussions of the MOC focus on the deep, overturning circulations that connect the ocean abyss to the surface. Deepwater formation (the "sinking branches" of the deep MOC) occurs in two broad regions of the global...
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Essay on Mauna Loa Carbon Dioxide Record
Mauna Loa Carbon Dioxide Record Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. The Mauna Loa Record (or Mauna Loa Carbon Dioxide Record) is the longest continuous record of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations. The level of CO2 in the Earth's atmosphere is one of the primary determinants of global temperature, and higher levels of CO2 correspond with warmer global temperatures. The CO2 data collected at the Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii since 1958 has been called the most important geophysical record on Earth. In the 1950's, continuous monitoring of CO2...
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Essay on George Perkins Marsh
George Perkins Marsh Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. George Perkins Marsh was born in Woodstock, Vermont, in 1801. In his boyhood years, he took careful note of how this forested region was changing before his eyes as a result of extensive settlement. These early impressions of his cultural geography and his firsthand experiences with the mountains and valleys of Vermont, he would later write, set the tone for his perspective on the impact that humans can have on their environment. Marsh had a keen sense for the environment and enjoyed the outdoors. His...
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Essay on Marginal Seas
Marginal Seas Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. Marginal seas are ocean regions that connect coastal zones to the open ocean. Marginal seas are found as indentations in the continental landmasses and are often separated from the open ocean by an archipelago or peninsula. They vary considerably in size, depth, the nature of their connection to the ocean, and the circulation of water within them. The Mediterranean Sea is connected to the Atlantic Ocean through the Strait of Gibraltar, which is only 14 kilometers wide. In contrast, the Gulf of Mexico is...
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Essay on Syukuro Manabe Biography
Syukuro Manabe Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. Syukuro Manabe was born in Japan, earning a doctorate in meteorology from Tokyo University. After moving to the United States in 1958, he worked as a research meteorologist at the U.S. Weather Bureau's General Circulation Research Section, eventually becoming a senior scientist in the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). At NOAA, Manabe contributed his expertise to both national and international panels exploring the global climate...
Essay on Syukuro Manabe Biography » 
Essay on The Limits to Growth
The Limits to Growth Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. In 1972, a team at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology led by Donella Meadows developed a computer model called World3 that consisted of a complex set of interrelated differential equations that modeled the global future in terms of human population growth, the global economy, and feedbacks to the environment. The book describing this model, The Limits to Growth, was prominent among many publications at the time that raised a clarion call regarding biological productivity, environmental degradation...
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Essay on Lichens
Lichens Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. Lichens are very common organisms found in widely diverse habitats, including rock surfaces, trees, and human-made structures. Lichens use structures on which they grow as hosts to support their growth. They are composites, composed of two different organisms, an alga and a fungus, resulting in a symbiotic organism that has a morphology very different from the two original organisms. In lichen symbiosis, the alga provides energy through photosynthesis and the fungus provides protection and support...
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Essay on Levees
Levees Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. Levees are embankments or engineered structures near bodies of water; they are designed to prevent flooding of the land behind them. Permanent levees are used along rivers, such as the Mississippi and Sacramento Rivers, and in coastal areas, such as New Orleans, Louisiana. Once constructed, levees are protected from erosion by planting them with vegetation such as grass or willows on the river side. Concrete abutments may also be used on the river side of a levee to protect the structure from strong currents. A breech occurs...
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Essay on Latent Heat Flux
Latent Heat Flux Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. Water can exist as a liquid, solid, or vapor. The latent heat flux (expressed in joules per kilogram) is the rate at which energy is released or absorbed when water changes from one to another of these three states. It is latent by contrast with the sensible (or dry) heat flux caused by the movement of air. The energy involved in the various phase changes of water are known as the latent heat of vaporization (evaporation and condensation of gas and liquid), latent heat of fusion (melting of ice)...
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Essay on La Nina
La Nina Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. Two large weather anomalies alternate south of an equatorial band across the middle and eastern portions of the Pacific Ocean. One is El Nino, characterized by warmer-than-average surface waters; the other is La Nina, marked by cooler surface temperatures (the two are collectively designated as the El Nino-Southern Oscillation, or ENSO). La Nina is defined as Pacific surface temperatures of 0.5ť Celsius or more below average for a period of at least five months. The cooling occurs as stronger-than-usual eastward trade...
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Essay on Hubert Horace Lamb
Hubert Horace Lamb Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. Hubert Horace Lamb spent much of his life as a working climatologist engaged in long-range weather forecasting and examining climate change with the United Kingdom Meteorological Office. In this capacity, he spent time in Antarctica, North Africa, and Malta, as well as becoming a member of the World Health Organization Working Group on Climate Fluctuations. In 1971, he became the founding director of the Climatic Research Unit in the School of Environmental Sciences at the University of East Anglia...
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Essay on Kilimanjaro's Vanishing Ice Cap
Kilimanjaro's Vanishing Ice Cap Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. During the political debates over global warming, Kilimanjaro's vanishing ice cap became an iconic image of the negative consequences of anthropogenic climate change, but climatologists and glaciologists have discovered that decreased snowfall, enhanced exposure to solar radiation, ice-sheet locations and shapes, and other factors are more important than climate change in explaining the disappearing ice. Kilimanjaro--which, at 5,895 meters, is Africa's highest mountain--is of volcanic origin...
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Essay on Jet Stream
Jet Stream Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. A jet stream is a band of high-velocity atmospheric current that encircles the Earth. This band of strong winds is typically found in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. In both the Northern and the Southern Hemisphere, there are two distinctive jet streams: one is located just outside the tropical latitudes, in the subtropics; the other is located at the boundary of the mid-latitudes and the polar region. In these latitudes, the jet-stream winds are westerlies, blowing from west to east. The two jet streams...
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Essay on Global Warming Effects on Islands
Global Warming Effects on Islands Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. Global warming causes thermal expansion and ice melt, increasing seawater volume and provoking more frequent and more severe storms. As a result, small, low-lying islands are threatened with ecological degradation and submergence. Global warming threatens the survival of low-lying islands, deltas, and beaches. Over two thousand scientists, in conjunction with the United Nations, have estimated that by the year 2100 sea levels will rise by between 9 and 88 centimeters (Diamond, 2005). Rising sea...
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Essay on The International Policy Network
The International Policy Network Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. A nongovernmental, nonpartisan organization that is charity-based in the United Kingdom and a nonprofit in the United States, the International Policy Network (IPN) highlights the dangers of linking environmental regulations to trade rules. The IPN claims to achieve its vision by "promoting the role of market institutions in certain key international policy debates: sustainable development, health, and globalization and trade." In the area of sustainable development, the group takes the stand...
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Essay on International Human Dimensions Programme
International Human Dimensions Programme Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. The International Human Dimensions Programme (IHDP) is an umbrella organization that funds and coordinates studies relating to the human impact on all biological, physical, and chemical systems and how those impacts relate to patterns of human social organization. An international, interdisciplinary science program specializing in a social science perspective on global change, it is a joint program of the International Council for Science (ICS), UNESCO's International Social Science...
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Essay on The International Council for Science
The International Council for Science Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. The International Council for Science (ICS) was formerly known as the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU). It is a nongovernmental organization of research councils or scientific academies, which are national, multidisciplinary bodies, and scientific unions, which are international, disciplinary organizations. These two complementary types of groups provide a wide range of scientific expertise. The mission of ICS includes research, information access, information...
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Essay on International Agreements and Cooperation
International Agreements and Cooperation Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. International law connects nation states in a framework of agreements that implement recognized principles, norms, rules, and procedures. Subjects of public international law include sovereign nation states, international organizations, and movements of national liberation. Sources of international law are customs, accepted standards of human behavior, and treaties. The design of international agreements is voluntary, but once concluded they are binding instruments...
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Essay on Intergenerational Equity
Intergenerational Equity Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. The principle of intergenerational equity is strongly embedded in the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change. Historically, it owes its recognition to the Brundtland Report, Our Common Future (1987), which popularized the principle of "development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs." The Declaration of Rio on Environment and Development (1992) adds a rights-based perspective to the principle, suggesting that...
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Essay on Antarctic Ice Shelves
Antarctic Ice Shelves Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. The debate over global warming has prompted a renewed interest in the study of ice shelves, particularly after the collapse of the Larsen A and Larsen B shelves in 1995 and 2002, respectively. These collapses have been seen not only as products of global warming but also as part of a process by which the movement of Antarctic ice toward the ocean has been accelerated. Ice shelves are the seaward extensions of continental ice sheets. They are found extending from 50 percent of the coast of Antarctica...
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Essay on Hydrologic Cycle
Hydrologic Cycle Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. The hydrologic cycle comprises the movement of water on Earth: It evaporates from the oceans, precipitates back to the surface, flows in the form of runoff to bodies of water, and infiltrates and is stored underground. A warming climate affects this cycle and therefore all life on the planet. Steady warming increases the atmosphere's moisture-holding capacity, altering the hydrologic cycle and the characteristics of precipitation, most notably intensity. Changes in the global rate and distribution of precipitation...
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Essay on The Advantages of Hydroelectricity
The Advantages of Hydroelectricity Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. Because hydroelectricity uses falling water rather than fossil fuels for its production, it does not contribute GHGs to the atmosphere. It is both a clean and a renewable energy source. Hydroelectricity is a twentieth century phenomenon. Although the use of moving water for the production of mechanical energy is ancient (water wheels go back to ancient times), the use of falling water to create electricity awaited knowledge about using electricity as a motive power. Although Michael Faraday...
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Essay on Humidity
Humidity Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. Humidity is the amount of water present in the atmosphere in the form of vapor. As a gas, water vapor contributes to the local atmospheric pressure in accordance with Dalton's law of partial pressures: In any mixture of gases, the partial pressure of any one component is equal to the total pressure of the mixture multiplied by the fraction of the gas present in the mixture. For example, molecular oxygen constitutes 20 percent of the atmosphere, so the partial atmospheric pressure of oxygen is 20 percent of Earth's total...
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Essay on High Global Warming Potential
High Global Warming Potential Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. High global warming potential (HGWP) is a term assigned to industrially produced gases that have extremely high global warming potentials (GWPs). There are three major groups of HGWP gases: perfluorocarbons (PFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). Emissions of a given mass of one of these gases contribute significantly more to the greenhouse effect than does an equivalent mass of carbon dioxide (CO2) or other, more common gases. Measurement of GWP...
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Essay on The Heritage Foundation
The Heritage Foundation Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. The Heritage Foundation is a conservative public policy research organization, or think tank, based in Washington, D.C. It is widely supported, with more than 390,000 individual, foundation, and corporate donors, and it promotes conservative ideas and principles as solutions to current problems. The foundation maintains a database of policy experts, including those with expertise in global warming issues, and publishes summary statements and analyses of proposed climate change legislation...
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Essay on Heat Capacity
Heat Capacity Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. The total heat capacity of an object is the amount of energy needed to raise its temperature one degree Celsius. Heat capacity is usually measured in joules per Celsius degree. Thus, if an object has a heat capacity of 500 joules per Celsius degree, adding 500 joules of thermal energy will increase its temperature by 1ť Celsius. Adding 1,500 joules will increase its temperature by 3ť Celsius, and so forth. Removing the same amount of thermal energy will decrease the object's temperature by the same amount...
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Essay on Halons
Halons Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. Halons are gaseous compounds of carbon, bromine, and another halogen (such as hydrogen, chlorine, or fluorine). These gases, also known as bromofluorocarbons, include the chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) family. They are classified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as Group II of the Class I ozone-depleting substances. Halons were first used during World War II as fire-extinguishing agents. They are particularly useful in extinguishing electrical fires, because they are covalently bonded and thus do not react with electrical...
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Essay on Hadley ˇirculation
Hadley ˇirculation Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. Named for eighteenth century meteorologist George Hadley, who explained how it worked, the Hadley circulation is a loop of air that starts near the equator. The hot air in the equator region rises to the troposphere level and is carried toward the poles. At about 30ť latitude, the air drops back to the surface, creating a high-pressure area. The air is pulled back toward the equator, completing the loop and generating the trade winds. Because the Earth is spinning, the air traveling back to the equator goes...
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Essay on Greenhouse Gas Protocol
Greenhouse Gas Protocol Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. Prior to 2001, there was not a tool for corporations to assess greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. To remedy this void, the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) and the World Resources Institute (WRI) began work on a method for corporations to account for and report their GHG emissions. The result was the Greenhouse Gas Protocol. WBCSD is a coalition of 170 international companies whose shared interest is sustainable development guided by growth economically balanced with ecology and social...
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Essay on Global Warming Potential
Global Warming Potential Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. Global warming potential (GWP) is an index based upon radiative (infrared-absorbing) properties of well-mixed greenhouse gases (GHGs). It can be used to estimate the relative potential future impacts of GHG emissions on the global climate. Specifically, the GWP of a given GHG is the timeintegrated global mean radiative forcing from the instantaneous release of 1 kilogram of that GHG, relative to that of a reference GHG, usually carbon dioxide (CO2). The GWP is a function of a gas's lifetime, concentration...
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Essay on Global Dimming
Global Dimming Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. The first widespread effort to measure solar radiation began during the 1957-1958 International Geophysical Year (IGY), when a global network of radiometer stations was established to measure the Earth's radiation budget. In the following years, scientists discovered that the amount of solar radiation reaching the Earth's surface was not constant. From 1960 to 1990, measurements of solar radiation decreased worldwide by 4 to 6 percent. The greatest rates of decline were in the heavily populated, industrialized...
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Term Paper on Dust Storms and Global Warming
Dust Storms and Global Warming Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. Dust storms are meteorological events in which visibility is reduced to 1 kilometer or less as a result of blowing dust (defined as material less than 63 microns in size--the size of silt and clay). In many areas, wind conditions conducive to dust storms are associated with the passage of frontal systems (especially cold fronts) and downdrafts from convectional storms. Elsewhere, strengthened pressure gradients give rise to sustained high wind speeds capable of raising dust. Examples include the Shamal...
Term Paper on Dust Storms and Global Warming » 
Essay on Global Warming Effects on Dolphins and Porpoises
Global Warming Effects on Dolphins and Porpoises Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. Dolphins and porpoises are aquatic, carnivorous mammals found worldwide from polar to tropical waters. Most species are marine, with a few having freshwater populations, but only the Indian River dolphin (Platanista gangetica), La Plata River dolphin (Pontoporia blainvillei), and the Yangtze River dolphin (Lipotes vexillifer) are strictly relegated to freshwater habitats. The term dolphin can be used to refer to the Odontoceti (toothed whales), but here it will be used to refer...
Essay on Global Warming Effects on Dolphins and Porpoises » 
Essay on Deserts and Global Warming
Deserts and Global Warming Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. Deserts cover some 26.2 million square kilometers, or about 20 percent, of the Earth's land surface, mainly in the subtropical to midlatitudes. The importance of water to human and natural systems in deserts makes those systems very sensitive to climate changes affecting the amount, type, timing, and effectiveness of precipitation. Deserts are fragile environments, easily affected by natural and human disturbance. They are being affected by a rapidly growing and increasingly urban population that is dependent...
Essay on Deserts and Global Warming » 
Essay on Deglaciation Impact on Global Warming
Deglaciation Impact on Global Warming Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. Deglaciation is the uncovering or exposure of a land surface that was previously covered by glacial ice. It results from ice melting or subliming (transforming from solid directly into vapor). Deglaciation, therefore, accompanies the end of a glacial stage. As deglaciation occurs, several processes take effect. Among these processes are meltwater stream flow, development of meltwater lakes, addition of water to the world's oceans (raising the global sea level), exposure of the land, and rebound of the land...
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The Day After Tomorrow (2004) Movie Review
The Day After Tomorrow (2004) Movie Review, Custom Essays and Research Papers Writing on Global Warming. The motion picture The Day After Tomorrow is a fictional depiction of the advent of a modern ice age. Brandishing elaborate special effects and generic political characters who ignore the warnings of prominent scientists that a global climate change is coming upon them, the movie attempts to explain how a rapid climate change can occur. Based on the concept of the Younger Dryas period, a much-debated dramatic cooling that occurred in northern Europe approximately ten thousand years ago, The Day After Tomorrow attempts to engage with modern global warming concerns...
The Day After Tomorrow (2004) Movie Review » 
Essay on Coal Burning and Global Warming
Coal Burning and Global Warming Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. Coal burning accounts for a large share of global anthropogenic CO2 output. Net carbon emissions per unit energy produced by coal exceed those of any other major energy source. The relative cheapness of coal, enormous reserves, and the concentration of those reserves in countries that are among the top energy consumers make continued growth likely--and make reducing carbon output from coal an urgent priority. Coal was the first fossil fuel to be used by humans, and it will likely be the last...
Essay on Coal Burning and Global Warming » 
Essay on Global Warming and Climate Feedback
Global Warming and Climate Feedback Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. Negative climate feedback helps preserve the Earth's climate in its existing state, whereas positive feedback accelerates changes, creating potential tipping points beyond which global warming or cooling becomes extremely difficult to reverse. Understanding both types of feedback is necessary to develop adequate climate policies. Like all planets, the Earth is bombarded by radiation from the Sun, stars, and other space-based sources of energy. Eventually, that energy is returned to space. Incoming and...
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Essay on Chlorofluorocarbons Impact on Ozone Layer
Chlorofluorocarbons Impact on Ozone Layer Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are useful as refrigerants, solvents, and aerosol propellants, but they can act as catalysts for the destruction of stratospheric ozone. These compounds also contribute directly to global warming by acting as (greenhouse gases) GHGs. Developed in the 1930's as refrigerants, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) gained rapid acceptance in the 1940's. New uses were found for them as aerosol propellants, blowing agents, solvents, fire suppressants, and inhalation anesthetics...
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Essay on Carbon Isotopes
Carbon Isotopes Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. An atom consists of a small nucleus surrounded by a cloud of electrons. The nucleus is made of protons and neutrons, collectively called nucleons. All atoms of a specific chemical element have the same atomic number (number of protons or electrons) but differing numbers of neutrons. The total number of protons and neutrons in an atom is called its nucleon number. Forms of chemically identical atoms with differing nucleon numbers are called isotopes. Carbon atoms have an atomic number of 6, but they may have a nucleon number...
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Essay on Carbon Dioxide and Global Warming
Carbon Dioxide and Global Warming Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. Carbon dioxide is the greenhouse gas that contributes the most to global warming. A naturally occurring gas, it is also a by-product of burning fossil fuels, which has become the most important determinant of its rate of increase in Earth's atmosphere. Carbon is one of the building blocks of life on Earth; all plants and animals are composed largely of carbon. Carbon dioxide (CO2) emission is a normal part of the respiration cycle. CO2 is also emitted from the burning of plant or animal material...
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Essay on Global Warming Impact on Biodiversity
Global Warming Impact on Biodiversity Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. Global warming is an emerging threat to biodiversity around the world. As temperatures rise, the geographic location of climatic envelopes will shift significantly, forcing species to migrate. Those that are not able to keep up with their respective climatic envelopes may become extinct. Biological diversity allows myriad species to work together to maintain the environment without costly human intervention. Thus, biodiversity is an irreplaceable natural resource crucial to human well-being...
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Essay on The Effects of Global Warming in Antarctica
The Effects of Global Warming in Antarctica Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. Antarctica contains 90 percent of the world's ice and 75 percent of its freshwater. If a rise in the planet's temperature were to cause this store of ice to melt completely, it would result in the world's sea levels rising by approximately 60 meters. Antarctica, located around the South Pole, is the world's fifth largest continent, with a surface area of 12.4 million square kilometers. Approximately 5,500 kilometers wide at its broadest point, it is surrounded by the southern portions...
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Essay on Automobiles, Technology, and Global Warming
Automobiles, Technology, and Global Warming Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. Efforts to refine or replace automotive internal combustion engines are immensely important for preventing further damage to the atmosphere. Advances in construction materials, increased use of electronic sensors, and strategies for reducing size and weight are also important. Although cars with steam engines were common in the early twentieth century and a few electric cars were produced, the internal combustion engine became the dominant means of powering automobiles after ignition...
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Essay on Atmospheric Structure and Evolution
Atmospheric Structure and Evolution Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. Earth's atmosphere is a blanket that keeps the planet a beneficial 35ť Celsius warmer than it would be otherwise. Human activities, however, are adding GHGs to the atmosphere that may raise the temperature enough to alter the climate. The atmosphere is an ocean of gases held to the Earth and compressed by gravity. If greenhouse gases (GHGs) were newly introduced into the atmosphere, less energy would leave the Earth than strike it, so the planet would warm until those two rates balanced. Infrared...
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Essay on Chemical Composition of the Earth's Atmosphere
Chemical Composition of the Earth's Atmosphere Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. The Earth's global temperature, as well as the amount of solar radiation reaching its surface, can be significantly influenced by changes in the concentrations of chemicals naturally present in the atmosphere, such as natural greenhouse gases, and by anthropogenic chemicals, such as chlorofluorocarbons. The significance of the Earth's atmosphere is vastly disproportionate to its size. Although its thickness relative to Earth's sphere is comparable to an apple's skin, it is essential for life...
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Essay on Atmospheric Composition, Chemistry, and Greenhouse Gases
Atmospheric Composition, Chemistry, and Greenhouse Gases Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. The atmosphere is composed of nitrogen (about 78 percent by volume), oxygen (21 percent), and various trace gases (totaling about 1 percent). If all trace gases were removed, these percentages for nitrogen and oxygen would remain fairly constant up to an altitude of about 80 kilometers. At the planet's surface, there is an approximate balance between the destruction (output) and production (input) of these gases. The two most plentiful components of the atmosphere, nitrogen and oxygen...
Essay on Atmospheric Composition, Chemistry, and Greenhouse Gases » 
Essay on The Atlantic Heat Conveyor
The Atlantic Heat Conveyor Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. The Atlantic heat conveyor transfers heat from the equator northward to the polar region of the Atlantic Ocean, through the meridional overturning circulation (MOC). Because the Earth is a sphere, incoming solar radiation heats the surface of the Earth unevenly, with the equator receiving a greater amount of heat per surface area than the polar regions. This uneven heating creates temperature gradients that drive atmospheric currents (wind) and surface currents in the ocean. In the Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf Stream...
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Essay on The Effects of Global Warming in the Arctic
The Effects of Global Warming in the Arctic Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. Global warming is being felt most intensely in the Arctic, whose ice and snow have been melting away. Arctic Ocean ice cover shrank more dramatically between 2000 and 2007 than at any time since detailed records have been kept. According to the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment Scientific Report, produced by 250 scientists under the auspices of the Arctic Council, Arctic sea ice was half as thick in 2003 as it had been thirty years earlier. The melting of ice in the Arctic accelerated through 2007...
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Essay on Amazon Deforestation and Global Warming
Amazon Deforestation and Global Warming Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. The Amazon rain forest, sometimes called "the lungs of the world," plays a key role in global climate, and it supports a diverse population of species, many of which exist nowhere else on Earth. Loss of Amazonian forest lands through both human clearing and drought has significant effects upon climate regulation and Earth's biodiversity. The Amazon rain forest occupies more than 10,000,000 square kilometers of land in South America, the bulk of which is located in Brazil (60 percent) and Peru...
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Essay on Air Conditioners and Global Warming
Air Conditioners and Global Warming Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. Air conditioning systems use energy to remove heat from a given location, transferring it to the exterior in the form of exhaust. Some of the energy is invariably wasted as heat, and this additional heat must also be exhausted. Thus, air conditioning results in net heat release to the environment. The warming effect is aggravated, moreover, because higher forms of energy such as electricity are used to power air conditioners. Generating and transmitting this electricty entails further production of waste...
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Essay on Global Warming: The Kyoto Conference (1997)
Global Warming: The Kyoto Conference (1997) Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. According to the Kyoto accords, by 2012 levels of greenhouse gas emissions must be 20 percent lower than they were in 1997. (In reality, today's emissions are somewhat higher than they were a decade ago.) If one believes the media hype, the treaty's goal is to sharply reduce global greenhouse gas emissions and thereby lessen the threat of global warming. There are, however, a growing number of critics. Some experts believe that, even if fully implemented, the protocols would have very...
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Essay on Global Warming and Agricultural Production
Global Warming and Agricultural Production Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. A number of studies suggest that global warming will severely reduce agricultural production. Catastrophic food shortages, they fear, will occur as the population continues to grow. After all, according to most estimates, there will be around 9 billion people, 2 billion more than the present population, by 2050. How will they be fed? Do rising temperatures really pose a serious threat to agricultural production? Well, the answer is yes and no. It depends upon what question is asked...
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Essay on Global Warming Effects on Plant and Animal Life
Global Warming Effects on Plant and Animal Life Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. Throughout Earth's history, periods of warmth have been associated with periods of abundant flora and fauna. Even today, perhaps 80 percent of all plant and animal life inhabits the tropical realm. Most organisms thrive in heat; very few are adapted to conditions of severe cold. Despite reports that predict the extinction of many species, from all indications, plants and animals would thrive in a warmer environment. The greatest amount of warming, it appears, is happening in the polar latitudes...
Essay on Global Warming Effects on Plant and Animal Life » 
Essay on The Source of Greenhouse Gases
The Source of Greenhouse Gases Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Global Warming. Many of the so-called greenhouse gases are products of nature. Humans, for example, really can't do much to change the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere. And water, you will recall, is the number-one greenhouse gas by a wide margin. Most water vapor comes from two sources, evaporation from surfaces and transpiration from plants. Evaporation occurs primarily from the global sea and other surface waters. Transpiration is the process by which plants lose water vapor to the atmosphere...
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see also:
  Research paper on Air Pollution
  Essay Writings on Climate Change
  Term Papers on Ecology and Environment
  Research paper on Pollution and Contamination
  Essay on Water Pollution




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