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Research Paper on Physical Activity and Obesity
Physical Activity and Obesity Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Obesity. Physical Activity is defined as bodily movement (any form) produced by the contraction of skeletal muscles that increases energy expenditure above the basal level, and can be categorized in various ways, including type, intensity or strenuousness and purpose. Obesity is a condition describing excess body weight in the form of fat, with a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or greater...
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Health Essays and Research Papers

  Alcohol and Alcohol Abuse
Essay on Death and Alcohol Abuse
Death and Alcohol Abuse Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse. Some individuals die from diseases caused by chronic alcoholism; others die from car crashes or other accidents resulting from being under the influence of alcohol. For example, young men ages 16-20 who drink and drive while intoxicated are 15,560 times more likely to die in a car accident than young men who do not drink or who drink amounts insufficient to cause intoxication...
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Essay on Binge Drinking
Binge Drinking Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse. Binge drinking is an excessive consumption of alcohol over a short period, also known as heavy episodic drinking. In many cases, binge drinking has led to alcohol poisoning, which causes death because the liver cannot process the amount of alcohol that has been consumed quickly enough, and consequently, the body shuts down...
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Essay on Alcoholism Problems, Symptoms, and Treatment
Alcoholism Problems, Symptoms, and Treatment Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse. Alcoholism is a major and severe problem in the United States and Canada as well as in many countries around the globe. It not only negatively affects the lives of the alcoholics themselves but also has an extended and even lifelong effect on the lives of their family members...
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Essay on Alcohol Abuse and Health Risks
Alcohol Abuse and Health Risks Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse. Both chronic alcohol abuse as well as alcohol dependence (alcoholism) cause or contribute to many health problems, including increased risks to the liver, kidneys, heart, and other organs. Alcohol use disorders (which include both alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence) are also linked to psychiatric problems, such as depression and anxiety disorders...
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Essay on Alcohol Abuse And Patterns Among Adolescents
Alcohol Abuse And Patterns Among Adolescents Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse. Alcohol is a major drug of abuse for adolescents ages 12-17 years old. According to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 17.6 percent of youths were current drinkers in 2004. About 11 percent were binge drinkers (individuals having five or more drinks on at least one occasion in the past two weeks) and 2.7 percent were heavy drinkers...
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  Anatomy and Physiology
Research Paper on Adipose Tissue Mass
Adipose tissue is a specialized form of connective tissue that acts to support, connect, or protect organs. It consists of triglycerides, which is are lipids that comprises a glycerol backbone with three associated fatty acids. White adipose tissue that surrounds organs helps provide cushioning to the kidneys and the lymph glands. Adipose tissue also serves an important function as an insulator against cold. The insulation property is due to subcutaneous adipose tissue, which is located in the subcutaneous layer of the skin. The adipose tissue does not conduct heat nearly as readily as do other tissues. The degree of insulation depends on the amount of subcutaneous adipose tissue that is present. In athletic endeavors, when insulation is not as critical due to the generation of heat during exercise, adipose tissue mass in athletes can be less than in non-athletes who rely on the tissue's insulation property. For example, excess adipose tissue translates to more body weight and increased exercise effort for a...
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Amino Acids Research Paper
Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. The 20 naturally occurring amino acids are linked together in different sequences to generate the many forms of proteins that exist. The arrangement and chemistry of the constituent amino acids are fundamentally important in determining the shape and function of the resulting protein. For all but one of the naturally occurring amino acids, a central carbon atom is chemically bonded to a hydrogen atom (H), amine group (NH2), and a carboxylic acid group (COOH). The remaining bonding site of the carbon atom is occupied by various chemical groups, which are generically termed R groups. The R group varies according to the particular amino acid. It is this variable chemistry that is key in dictating the contribution of the particular amino acid to the protein's shape and function. An R group can be simple. For example, the R group of alanine is simply a hydrogen atom. However, R groups may be far more complex. One example is phenylalanine, which consists of an...
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Research Paper on Ankle Anatomy and Physiology
The human ankle is the joint created at the point where the tibia (the shin bone) and the fibula (the outer bone running from the knee to the ankle) meet the talus (the ankle bone). Running parallel to the tibia and fibula, behind the ankle, is the Achilles tendon. The talus is positioned above the calcaneus (heel bone). The joint created where these three bones meet is known as the synovial joint, a joint where the component parts function due to the presence of a viscous, fluid lubrication between the bones. The ankle is a structure where its function is a compromise between the greater flexibility and range of motion as found in joints such as the shoulder, and the less flexible and more limited range of motion found in the very stable joints, such as the pelvis. The human ankle has a deceptively simple construction; understanding its strengths and its limitations is a critical component to efficient, stable human movement and athletic success. The epiphysis, which is the surface of the ends of the...
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B-Complex Vitamins Research Paper
In the early 1900s, medical science began to extend its research beyond how the body processes functioned, into the realm of why such dynamic systems as body metabolism, cell growth, and the skin developed as they did. This approach led to the isolation of what is now referred to as B-complex vitamins, commencing with the discovery of vitamin B1, thiamin, in 1903. The B-complex is so named because, while all of its eight components are chemically distinct, carbon-based, freestanding structures, they share similar characteristics. These vitamins are typically found in combination and they have been found to be most effective when working together. The B-complex vitamins are of particular importance to the proper function of the human metabolism, healthy skin, the development of proper muscle tone, the fostering of a healthy immune system and nervous system, optimum cell growth and cell division, particularly with regard to red blood cells, and the reduction of stress and cardiovascular disease. Proper...
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Research Paper on Back Anatomy and Physiology
Whether the human body is propelled forward, backward, upward, or downward, the back is an essential component of every movement. The back is a complex structure, part rigid support and a protective, bony sheath, part intricate musculoskeletal device capable of both bearing significant forces, as well as flexing and extending through a remarkable range of movements. The back consists of the entire posterior, or rear, of the body from the neck to the buttocks. The back and its characteristics are best understood through an appreciation of each of its components. The spine, or backbone, is the bony structure that is divided into four separate regions: cervical spine, thoracic spine, lumbar spine, and sacral spine. The cervical spine comprises seven vertebrae referenced as C1 through C7, with C1 at the top of the spine. The cervical spine has three essential skeletal functions: it supports the weight of the skull; vertebrae C1 and C2 are the structures responsible for the neck and head being able...
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  Blood Doping and Steroids in Sports
Active Ingredient Research Paper
The active ingredient in a pharmaceutical product is the working element, the component that is designed to affect a desired change in the physical condition of the recipient. Active ingredients are present in a wide range of sports-related substances, from nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin and ibuprofen, corticosteroids medications (including cortisone), a multitude of dietary supplements, and athletic aids such as sunscreen. Most commercially available drugs are manufactured in one of four formulations: capsule form, tablets, liquids (such as cough syrups), and as fluids designed for intravenous delivery (most often used in hospitals). In each case, the active ingredient of the drug is usually a very small percentage of the weight or volume of the entire product. To deliver the active ingredient in a fashion that will permit the body to best absorb it, the active ingredient is packaged with a substance known as an excipient, a chemically inert substance...
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Research Paper on American Arbitration Association (AAA)
The American Arbitration Association (AAA) is a private corporation that provides a wide range of legal services that are defined as alternate dispute resolution (ADR). Arbitration, mediation, and other related types of more informal conflict resolution are the component parts of ADR, which has become an integral part of the international sports landscape since the late 1970s. Arbitration is a process by which two parties in a dispute agree that they will avoid the conventional legal process of trial and judgment through an agreement where each undertakes to be bound by the decision of an arbitrator. Arbitration is generally a much faster process than that of civil litigation. The arbitrators available to the opposed parties also tend to have specialized knowledge and experience with respect to the issues in the dispute. In some instances, the parties in a dispute will engage the services of a mediator. The key distinction between arbitration and mediation is that mediation is a non-binding...
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Amino Acid Supplements Research Paper
Amino acids are often described as one of the building blocks of human life. Amino acids are a group of 20 organic acids (containing carbon), each of which has nitrogen and hydrogen atoms in its construction. Amino acids are most numerous chemicals in the body. Amino acids are present in the thousands of different proteins that are employed within the body to construct and maintain its muscles, skin, bone, and organs. Proteins are also required in the manufacture of hormones, the chemical-signaling agents secreted in the various glands that constitute the body's endocrine system, controlled by the thyroid gland. Proteins are also the key ingredient in the formation of collagen, the elastic tissue that permits the ligaments, tendons, and all connective tissues of the body their range of movement. Of the 20 amino acids utilized in a variety of body functions and processes, nine acids are classed as essential amino acids. These chemicals are not capable of being produced or synthesized within the body...
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Anabolic Prohormones Research Paper
Anabolic substances or processes within the human body are those that either stimulate or facilitate the growth of bodily tissues. Anabolism is the antonym of catabolism, the term describing any process that breaks down or reduces tissue. Weight training causes micro-damage to muscle tissues; this damage is a catabolic process. An anabolic process occurs when the regeneration and repair of the tissue results from new cell growth. Hormones are the chemical messengers of the body. Hormones are produced and released by the glands that constitute the endocrine system. Each hormone is in essence a signal to an organ or a bodily process to act in a particular fashion. Examples of hormonal responses include the body's various systems being spurred into action by the production of adrenaline from the adrenal gland, and the growth of various bones and tissues being stimulated by the release of the human growth hormone from the thyroid gland. Prohormones are chemicals that are either ingested into or created within the...
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Research Paper on Anabolic Steroids
Of all of the substances ingested by athletes to gain a competitive edge, anabolic steroids are the most notorious. Steroids have taken on a broad, and sometimes inaccurate, range of meanings in the public consciousness, as the term is popularly and incorrectly used to describe any type of drug that enhances athletic performance. Steroids are a class of substances that share a fat-soluble, carbon-based molecular structure. Unlike water-soluble minerals like potassium and sodium, steroids are stored in cell tissues. Vitamin D, testosterone (the naturally occurring male hormone), and a range of anti-inflammatory compounds, such as corticosteroids, are steroids. Anabolic steroids are a form of synthesized testosterone, which is primarily intended to stimulate muscle growth. Anabolic steroids were first produced in the 1930s, when the international medical community began to better understand the relationship between testosterone and the development and maintenance of increased muscle mass. Russian...
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  Cancer
Research Paper on Ovarian Cancer
Ovarian Cancer Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Cancer. Ovarian cancer is the second most common gynecological cancer among women. Because the tumor is not detected until late in its development, usually not until after it has spread beyond the ovary, it is difficult to treat. Thus, ovarian tumors are often fatal and account worldwide for almost half of the deaths from cancer in the female reproductive tract. Tumors of the ovary are classified by the cell type of origin--surface epithelium, germ cells, and stromal tissue. Metastatic ovarian cancer is also common. Most (around 90 percent) ovarian tumors arise from the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) and produce relatively mild symptoms until the disease is far advanced. Symptoms include abdominal pain and distention...
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Research Paper on Prostate Cancer and Obesity
Prostate Cancer and Obesity Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Cancer. Prostate Cancer is the most common form and the second leading cause of cancer death in men, with an age-adjusted incidence of 69 per 100,000 in the United States. In addition to symptomatic tumors, latent, microscopic foci of prostate cancer are frequent incidental findings that also increase with age and are found in over 70 percent of men in their seventh decade of life. Wide racial and ethnic variations in incidence are known--Asian men have very low incidence of prostate cancer, while African-American men have the highest rates of the disease. Interestingly, while incidence of clinical disease varies widely, incidence of latent disease is almost identical across populations, suggesting that...
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Research Paper on Skin Cancer
Skin Cancer Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Cancer. Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer in the United States, with about one million Americans developing skin cancer each year. The two most common types of skin cancer are basal cell and squamous cell cancers. These nonmelanoma skin cancers are less serious than melanoma. Most basal cell and squamous cell skin cancers can be cured if found and treated early. Left untreated, however, they can spread and cause more serious health problems. Although skin cancer can occur anywhere, these cancers usually occur on parts of the skin frequently exposed to the Sun, such as the face, head, neck, hands, and arms. Basal cell carcinoma, the most common type of skin cancer, grows slowly and rarely...
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Essay on Prostate Cancer
Prostate Cancer Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Health. Prostate cancer is the growth of malignant cells in the prostate gland, one of the male sex glands. The prostate, which produces a fluid that becomes semen, is walnutsized, lies below the bladder, and surrounds the urethra. Prostate cancer is the most common cancer found in men and usually occurs after age fifty, with the vast majority of cases diagnosed after age sixty-five. This cancer is usually slow growing; however, it can be aggressive, especially in younger men. Although the cause of prostate cancer is unknown, several risk factors are associated with the disease: age; African-American heritage; family history (especially a brother or father diagnosed and especially if the cancer occurred at an early age); high fat...
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Essay on Breast Cancer Incidence, Mortality, and Treatment
Breast Cancer Incidence, Mortality, and Treatment Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Health. Breast cancer is the leading cancer diagnosis among American women, accounting for nearly one in three cancers in that group (ACS 2006, p. 1). Figure 1 depicts incidence of and death rates from female breast cancer and rates of late-stage breast cancer diagnosis in the United States from 1997 to 2002. Cancer incidence is measured as the number of new cases each year for every 100,000 women while the death rate is measured as the number of deaths each year for every 100,000 women. Overall these figures seem promising; the declining fatalities and increasing five-year survival rates indicate that larger numbers of women survive a cancer diagnosis. However the incidence of female...
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  Childbirth and Infancy
Research Paper on High Risk Infants
High Risk Infants Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Childbirth and Infancy. Tremendous advances in medical technologies and the emergence of neonatology as a medical specialty have led to the increase in the number of surviving high-risk infants. The developmental status of these children is of great concern to a wide range of professionals. Special educators, school psychologists, developmental psychologists, early childhood educators, and speech and language pathologists are now dealing with a new category of special children. Although the physician is primarily concerned with mortality and morbidity factors, other professionals are interested in developmental performance, family concerns, speech and language development, and later school achievement. The term high risk...
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Research Paper on Infant Mortality
Infant Mortality Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Childbirth and Infancy. Infant mortality is defined as the death of an infant prior to its first birthday. This definition clearly excludes death in utero, or stillborn infants. Although there has been a gradual reduction in the worldwide rate of infant mortality over the last 20 years, this remains a significant public health concern, as infant death continues to remain a concern throughout the world. The overall rate of infant mortality is around 36 deaths per 100 live births, which worldwide translates into roughly 5 million deaths per year. The largest declines in rates of infant mortality have been evident in more highly developed countries such as the United States. Interestingly, these rates declined steadily through...
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Research Paper on Infancy
Infancy Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Childbirth and Infancy. Infancy ranges in age from the moment of birth to about 2 years of age when the young child begins to use words to make sentences. In fact, the word "infant" means literally "one who is unable to speak." Infancy is unique in that it is the earliest stage of life outside of the womb and is viewed as the most important formative period of development. During this early stage of life, infants are remarkably dependent on their caregivers for all their needs. Prior to the emergence of single words, which occurs as the first year of life comes to an end, infants convey their needs to their caregivers nonverbally through facial and body expressions and verbally such as crying and cooing. Very young infants spend...
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Essay on Natural Childbirth
Natural Childbirth Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Childbirth and Infancy. Drs. Dick-Read, Lamaze, and Bradley independently developed what they termed "natural childbirth" practices in response to the hospital practices that developed in the mid-20th century. Although there are many variations on their methods, all natural childbirth practitioners, whether physician or midwife, are committed to the notion that birth, for a healthy pregnancy, is a natural event that women are fully capable of completing without complicated interventions. It is important to understand that natural childbirth practitioners do not question the use of medical intervention when either mother or baby is in distress (e.g., when preeclampsia or ruptured membranes without subsequent labor occurs)...
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Research Paper on Low Birth Weight (LBW)
Low Birth Weight (LBW) Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Childbirth and Infancy. The United States is unsurpassed in its ability to rescue the very smallest infants; infants who weigh only 750 g at birth are now surviving. However, these rescue efforts are often associated with significant long-term health and developmental problems among survivors. In 1950, the World Health Organization adopted the figure of less than 2,500 g (5 lb, 8 oz) as a universal definition of low birth weight (LBW). Below that, two subgroups are very low birth weight (VLBW--1,500 g; <3 lb) and extremely low birth weight (750 g; 1 lb, 10 oz). In the United States, the LBW rate of 7.6% in 2000 was twice that of other developed nations, and it has not improved. As a result, LBW has become a public...
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  Death and Dying
Research Paper on Stages of Dying
Stages of Dying Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Death and Dying. Before one can consider whether there are stages of dying, one needs to determine when dying begins and ends. Theoretically, dying begins when bodily functions start an irreversible decline toward total cessation of all bodily functions and final death. A more practical working definition might be that dying begins when medical experts have obtained and analyzed sufficient information to judge with a high degree of probability that a patient is terminal. In this case, the judgment of physicians or medical experts determines when dying begins. Determining the beginning of dying is important because it may influence the kind of treatment or care proposed, and patients' readiness to accept it. From the viewpoint...
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Essay on Parasuicide
Parasuicide Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Death and Dying. Parasuicide describes any nonlethal, deliberate self-harm behavior. Linehan further divides parasuicide into the categories of suicide attempts not completed with intent to die, ambivalent suicide attempts with unclear intent to die, and nonsuicidal self-injury. This definition is controversial, however, because some believe that deliberate self-harm behavior should only be considered parasuicide if there is no intent to die. The debate is complicated by the reality that it is often difficult to determine the intentions of people who engage in self-harm. Because of varying definitions of parasuicide and the diversity of locations in which it has been studied, lifetime prevalence rates vary widely from 1% to 6% of the...
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Essay on Palliative Care
Palliative Care Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Death and Dying. Since its introduction into medical practice during the 1960s and 1970s in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Canada, palliative care has been defined and practiced in various, and often differing, ways. At its inception, it focused on relief of suffering and care of the adult patient dying from incurable cancer. Over time, the definition and practice have come to focus on improving quality of life and alleviating suffering for both pediatric and adult patients within a wider diagnostic spectrum. Broadly construed, palliative care refers to care that seeks to prevent, ease, or reduce symptoms without curing the underlying disease or disorder. In this sense, palliative care is not restricted...
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Essay on The National Hospice Study
The National Hospice Study Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Death and Dying. The National Hospice Study was initiated in 1980 through a grant sponsored by the Robert Wood Johnson and John A. Hartford Foundations and the Health Care Financing Agency (HCFA). The aim of the 3-year study, begun in the summer of 1981, was to conduct a national evaluation of hospice that provides palliative and supportive care for terminal patients. The purpose of the evaluation was to determine hospice quality of care and cost for federal health care financing and legislation. The study examined more than 1,700 patients and their families in home care hospice, hospital-based hospice, and conventional (hospital) care. Using a quasi-experimental design, the study assessed the impact of hospice care...
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Essay on Mortality in the United States
Mortality in the United States Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Death and Dying. Life expectancies have increased in the United States over the past century because of better health care, better nutrition, and vaccines. In 1900, the average American lived to be about 47 years of age; by 1997, the average American lived to be about 76. Life expectancies have also increased in most every nation in the world this past century; however, life expectancies are much more variable in developing countries. Although biological, genetic, and socioeconomic factors matter, behavioral factors also play a strong role. As health technology has increased, the major causes of mortality have shifted from infectious diseases to causes substantially influenced by behavioral or lifestyle factors...
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  Depression and Disorders
Essay on Child Language Disorders
Child Language Disorders Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Health. What causes language disorders in children? There are really two answers to this question: "a lot of things" and "we don't know." Language and communication deficits are the most common result of a variety of disorders that affect mental development. We might say that language is the "final common pathway" through which a broad range of disruptions of neurological development are expressed. So there are really as many causes of language disorders as there are conditions with which language disorders are associated, and there are lots of those. Hearing impairment, Down syndrome, and fetal alcohol syndrome are just a few examples. On the other hand, many children present with disorders of language learning for which...
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Essay on Eating Disorders: Anorexia and Bulimia
Eating Disorders: Anorexia and Bulimia Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Health. Within the field of eating disorders, anorexia nervosa crystallized out as a separate and distinct disorder over the course of the last century. It had the advantage of one criterion that was both undisputed and easy to measure, namely low weight. However, it was the description of the characterizing beliefs and behaviors that led to the disorder being separated off from other states with weight loss. Furthermore, it was the description of similar beliefs and behaviors in people of unremarkable weight that led to the definition of bulimia nervosa and its relatives. However, it is arguably when the definition of mental disorder relies upon the mental state -- as it almost inevitably should...
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Essay on Manic Depression
Manic Depression Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Health. The earliest mention of mood disorder of which we have record is from classical Greece. Hippocrates, in the fifth century B.C., was aware of both mania and depression as medical problems, and he recognized their chronicity, but he did not know that they are phases of the same illness. In the second century B.C., Areteus, an eminent Greek physician like Hippocrates, recognized that mania and depression could alternate in the same person. He described the personality types that accompany the moods: the self-sacrificing, pious, guilt-haunted sufferer of depression; the gay, obstreperous, rash bon vivant of mania. After Areteus the concept of manic-depression disappeared from medical writings until the nineteenth century...
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Essay on Autism and the Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDDs)
Autism and the Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDDs) Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Health. Autism and the pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) are highly complex and variable in their clinical presentation and manifestations. For example, symptoms and characteristics change with developmental maturity and vary with the degree of associated cognitive impairment (Filipek et al., 1999a). This evolving pattern of clinical features can make the differential diagnostic process very difficult in some cases. Nonetheless, the defining feature of autism is the presence of a distinctive impairment in the nature and quality of social and communicative development (influenced by the specific biological and environmental circumstances of the individual). It is this impairment...
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Essay on What Is Attention Deficit Disorder
What Is Attention Deficit Disorder Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Health. Current concepts of hyperkinetic and attention deficit disorder have several historical roots (Rutter, 1982; Schachar, 1986; Weiss & Hechtman, 1986). However, much of the earlier literature was based on the notion that the disorder was synonymous with "minimal brain dysfunction" or MBD (Wender, 1971; Clements, 1966). This idea derived from the writings of Strauss and his colleagues (Strauss & Lehtinen, 1947) regarding behavioral syndromes supposedly due to brain damage in mildly mentally handicapped individuals; from the studies of Pasamanick and his colleagues (Pasamanick & Knobloch, 1966) linking a "continuum of reproductive casualty" with hyperactive behaviour; and most of all from...
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  Diseases and Epidemics
Essay on Disease in 19th-Century Europe
Disease in 19th-Century Europe Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Health. The foremost explanation of falling death rates lies in the history of contagious disease. One study has suggested that diseases explain 94 percent of all European deaths in the year 1850. The dominion of disease included wars; typhus killed more of Napoleon's soldiers than Wellington's army or the Russian army did. That pattern remained true across the century: Typhus, typhoid, cholera, and smallpox killed more soldiers than enemy fire did. As late as the Boer War (1899-1902), the British army lost 6,425 soldiers in combat and 11,327 soldiers to disease. Contagious diseases killed more people than heart attacks or cancer did, because fewer people lived long enough to experience degenerative problems...
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Essay on The Effects of Black Death
The Effects of Black Death Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Health. The immediate effect of the Black Death was a precipitous drop in population. From 1348 to 1400, during which time there were several outbreaks of bubonic plague, Europe as a whole (east and west) witnessed a loss of between 22 and 28 million individuals out of a total population of some 73 to 74 million. In short, in a fifty-year period as many as one in three Europeans fell victim to the plague. In Florence the death rate was particularly high; in 1348 alone its population dropped from approximately 120,000 to some 40,000 souls, and losses were even greater in other parts of Tuscany. Italy as a whole probably lost one half its population in the latter half of the fourteenth century. Death became...
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Essay on The Smallpox Vaccine
The Smallpox Vaccine Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Health. On May 14, 1796, British physician Edward Jenner performed a vital experiment by making two half-inch scratches on the arm of eight-year-old James Phipps and dabbing cowpox pus into them. The pus had come from the cowpox blisters on the hands of milkmaid Sarah Nelmes, who had milked a cow infected with cowpox, as evidenced by lesions on the teats and udder. Phipps developed symptoms of mild cowpox but suffered no long term effects. Six weeks later, Jenner exposed Phipps to smallpox virus in the same manner that he had exposed the boy to cowpox, but Phipps did not become ill. When Jenner exposed Phipps to cowpox, the boy's immune system developed antibodies ready to combat the virus, and these same antibodies...
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Essay on Making Water Safe to Drink
Making Water Safe to Drink Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Health. Waterborne infectious diseases kill millions of people every year, especially children. Boiling water takes a large amount of energy. Chemicals are expensive, must be regulated carefully, and have side effects. Around 1946, researchers at General Electric found that ultraviolet (UV) radiation from their lamps would kill all of the most harmful bacteria commonly found in water. In fact, UV at 254 nanometers fuses adjacent base pairs in the DNA of bacteria and viruses, rendering the DNA useless to the organism, disabling its ability to generate enzymes for its survival and to multiply and cause disease. Since the bacteria die soon after exposure and cannot reproduce, they pose no threat even if ingested...
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Essay on The Black Death: Plague in Medieval England
The Black Death: Plague in Medieval England Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Health. A few single events in English history have been both sudden and enormously important. English history without the battle of Hastings and the consequent imposition of a new Norman aristocracy, or without the battle of Saratoga, and the consequent loss of the American colonies, would be unimaginably different. The Black Death of 1349 is a turning point of a different but equally decisive kind. It initiated a long period in which the basic material forces working on society were different from what they had been in the central Middle Ages, and this change had profound effects on almost every aspect of history in the century after. The first plague of 1349 was unmatched in its ferocity...
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  Drugs and Drug Abuse
Essay on Dual Diagnosis
Dual Diagnosis Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Drugs and Drug Abuse. Dual diagnosis is the presence of two or more serious psychiatric disorders, such as both alcoholism and drug dependence, or both alcoholism and bipolar disorder, or any other combination of two or more psychiatric diagnoses. Physicians often refer to these serious concurrent illnesses as comorbidities. Many people who are substance abusers have one or more psychiatric problems, such as anxiety disorders or depression. Some individuals who abuse drugs and/or alcohol have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, which...
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Essay on Drug Free Zones
Drug Free Zones Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Drugs and Drug Abuse. Drug free zones are areas in which, if illicit drugs are sold, the penalties for this crime are more severe than if these same drugs were sold elsewhere. Drug free zones usually encompass places that are known to be frequented by children, in areas such as schools, public libraries, parks, or playgrounds. Many states have passed laws on drug free zones. Some states have expanded the concept to include colleges as well. The passage of the federal Drug-Free School Zones Act of 1984 promoted the concept of drug free zones...
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Essay on Drug Courts
Drug Courts Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Drugs and Drug Abuse. Drug courts are special courts that deal only with drug offenses, particularly among first-time offenders who are not drug dealers. The first drug court was established in Miami, Florida, in 1989, and numerous drug courts have been established nationwide in the United States since then. According to the Office of National Drug Control Policy, there were an estimated 1,212 drug courts nationwide in all 50 states and the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Guam, and 52 tribal courts as of 2004, with 476 more in the planning...
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Essay on Drug Abuse Effects on Health
Drug Abuse Effects on Health Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Drugs and Drug Abuse. Acute and chronic physical as well as psychological problems stem from the abuse of or addiction to illegal drugs or some prescribed drugs, such as scheduled drugs that are painkillers, sedatives, benzodiazepines, hallucinogenic drugs, or anabolic steroids. Some health problems that are caused by drug abuse and dependence are minor and transient, while others are more severe or even life-threatening. Some individuals recover from their health problems if they discontinue use of the drug, while in other cases...
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Essay on Prescription Drugs Diversion
Prescription Drugs Diversion Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Drugs and Drug Abuse. The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse (CASA) at Columbia University performed a three-year study on the diversion and abuse of prescription drugs with the potential for abuse and addiction, publishing their findings in their 2005 report, Under the Counter: The Diversion and Abuse of Controlled Prescription Drugs in the U.S. The organization also surveyed physicians and pharmacists on diversion issues, incorporating the results in the report. One finding was not surprising: that central nervous system...
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  Exercise and Training Topics
Research Paper on Aging and Athletic Performance
There are certain immutable truths concerning the performance of the human body as it ages, particularly as the athlete reaches age 40. The physical peak for most humans, in most sports, is between 25 and 35 years of age; during this peak period, the well-conditioned athlete can create a confluence of muscular strength, peak cardiovascular and oxygen transport, speed and reaction time, and mental capabilities (including the ability to deal with competitive pressures), all bound together by a desire to succeed. The heart, as with every other human muscle, will gradually lose efficiency and power over time. A typical rule-of-thumb calculation to confirm the physiological fact of reduced heart capacity is that utilized by the American College of Sport Medicine: in males, 220—age = maximum heart rate (beats/minute); in females, 226—age = maximum heart rate. Athletes cannot train at a maximum heart rate for extended periods; the usual target training rate for a fit, healthy athlete will be approximately 80%...
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Exercise Induced Asthma Research Paper
Asthma is an affliction of the respiratory system in which the airway passages in the lungs are hyper-sensitive and prone to becoming irritated, a condition known as airway inflammation. When irritated, the passages are restricted due to the presence of mucus buildup in the airway, limiting the flow of air into the lungs. The passages can also become restricted when the muscles surrounding the airways either tighten or spontaneously spasm, a condition known as broncho-constriction. Asthma is characterized by wheezing, an inability to get the required amount of air into the lungs, as well as by a chronic inflammation of the passages. Environmental factors such as dust and air pollution may either exacerbate or trigger an asthmatic episode. There is no physical attribute more important to an athlete than being able to breathe effectively and without hindrance. Asthma is the most common and the most debilitating illness to affect the lungs and breathing passages, with approximately 17 million people afflicted...
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Biofeedback Research Paper
Biofeedback is a term that describes two distinct sports science concepts. Biofeedback is a methodology used to obtain data relating to various aspects of bodily function in athletic performance. Biofeedback is also a training and coaching method. As a methodology, biofeedback is a monitoring process by which different kinds of equipment are used to obtain information concerning a number of different functions controlled by the autonomic nervous system. Biofeedback data will commonly include heart rate, blood pressure, respiration, and other quantifiable features of human performance. Biofeedback also describes the ongoing relationship between the physical performance of the human body in conjunction with the thinking and the emotional processes of the subject. In this sense, biofeedback is a training and coaching method, one that is designed to alter the behavior of the subject; biofeedback is intended to permit an athlete to acquire a skill that may be used to best manage the relationship between physical...
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Free Essay on Exercise-Induced Bronchospasm
Exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) is a well-understood medical condition of the lungs and airways that affects respiratory function and consequent athletic performance. EIB is caused by a narrowing of the passages within the lungs; EIB is a reversible constriction of the airway structures. As air is inhaled into the respiratory system through either the mouth or the nose, the air travels through the throat and the trachea (windpipe), which divides into the left and right bronchi, the bronchial tubes that lead to each lung. If observed in isolation, the bronchi have the appearance of a branch or the spreading roots of a tree, proceeding from the thick stem nearest the trachea, to the tiny passages in which air travels to the equally minute alveoli, the clusters of air sacs within the lung, each supplied by the capillaries that receive oxygen from the inhaled air, and return carbon dioxide from the cardiovascular system to be exhaled through the lungs. These exchanges of air are a microscopic process...
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Calisthenics Research Paper
Calisthenics is a time-honored training and conditioning component of many sports. Team sports such as American football often place a particular emphasis on calisthenics drills as a total team warm-up, although it is clear that these drills are carried out not so much for their physical benefits to the athletes, but due to their positive effect on team building and the cohesion gained from teammates performing the exercises in unison. Calisthenics is a form of exercise where various stretching and resistance type forces are applied in a systematic fashion to all parts of the body. Calisthenics are usually performed without additional free weights or machines to add resistance to the exercise. Calisthenics are performed in sets or patterns, whereby joints, muscles, and particular limbs are isolated in an exercise. Calisthenics as a recognized discipline is an outgrowth from the gymnastics training movements in the United States in the latter part of the nineteenth century. This relationship continues...
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  Food, Diet, and Nutrition
Research Paper on Taxation on Unhealthy Foods
Taxation on Unhealthy Foods Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Food, Diet, and Nutrition. In 1994, Kelly Brownell wrote an op-ed piece in the New York Times advocating a tax on foods with low nutritional value such as soda and snack foods. his proposition was dubbed the "Twinkie tax," and has since been called the "snack tax," "fat tax," and "junk food tax." his tax would be similar to those imposed on alcohol and tobacco. Brownell's argument was that foods with a high-sugar and fat-content are affordable, easy to get, and taste good, which encourages increased consumption of these foods, which in turn is feeding the obesity epidemic. Brownell is a prominent Yale University psychologist and obesity researcher, and he has been interested in fixing the "toxic environment" that he believes...
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Research Paper on Food and Taste Reactivity
Food and Taste Reactivity Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Food, Diet, and Nutrition. The discrimination ability of taste seems to pale in comparison to those of the other senses. Taste can only distinguish between a few qualities: bitterness, saltiness, sweetness, sourness, and possibly a few others, including umami or savoriness. Despite its seeming simplicity, the sense of taste interacts strongly with the central nervous system (CNS) to regulate appetite for certain foods, and there is a relationship between the need for a specific nutrient and an increased desire for foods with a specific taste. This relationship can be quantified by the taste reactivity test. The taste reactivity test is performed by injecting liquids with a specific taste through a surgically...
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Research Paper on Sweet Taste in Food
Sweet Taste in Food Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Food, Diet, and Nutrition. Sweet taste is a sensation produced on the tongue by molecules that bind to sweet taste receptors, whose structure and genetic origin have recently been uncovered. The sensation of sweetness begins with the transduction by receptors throughout the tongue, or in whatever receptor organ these receptors are present for lower organisms, of the taste signal from a solution containing sweet-tasting molecules. he receptors are heterodimers of two G protein coupled receptors, T1R2 and T1R3, which are expressed by genes at the Sac locus on mouse chromosome 4 and the corresponding Tas1r3 locus in humans. Taste transduction is the process by which a neural signal is generated following the...
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Research Paper on The South Beach Diet
The South Beach Diet Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Food, Diet, and Nutrition. The South Beach Diet is a popular diet program developed by the cardiologist Dr. Arthur Agatston in the 1990s and widely publicized after the appearance of his book he South Beach Diet in 2003. Agatston has stated that he developed the South Beach Diet to help his overweight cardiac patients lose weight, as he had observed that many of them did not respond well to the low-fat, carbohydrate diet recommended at the time by the American Heart Association. he South Beach Diet program emphasizes moderate consumption of healthy foods prepared by the individual, and except for the first phase in which carbohydrates are restricted, does not depend on any extreme allocation of macronutrients...
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Research Paper on Food and Sensory-Specific Satiety
Food and Sensory-Specific Satiety Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Food, Diet, and Nutrition. Sensory-specific satiety (SSS) occurs when a particular food is eaten to the point where there is a decrease in satiety and pleasure. Satiety takes place when hunger is satisfied and a pleasant feeling of fullness is present. Satiety is a signal to stop eating as flavor fatigue manifests and the senses are no longer aroused to the stimulus of a particular food. SSS is subjective and does not appear to be dependent upon the type of food or its macronutrient composition (carbohydrate, protein, fat). Some foods may be more satiating than others, depending on an individual's preferences. SSS is not characteristic to a particular age group or gender. As SSS is subjective, it is...
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  HIV / AIDS
Essay on Social and Cultural Reactions to AIDS and HIV
Social and Cultural Reactions to AIDS and HIV Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Health. In the first half of the 1980s, while AIDS was ravishing homosexual men, the rest of the population of the United States took little note. The desire to believe that AIDS was a gay disease was strong and resulted in minimal media coverage of AIDS outside the gay community. In 1985, however, when Rock Hudson's diagnosis of AIDS became public, the nation was electrified. Almost overnight AIDS became a widespread point of concern for gay and straight populations alike. The illness of Ryan White, a young boy who had been infected with HIV as an infant, generated further mainstream public concern. HIV and AIDS engendered a great deal of artistic and cultural output after that time...
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Essay on HIV / AIDS Drug Development Issues
HIV / AIDS Drug Development Issues Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Health. The activism of the gay community and the technological savvy of many of its organizations were instrumental in reforming the FDA's approval process and policies on clinical trials. Doctors, AIDS patients, and supporters in the 1980s had regarded the long and slow approval process of the FDA, which averaged eight years in the early 1980s, with increasing frustration. The few drug treatments that were available were limited to clinical trials, in which scientific principles demanded doubleblind studies in which half the participants in a trial were given placebos. Additionally, policies designed to protect trial participants severely limited the eligibility of many AIDS patients...
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Essay on HIV / AIDS and Political Activism
HIV / AIDS and Political Activism Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Health. In the face of lackluster U.S. government leadership in the AIDS epidemic, members of the gay community, particularly in urban centers that had been hard hit by HIV, became active participants in the political, medical, and social processes by which research funding was generated and treatment and prevention methods were developed. In the early 1980s much of that effort was at a local level: Gay leaders and activists raised funds, recruited help from local politicians, and set up community treatment centers that pooled resources for and information about treating AIDS patients. In mid-1980s, frustrated by the slow pace of AIDS research and the inaccessibility of effective treatment...
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Essay on National Policy on HIV / AIDS
National Policy on HIV / AIDS Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Health. In the United States the early governmental response to the AIDS crisis is considered by many people to have been deplorable. Despite quick action on the part of the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) to determine the causes and modes of transmission of AIDS, its investigations were crippled by underfunding and inadequate staffing. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) moved at what many considered a maddeningly slow pace in opening up the grant process for funding AIDS research, and most early federal funding was forced on the Department of Health and Human Services by congressional appropriations bills. The Reagan administration was silent on the question of AIDS; Reagan did not give a speech...
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Essay on The Prevention of AIDS and HIV
The Prevention of AIDS and HIV Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Health. AIDS prevention programs take two primary tacks: biomedical intervention and behavioral modification. Recommended biomedical interventions include securing the safety of blood and blood products, usually through the screening of donors; treating other sexually transmitted diseases that may increase the risk of HIV infection; and treating HIV-infected pregnant women with ARVs to reduce the risk of transmission to their children. A number of researchers are working to develop an AIDS vaccine, though that task is complicated by the rapid mutation of the virus and appears to be a number of years off. Another possible biomedical intervention would be the development of a microbicide--an agent capable...
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  Health Care and Education
Essay on Medical Education in the 20th Century
Medical Education in the 20th Century Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Health. The great German universities with their strong research departments were being copied in this country, thus bringing about the modern university. This raised the question inevitably that medicine here as in Germany should be part of a university with clear expectations for research and scholarship. The model was being evolved at Harvard, Pennsylvania, and Michigan, finally reaching its culmination with the establishment of the Johns Hopkins Medical School in 1893, where college graduates were taught by full-time research faculty. In addition, the advent of progressive education by John Dewey enforced the Hopkins model that students should learn by doing. Sir William Osler's ideal curriculum...
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Essay on Health Education Programs
Health Education Programs Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Health. Many schools have been in the health care reform business for several years. Throughout the U.S., state departments of education and school boards are emphasizing comprehensive school health programs to provide health education and services. The goal is to keep students healthy, prevent those behaviors that are leading causes of morbidity and mortality, and promote behaviors that lead to healthy lives. At the federal level, comprehensive school health education programs have been integrated into the national education goals under Public Law 103-446 passed in May, 1994. Programs under this law were mandated to ensure that all students receive quality comprehensive school health education by the year 2000...
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Essay on Health Care Policy in the United States
Health Care Policy in the United States Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Health. We are in the first decade of the twenty-first century, a new century and perhaps an overall new era for the United States. Many experts in health care policy believe that this century will bring fundamental reform and change in the health care system of the United States, and therefore in almost all of the health care policy issues and trends related to the health of the population, the overall health care system, the people who work within health care, and the institutions in which care is provided. How different will the health care system and its problems be one hundred years from now? Perhaps one way to begin to even think about this type of long range question is to think back...
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Essay on American Health Care System
American Health Care System Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Health. More logical reforms at health policy aim towards addressing broader threats to health and healthcare as a society, rather than on an individual level (Mechanic 52-54). Additionally, efforts towards preventative care could help reform health policy, as both of these changes in the United State's view on healthcare would be much more progressive. The major challenge that affects reform appears to be long-held ideas and feelings towards the way that healthcare has been managed in the past, and the inability of citizen's and policy makers to stray from such thoughts. Mental health is probably the most misunderstood aspect of health care, mostly because it too is bogged down by a history of misconceptions and improper...
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  Injuries and Trauma
Abrasions, Cuts, Lacerations Research Paper
The human skin is the largest organ of the body, providing a protective coverage for the internal structure and organs. Skin comprises an area of between 16.1 ft2 and 21.6 ft2 (1.5 m2 and 2.0 m2), at an average thickness of 0.00394 in (0.1 mm), accounting for between 15% and 18% of the total body weight. The layer of skin enveloping the body comprises three separate components: the epidermis (the outer shell), the dermis (the middle layer), and the sub cutis (the lower layer). Given its role as the protective shell for the internal organs and structure, the skin sustains constant contact and consequently, it is the most injured human organ. Skin is often subjected to cavalier, uncaring treatment on the sports field. The athletic injuries sustained to the skin are typically classified as abrasions, cuts, lacerations, and blisters. Each has a distinct meaning that is, in essence, a description of the nature and the severity of the injury sustained to the skin. In general terms, abrasions and cuts are types of...
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Achilles Tendon Rupture Research Paper
Tendons are the fibrous connective tissues that connect muscles to bone in the human body. A key feature of all tendons is their capacity to withstand significant forces; the Achilles tendon is the largest tendon in the body, extending from the gastrocnemius (calf muscle) to the calcaneus (heel bone). The Achilles tendon is essential to effective and graceful human movement, an integral component to all walking, running, and jumping actions that the body performs. The Achilles tendon is engaged every time the calf muscle contracts to propel the body forward, through the process known as plantar flexion. The mythical Greek warrior Achilles was said to be invincible, until an arrow pierced the lower leg tendon that bears his name. An injury to the modern Achilles tendon may not be fatal, but there is no question that a rupture of this critical structure can have devastating consequences on athletic performance. The Achilles tendon is liable to sustain injuries for which the consequences range from mild impairment...
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Achilles Tendonitis Research Paper
The Achilles tendon, the largest tendon in the human body, is the fibrous connective tissue that links the gastrocnemius (calf muscle) to the calcaneus (heel bone) in the lower leg. This structure is essential to the efficient movement of the leg in walking, running or jumping, as the tendon maintains the stability of the leg when the calf muscle contracts, in conjunction with the flexor muscles of the foot, to generate the power necessary to move. Achilles tendonitis is the inflammation that occurs between the tendon and the sheath in which it is encased, primarily through overuse, in combination with factors such as an improper or incomplete warm up prior to an activity, a misalignment of the heel, or structural weaknesses such as a lack of flexibility in the calf or foot muscles. As opposed to a rupture of the Achilles tendon, which is a completely incapacitating injury for an athlete, tendonitis may persist for a period of time. It is possible to continue with athletic activities while suffering from...
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Research Paper on ACL Injuries and Female Athletes
The ACL has become one of the best-known acronym in sport. The ACL is the expression employed to describe the anterior cruciate ligament, one of the important connective tissues in the knee joint. The ACL is often associated with serious knee injury. With the rise to prominence of female athletes in numerous sports in recent years (with the passage and implementation of Title IX), the corresponding increase in the incidence of ACL injuries among female athletes has been a subject of both considerable concern on the part of sports organizations, as well as the subject of intensive sports science research. The knee is a hinge joint, created by the junction of the femur (thigh bone) and the tibia and the fibula (lower leg bones). There are six distinct sets of ligaments in the joint that provide various types of connectivity between the bones in the joint. The ligaments of the knee generally assist in maintaining the stability of the joint when it is subjected to the extension and flexion forces required for...
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Adhesive Capsulitis Research Paper
Adhesive capsulitis is a physical condition that affects both the range of motion and the overall function of the shoulder. This affliction is also known as "frozen shoulder," which is a general description of the sensation commonly associated with the condition. Adhesive capsulitis is often difficult to diagnose, especially among athletes, as the physical symptoms are very similar to those of rotator cuff tendinitis, bursitis, tendinitis of the bicep tendon (which attaches the muscles of the upper arm to the shoulder joint), and more generalized arthritis complaints. The shoulder is one of the most complex muscu-loskeletal structures in the body. The humerus bone (upper arm), the scapula (shoulder blade), and the clavicle (collarbone) are the bones that form the shoulder joints. The rotator cuff, a four-muscle formation positioned on the top of the shoulder, is responsible for the degree of motion available for upward arm movement. The joint that is most vulnerable to injury is the scapulohumoral...
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  Medical Inventions
Essay on The Invention of Stethoscope
The Invention of Stethoscope Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Health. In 1816, a very obese young woman suffering from general symptoms of heart disease consulted Rene-Theophile-Hyacinthe Laennec for treatment. Laennec was perplexed about how to perform a clinical examination on her. Although he often used the technique of percussion, he rejected it in this case, as her extreme fatness would render it ineffective. Given her age and sex, direct auscultation of her heart with his ear placed against her chest was in his opinion inappropriate. While Laennec happened to be watching some children playing, he noticed that they were holding a piece of wood to their ears and scratching on the other end with a pin. This observation inspired him to roll up a cylinder of paper...
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Essay on The Jarvik-7 Artificial Heart
The Jarvik-7 Artificial Heart Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Health. The successor to the Jarvik-3 artificial heart was modeled after the human heart and is approximately the same size as a human's fist-sized heart. It weighs about ten ounces and is designed to replace the human heart. It has two artificial ventricles, which are like the pumping chambers of the heart and which replace the left and right ventricles, which the surgeon has removed. The device is made up of Dacron polyester, aluminum, and plastic. The patient's atria, the upper chambers of the heart that take in blood from the veins, is the anchor to which the Jarvik-7 heart is attached. The power for the device comes from an outside device that is connected to the patient's chest through tubes. As a result...
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Essay on Computerized Axial Tomography (CAT)
Computerized Axial Tomography (CAT) Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Health. In 1967, Godfrey Newbold Hounsfield conceived the idea for a machine that could create detailed images of the internal structures of the body by taking X rays at various angles. He realized that if X rays were taken perpendicular to each other, a cross section of the examined object could be obtained. If the X-ray beam was collimated and moved around the axis of the body with the X-ray detector opposite, the maximum information about that slice of the body could be collected. Further, by moving the body through the beam as the slices were recorded, the maximum data about the interior of the body could be obtained. The cross-sectional X-ray images could then be assembled by a computer to present...
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Essay on Synthesizing Human Hormones
Synthesizing Human Hormones Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Health. In 1936--after being rejected for a position with the Institute of Paper Chemistry because he was black--Percy Lavon Julian became director of the Soya Products Division at the Glidden Company in Chicago. He would soon be the first to synthesize physostigmine, a natural product of some plant sterols, which would become a therapeutic drug to treat myasthenia gravis, glaucoma, Alzheimer's disease, and drug overdoses. He also laid a foundation for the synthesis of human hormones--such as progesterone, testosterone, cortisone, and other steroids--from plant sterols. The wide availability of such compounds and their use in pharmaceuticals would revolutionize medicine. To appreciate Julian's invention, it is...
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Essay on The Artificial Kidney Machine
The Artificial Kidney Machine Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Health. Willem Johan Kolff's 1941 prototype of the kidney dialysis machine, crude as it may appear, testifies to the vigor and improvisational resourcefulness of scientific ingenuity applied to a specific problem, how with limited resources a researcher/technician can nevertheless realize an ambitious premise. Although the idea of dialysis had been proposed earlier, few medical researchers before Kolff looked favorably on the idea of actually draining the blood from the body as way to cleanse it of the damaging buildup of toxic materials (principally urea and other salts) that regularly resulted in the death of kidney patients. Kolff maintained that short-term external treatment of the blood could...
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  Miscellaneous Health Topics
Essay on The Structure of Human Intelligence
The Structure of Human Intelligence Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Health. All scientists accept that human intelligence evolved along with the gigantic human brain. However, did intelligence, in general, evolve, or did specific components of intelligence evolve? If general intelligence evolved, but not its specific components, then the human brain must be extremely flexible during its development. If the specific components of intelligence evolved as well, then all humans regardless of culture and of how they are raised will display certain universal characteristics. Certain human universals of intelligence and behavior are beyond question. One is language. The human brain seems to be "hardwired" for language acquisition, and specifically for language that consists...
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Essay on Benefits of Safe Tanning
Benefits of Safe Tanning Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Health. New York Times Personal Health columnist Jane Brody recently wrote an article on the benefits of sunshine titled A Second Opinion on Sunshine. Her main interviewee was Dr. Michael Holick, a professor of medicine, dermatology, physiology and biophysics at the Boston University School of Medicine. He was the first person to discover the active form of vitamin D. He has spent decades researching the effects of vitamin D in the body. Although many doctors have warned against UV radiation exposure, Dr. Holick's research contradicts these beliefs. He states that brief exposure to the sun, or a tanning bed, several times a week can help keep away many diseases. These diseases include osteoporosis, hypertension, diabetes...
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Essay on Why Do Teens Smoke?
Why Do Teens Smoke? Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Health. Cigarette smoking among youth has shown considerable fluctuation since the mid-1970s, having first fallen, then remained stable, then raised again, and most recently declined. Additionally, the trends differ drastically between race and ethnic groups, the largest declines are occurring among Blacks and Hispanics. With the harm of smoking and the likelihood of teen smokers continuing the habit for decades to come, these trends have generated much interest. Despite speculation about the possible role of changes in individual characteristics that promote smoking and of larger-level changes in cultural norms, social strain, media influence, and cigarette prices, tests of such claims are rare. Generally, research done...
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Essay on The Increasing Demand of Cosmetic Surgeries
The Increasing Demand of Cosmetic Surgeries Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Health. In her article, Ellen Feldman (2004) dates the history of cosmetic surgery back 2,500 years; however, the procedure was not popular until after World War I. Surgeons first began to develop cosmetic surgery techniques in response to birth disfigurement and war caused deformities. The war injuries greatly accelerated the advancement and experimentation of plastic surgery, and the rise of plastic surgeons. According to Feldman, some surgeons limited their practices to deformities caused by birth defects and automobile and industrial accidents, but others began applying the skill and techniques they had perfected on wounded veterans to dissatisfied civilians, chiefly women (p. 61)...
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Essay on Stem Cell Research Ethical Issues
Stem Cell Research Ethical Issues Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Health. The ethical aspects of human stem cell research raise a wide variety of controversial and important issues. Many of these issues have to do with the different sources of stem cells. In principle stem cells can be obtained from adults, from umbilical cord blood, from fetal tissue and from embryonic tissue. Clearly there are widely differing views as to the ethics of sourcing stem cells in these four different ways. For the moment there is general consensus that embryos are the best source of stem cells for therapeutic purposes but this may of course change as the science develops. Then there is the question of whether or not embryos or fetuses may be deliberately produced in order to be sources...
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  Obesity
Research Paper on Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Obesity
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Obesity Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Obesity. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a progressive metabolic disorder characterized by insulin resistance, insulin deficiency, and hyperglycemia. Nearly 21 million Americans have diabetes, and at least 54 million people over age 20 reported to have prediabetes. About 151,000 people below the age of 20 have been diagnosed with diabetes. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that more than 180 million people worldwide have diabetes and this number will double by 2030. In 2005, it was reported that an estimated 1.1 million people died from diabetes and 80 percent of diabetes deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries. Most of the deaths occur in people under the age of 70; 55 percent...
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Research Paper on Twin Studies and Genetics of Obesity
Twin Studies and Genetics of Obesity Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Obesity. Much research effort and expense is expended trying to find the causes of obesity, both genetic and environmental. Researchers have used one of nature's own experiments, the phenomenon of twin births, to derive valuable evidence that has informed our understanding of the causes of obesity. The study of twins has played a vital part in quantitating the heritable influences on obesity and explains how this naturally occurring human model has helped researchers detect and quantify the effect of environmental influences independent of genetic factors. Twin studies play a part in understanding causation of obesity and in improving efficiency in the hunt for gene loci (sites). When many...
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Research Paper on Treatment Centers for Eating Disorders
Treatment Centers for Eating Disorders Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Obesity. Services for treating eating disorders range on a continuum of intensity from inpatient hospitalization to residential care to partial hospitalization programs to varying levels of outpatient treatment. Decisions about the best treatment setting in which to manage a person with an eating disorder depend on the nature of the disorder, the level of risk, physical and psychological complications, and patient preference. There is evidence that those with eating disorders have better outcomes when treated in specialized eating disorder facilities where staff has experience and expertise in treating eating disorders. Major deterrents in selecting the most appropriate treatment include...
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Research Paper on Translational Research of Obesity
Translational Research of Obesity Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Obesity. Translational Research can be defined as the process by which discoveries made at the molecular or cellular level in basic scientific research are applied, or translated, into diagnostic tests or therapies for the purpose of identifying, preventing, or treating disease. Successful translational research depends on the cooperation of multidisciplinary teams consisting of basic and clinical researchers, healthcare providers, community members, and other agency partners. Translational research is a key component of national obesity prevention and treatment initiatives, such as those supported by the National Institutes of Health (NIH). There are two distinct segments, or phases...
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Research Paper on Toxic Environment and Obesogenic Surroundings
Toxic Environment and Obesogenic Surroundings Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Obesity. Psychologist Kelly Brownell coined the term toxic environment in 1994 to describe the obesigenic effects of our physical surroundings. Brownell argued that despite promising advances in our understanding of biological risk factors for overweight, the precipitous increase in obesity at the population level has occurred so quickly that it cannot be attributed solely to genetic factors. Instead, he proposed that the most straightforward explanation for the upsurge of obesity in the last decades of the 20th century is that the modern environment systematically promotes the consumption of unhealthy foods and discourages physical activity. The toxic environment provides a parsimonious...
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  Pregnancy and Fetal Development
Essay on Stages of Pregnancy
Stages of Pregnancy Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Pregnancy and Fetal Development. Pregnancy is a period of intense and rapid development for both the mother and the fetus. Physiologically, anatomically, and psychologically, the rapid transformation of an embryo into an infant and of a woman into a mother is unparalleled. Although not a comprehensive review of pregnancy, this chapter discusses maternal and fetal development in each of the three trimesters, considering the physical and psychological changes that take place. The first sign of pregnancy for most women is a missed menstrual period. Other early signs of pregnancy are tenderness of the breasts--a tingling sensation and special sensitivity of the nipples--and nausea and vomiting (called morning sickness...
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Essay on Prenatal Development
Prenatal Development Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Pregnancy and Fetal Development. Prenatal development can be divided into three stages: preimplantation, embryonic, and fetal. The preimplantation period, between fertilization and implantation of the conceptus in the uterine wall, takes an average of 7 days. The embryonic period is considered to be the major period of organogenesis, lasting about 2 months from conception. During the fetal period, lasting until about 38 weeks after conception, growth, functional maturation, and further differentiation of tissues occur. The prenatal period is highly sensitive to disruption by toxic substances because of the high rate of cell division and the intricate and complex coordination among chemical, cellular, and genetic...
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Essay on Maternal Health
Maternal Health Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Pregnancy and Fetal Development. Pregnancy and childbirth is perhaps one of the most awe-inspiring feats of the female body. During the perinatal period, a woman's body transforms so as to promote and support the development of a new life. Throughout this process, the health of the mother and developing offspring are inherently intertwined. Not only is maternal health critical for the mother, but it is the fundamental necessity for the successful unfolding of potential of the developing child. Maternal health involves unique functions and abilities of the female body and generally refers to physical and psychological functioning before and during pregnancy, childbirth, and labor, continuing to postpartum status. A more limited...
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Essay on Fetus and Fetal Development
Fetus and Fetal Development Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Pregnancy and Fetal Development. During the prenatal period, a human develops from a single cell to a complex array of living tissues and structures. Every experience a prenatal organism has, and every substance it encounters, can potentially alter the course of development. This period of dramatic changes sets the stage for postnatal outcomes, from birth to death. The longest period of prenatal development is referred to as the fetal period, during which time the developing organism is called a fetus. The first 2 weeks of life are called the period of the zygote. This period begins when a sperm and egg unite their genetic material in a single cell. The newly fertilized egg spends the first week of its existence...
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Essay on Fetal Medicine
Fetal Medicine Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Pregnancy and Fetal Development. Maternal and fetal medicine (MFM) is the subspecialty within the field of obstetrics and gynecology that deals with the complications of pregnancy. The problems are varied but can fit into one of several categories: - Maternal disease: either the disease or the treatment may affect the fetus or pregnancy (e.g., diabetes and hypertension). - Disease arising as a result of the pregnancy (e.g., preeclampsia and gestational diabetes) - Abnormalities of the fetus (e.g., birth defects) or of fetal growth - Genetic disease that has no meaningful effect on fetal life but that may affect the life of the individual after birth (e.g., cystic fibrosis or Down syndrome) - Abnormalities of the pregnancy (e.g., prematurity)...
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  Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)
Essay on Syphilis: Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment
Syphilis: Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Health. Syphilis is a bacterial infection caused by the Treponema pallidum spirochete (a spirochete is a type of bacterium that is thin, long, and coiled in shape). Called the great pretender or great imitator, syphilis has a number of signs and symptoms that may mimic those of other conditions. Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease/sexually transmitted infection that most commonly occurs in people aged twenty to twenty-nine. Women aged twenty to twenty-four and men aged thirty-five to thirty-nine are the most likely groups to be diagnosed with syphilis. In the early years of the twenty-first century, the majority of syphilis cases have occurred in men who have sex with men...
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Essay on Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Trichomoniasis
Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Trichomoniasis Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Health. Trichomoniasis is a common sexually transmitted disease caused by the protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis. In women infections are usually situated in the vagina and in men in the urethra. The parasite spreads through penis-vagina or vulva-vulva contact. Though women can contract the disease from either infected men or women, men generally only contract trichomoniasis from infected women. Symptoms in women may include a frothy, yellowgreen, odorous discharge from the vagina that may cause irritation and itching, discomfort during intercourse or urination, and occasionally lower abdominal pain. Infected men generally do not show symptoms, but there may be a discharge or...
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Essay on Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Syphilis
Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Syphilis Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Health. Syphilis is a serious sexually transmitted disease caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum. Since 2001 the incidence of syphilis has increased, especially among homosexual males. The disease is transmitted by direct contact with a syphilis sore, most commonly found on the genitalia, vagina, anus, rectum, or mouth. Pregnant women who are infected can pass the disease onto their babies. Though many infected individuals remain asymptomatic for years, initial symptoms of primary-stage syphilis may include the appearance of one or more chancres (sores) that present between ten and ninety days after exposure. Chancres are usually round, firm, small, and painless and can last anywhere from...
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Essay on Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)
Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Health. PID is a general term that refers to infection of the uterus, fallopian tubes, and other reproductive organs. It is a common and serious complication of STDs, especially chlamydia and gonorrhea. Young women under twenty-five are particularly at risk for developing PID because the cervix is not yet fully mature. Douching and the use of an intrauterine device (IUD) increase the risk of infections if exposed to them. Symptoms of PID vary depending on the infecting agent. Infections caused by chlamydia may be mild to nonexistent. When symptoms occur they may include lower abdominal pain, fever, odorous vaginal discharge, painful intercourse or urination, and spotting between...
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Essay on Sexually Transmitted Diseases: HIV / AIDS
Sexually Transmitted Diseases: HIV / AIDS Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Health. AIDS is a serious infection first reported in the United States in 1981 that has subsequently become a worldwide epidemic. The syndrome is caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The virus progressively kills and damages cells of the body's immune system and severely diminishes a person's ability to combat infections and some cancers. Further, it increases the chances of contracting other life-threatening opportunistic infections (such as viral or bacterial) that normally do not cause disease in healthy people. Though HIV can be spread through infected blood products (rarely in the early twenty-first century) and contaminated needles, the most common mode of transmission is through...
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  Sports Research Paper Topics
Acclimatization Research Paper
Acclimatization is an athletic training system whereby the body is forced to compensate for the stresses of a new or different climatic condition. Through compensation, the body is able to tolerate such physical stresses in a more efficient fashion, and the athlete will usually achieve better physical performance. The tolerance developed to the particular training condition will generally result in better competitive results, in competitions where the training climatic conditions exist, as well as in the athlete's accustomed environment. Acclimatization methods consist of two types, heat and altitude acclimitazation. Heat acclimatization, sometimes referred to generically as heat training, is a technique directed to improving athletic performance in warm climates. The process of acclimatization is distinct from heat acclimation. Heat acclimation is the process by which an athlete becomes accustomed to increased heat, over the course of a 4- to 14-day period. Heat acclimatization is the entire spectrum...
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Research Paper on Acupuncture and Eastern Healing Therapies
Acupuncture and certain herbal remedies are the best known components of the broader Chinese healing therapies known as traditional Chinese medicines (TCM). For many years, the established medical communities in the United States scorned TCM practices as a pseudoscience, and TCM was not recognized as a legitimate branch of American medical practice. Traditional Chinese medicines have a long history; the earliest medical monograph concerning TCM was compiled approximately 2,500 years ago. The North American acceptance of the acupuncture procedure occurred essentially by default, when afflicted persons, often those who suffered chronic pain from a muscle or back injury, sought out TCM treatments as a last resort to conventional medicine and prescribed pain medications. The widespread use of TCM techniques in Europe, especially in the 1970s and 1980s in the sports medicine communities of the former Eastern bloc nations, hastened a more objective consideration of TCM practices in American athletic therapy. Today...
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Aerobics Research Paper
Aerobics is a term that was coined in the late 1960s by Dr. Kenneth Cooper, then a physician at the San Antonio Air Force Hospital, to identify a series of cardiovascular exercises he had developed to combat coronary artery disease. The exercises were designed to lessen the buildup of a form of cholesterol on the walls of the coronary arteries, which are the arteries that are the conduit of blood to the heart muscle. The cholesterol buildup (plaque deposition) reduces the internal diameter of the arteries, which restricts the flow of oxygen-laden blood to the heart. Plaque formation can also stress the heart by making the pumping of blood to other areas of the body more difficult. The consequences can include chest pain (angina), high blood pressure, and/or a heart attack. Aerobics involves oxygen; aerobics literally means "with oxygen." In contrast, anaerobic means "without oxygen." Oxygen is a vital part of the energy-generating process for muscles. In concert with fats and glucose, oxygen is...
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Altitude Illness Research Paper
Altitude illness refers to physiological changes that occur at higher elevations in a body that has not adapted (acclimated) to the higher altitude. Typical symptoms of one type of altitude illness, known as acute mountain sickness, include a severe headache, nausea, and physical weakness. However, much more severe, even life-threatening altitude illnesses—called high-altitude cerebral edema and high-altitude pulmonary edema—can develop. Altitude is measured as the distance above sea level. High altitude is considered to be 8,000-12,000 ft (2,400-3,700 m) above sea level. As examples, the coastal city of Los Angeles is at sea level, while the city of Denver, Colorado, is located at an elevation of 5,000 ft (1,575 m) above sea level. A plane trip from a coastal city such as Los Angeles to Denver represents a rapid elevation change. A further elevation change, such as a hike into the surrounding mountains, can place someone in an environment to which he or she has not been acclimated. Altitude illness can result...
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Antioxidants Research Paper
Antioxidant is the descriptive term given to a group of organic substances that generally function within the body to promote health through their counteraction against the potentially destructive effect of oxygen in human tissues, as carried out by agents known as free radicals. The best known anti-oxidants are vitamin C (ascorbic acid), vitamin E, selenium (a mineral), and the carotenoids, the class of the pigmentation substances that color many fruits and vegetables. An example of a carotenoid is betacarotene, the substance that produces the color in carrots. Human diet is subdivided into two general classifications for the purpose of basic nutritional assessment. The first classification is macronutrients, the term that refers to all of the food products that contain carbohydrate, protein, and/or fat. The second classification is micronutrients, the term that defines all of the vitamins and most of the minerals that are absorbed into the body through food digestion. Phytochemicals are the trace...
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