ESSAY EMPIRE's custom essays
  Home Essay Topics & Examples Our Prices Research Papers Term Papers Essay Writing Order now Contact Us  
 
Samples
 Argumentative Essays and Research Papers
 Art and Culture Essays and Research Papers
 Business Essays and Research Papers
 Custom Essay Writing Services
 Environmental Essays and Research Papers
 Health Essays and Research Papers
 History Essays and Research Papers
 How to Write an Essay
 Literature Essays and Research Papers
 Media Essays and Research Papers
 Philosophy Essays and Research Papers
 Political Science Essays and Research Papers
 Psychology Essays and Research Papers
 Religion Essays and Research Papers
 Research Paper Examples
 Research Paper Topics & Ideas
 Science Essays and Research Papers
 Shakespeare Essays and Research Papers
 Sociology Essays and Research Papers
Todat' Free Samples Essay
Research Paper on Physical Activity and Obesity
Physical Activity and Obesity Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Obesity. Physical Activity is defined as bodily movement (any form) produced by the contraction of skeletal muscles that increases energy expenditure above the basal level, and can be categorized in various ways, including type, intensity or strenuousness and purpose. Obesity is a condition describing excess body weight in the form of fat, with a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or greater...
Popular Essay Topics
 Research Paper on Personality Disorders
 Research Paper on Phobias
 Research Paper on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
 Research Paper on Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)
 Research Paper on Psychopathology
 Research Paper on Evaluation Research in Sociology
 Research Paper on Clinical Sociology
 Research Paper on Sociological Practice
 Research Paper on Teaching and Learning in Sociology
 Research Paper on Appalachian Studies
 Research Paper on Environmental Issues
 Research Paper on Human Ecology
 Research Paper on Feminist Anthropology
 Research Paper on Terrorism
 Research Paper on Human Rights and Dignity
 Research Paper on Police-Community Relations
 Research Paper on Cultural Arts and Delinquency Reduction Programming
 Research Paper on Wrongful Convictions
 Research Paper on Public Health and Crime
 Research Paper on Criminal Justice Ethics
Copyright © EssayEmpire.com, 2004-2012. All rights reserved

You Are Here: Home > Essay Topics > Health Essays and Research Papers > Childbirth and Infancy  > Research Paper on Twins

  Childbirth and Infancy

Research Paper on Twins

Twins are a biological fact. As such, they occur in at least two different ways. One pattern involves one egg, fertilized by one sperm, which splits sometime during the first fourteen days after fertilization, thus producing monozygotic (uniovular) or "identical" twins. These twins have the same genetic make-up as each other and are always the same sex, being both boys or both girls.

The other twin pattern involves two eggs, each egg fertilized by a separate sperm. Eventually they produce dizygotic (binovular) or "fraternal" or "nonidentical" twins. Nonidentical twins may either be of the same sex, that is, two boys or two girls, or unlike sex pairs, that is, a boy and a girl. Genetically, either type of nonidentical twin, same sex or unlike sex pairs, are genetically as similar as any other two siblings. This genetic relationship can range from 25% to 75% of genetic similarity.

There are also some rarer types of twins. These categories include: mirror-image twins, who are identical twins; polar body twins, called half-identical twins; or conjoined (Siamese) twins, who are identical twins.

With the increasing use of ultrasound scans, twins have been detected early in a pregnancy but have "vanished" according to subsequent ultrasounds. This phenomenon has been termed the vanishing twin syndrome.

The incidence of identical twins has remained more or less constant; this constancy applies to most cultures over any given time period. Roughly about one third of all twins are identical and two thirds of all twins are fraternal.

In both the United States and the United Kingdom, the probability of having twins as of 1999/2000 is roughly 1 in 35 pregnancies. The chances of having twins in these two countries has risen recently mainly due to older mothers having babies and the increasing use of fertility treatments.

Rates of fraternal twins vary in different countries, with African countries producing the highest rates and Asian countries the lowest rates of twinning.

MYTHS ABOUT TWINS

Myths about twins picture twins as being both positive and negative, harmonious and rivalrous, happy and unhappy, divine and human. Throughout the world's cultures, myths identify twins as gods who are deified men or women (such as in North and South American cultures). Other twin myths are foundation myths such as in the Biblical story of Jacob and Esau, indicating that two nations are to be born, or the most famous myth about the founding of Rome by twins Romulus and Remus.

Still other myths treat the issue of double paternity; that is, one twin is depicted as the child of a human father while the other twin has a different and divine father. One version of the Dioscuri, Castor and Pollux, otherwise known to us as the Heavenly Twins constellation, Gemini, falls into this group. Some myths attempt to provide answers to the culturally unanswerable. Some North American indigenous peoples, such as the Mohave, believe twins function as rainmakers; others believe that human twins are sent from heaven to bring both rain and fertility.

Thus the very many mythologies and cultures of the world contain quite a considerable number and diversity of myths about twins.

EXPLAINING TWIN BIRTH

The birth of twins occurs in all cultures of the world. In most, the appearance of twins itself is a matter of surprise, even shock, both for the parents and the community at large.

In more traditional, nonindustrial societies, the birth of twins often disrupted the structure of the family and the position of individuals within the family. Twins caused a disturbance to the normal order of things. Sometimes this even involved a potential threat to the social order, so that in some extreme cases one or both twins were faced with infanticide; occasionally, the mother also faced death or, at the very least, ostracism. In these societies, concern about the question of who actually fathered the twins and the ensuing anxiety about the real (or even the imagined) disruptions to the established social system were expressed.

In more industrialized societies, due to the intervention of hospital equipment such as scanners and the increasing use of fertility drugs, which are one of the main reasons for the recent increase in twins and higher multiples, dealing with twinship begins at a much earlier stage, although some parallels with nonindustrial societies can be made.

Attitudes toward twins in different societies are mixed: Whether positive, negative or even ambivalent, these attitudes have been and are currently complex and intense. These qualities of complexity and intensity may include feelings of disturbance, anxiety, and unease about identity, especially individual identity.

TWINS IN THE MEDIA

Twins have provided an endless source of fascination for writers over the centuries. Initially, the overwhelming focus of attention was on the comic potential of mistaken identity, especially for monozygotic or "identical" twins. Subsequently, however, writers began to explore stereotypical--opposite--characteristics of twins, such as moral opposites of good versus evil, or opposites of identity, like versus unlike, twins as same versus twins as fundamentally different. Fiction writers also used the double (or the doppelganger) in their writing.

Alongside questions of identity, twins have been used by writers to illustrate a range of human behavior associated with twinship. One ever-present theme of this type would be the closeness of twins, such as is found in Bruce Chatwin's famous novel On the Black Hill. Another example of the very strong bond thought to exist between twins is found in Thornton Wilder's The Bridge of San Luis Rey. In children's literature, we find Sweet Valley Twins, where identical twin girls look so much alike it is virtually impossible to tell them apart, but yet they are described as having very different personalities.

In films, twins have been used in general to illustrate and explore themes of personal, psychological, and social identity. Several look at mistaken identity and its consequences, such as in The Parent Trap; others explore the indelible effects of twinship, such as Jodie Foster's twin portrayal in Nell. But the very refreshing and recent expression of the dichotomy of twins is Ivan Reitman's Twins where Danny DeVito and Arnold Schwarznegger play twin brothers, causing the audience to think that they can't be twins because they do not look anything alike, let alone look identical!

Twins in the press fare somewhat differently. Articles often appear about famous twins and famous parents of twins, such as agony aunts Ann Landers and Abigail van Buren or parents of twins Mia Farrow or James Stewart. Other articles focus on the unusual nature of being a twin, exploring the possible psychic affinity between twins, especially looking at those twins who were separated for one reason or another early in their lives. The actual birth of twins and the subsequent parenting of twins forms another category, followed by articles explaining or exploring what it is actually like to be a twin. Finally there are articles revolving around science and nature, often using twins to measure intelligence.

UNIQUE RELATIONSHIPS AND CHARACTERISTICS

The bottom line for analyzing the unique relationship between twins must be the fact that unlike singletons, twins are two babies who are born more or less at the same time. This biological fact has consequences for the twins from the first prenatal stages of their lives, through the birth itself, and quite obviously for their subsequent development as children, as young people, and eventually as adults.

Scientists studying twins are currently debating about the role that genetics plays in relation to environment, also known as the nature versus nurture debate. Twins have been used to prove the greater influence of either nature or nurture on behavior, although more and more studies accept the interplay between the two (influences). This is vital for actually understanding the determinants of behavior of different sets of twins.

Knowing whether a twin is identical or fraternal is also vitally important for those scientists hoping to explain behavior and development by twin type. The most popular current method of zygosity determination (determining whether twins are fraternal or identical) is by DNA testing; a swab of cheek cells from each twin will determine whether they are identical or not.

Much twin research has focused on the different types of twins, hoping to establish relationships concerning the role that genetics plays. Other social scientists are concentrating on the role that environment plays, but they are now not assuming that twins necessarily share the same environment, any more that any other sibling in a family shares the same environment. In other words, each twin has another person (his or her twin) directly or immediately in their environment, virtually from the moment of conception. And this other person, the twin, modifies and determines the environment in which they both live. They are defined and often treated as twins, although like other siblings they also face varying environments due to gender differences, positions in the family, relation to parents, and so on. Nonetheless, they share the "twin factor."

SUMMARY

Twins are different, distinct, special, and fascinating. They have been studied, analyzed, and written about for a long time in all cultures, yet there is still a great deal to learn both about twins and from twins.

 

Bibliography:

Bryan, E. (1995). Twins, triplets and more: Their nature, development and care. London: The Multiple Births Foundation.

Farmer, P. (1996). Two or the book of twins and doubles. London: Virago Press.

Freidrich, E., & Rowland, C. (1990). The parenting guide to raising twins. New York: St. Martin's Press.

Multiple Births Association, http://www.mbf.org

National Organisation of Mothers of Twins Clubs, http://www.nomotc.org

Sandbank, A. C. (1999). Twin and triplet psychology. London: Routledge.

Siegel, N. (2000). Entwined lives: Twins and what they tell us about human behavior. New York: Plume.

Stewart, E. A. (2003). Exploring twins: Towards a social analysis of twinship. New York: St. Martin's Press.

Twins and Multiple Births Association, http://www.tamba.org.uk

EssayEmpire offers you the best custom essay writing services, along with term paper, thesis paper, and research paper writing help. Our company employs professional essay writers who are fully qualified in a variety of academic fields. If you require a high quality writing service that is capable of writing authentic essays, term papers or research papers because you simply don't have the time or resources to do them yourself or maybe they seem too complicated and time consuming, you don't need to look any further. EssayEmpire is the perfect place for all your needs. If you need high quality Research Paper on Twins at affordable prices please use our essay writing services offered by EssayEmpire.

Research Paper on High Risk Infants
Research Paper on Infant Mortality
Research Paper on Infancy
Essay on Natural Childbirth
Research Paper on Low Birth Weight (LBW)
Research Paper on Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW)
Essay on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)
Essay on Infant Sucking Behaviors
Essay on Stranger Anxiety in Children
Essay on Secure Attachment
Essay on Preterm Infants
Essay on Phenylketonuria (PKU)
Essay on Pesticides and Baby Health
Essay on Neonate
Essay on Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale
Essay on Midwife
Essay on Labor
Essay on Immunizations
Essay on Identical Twins
Essay on Home Birth
Essay on Fraternal Twins
Essay on Baby Crying
Essay on Baby Colic (Infantile Colic)
Essay on Multiple Births
Essay on Breech Birth
Essay on Birthing Centers
Essay on Birth Weight
Essay on Birth Order
Essay on Birth Defects
Essay on The Bayley Scales of Infant Development
Essay on The Babinski Reflex
Essay on Attachment Theory
Essay on The Apgar Score




Check our prices! Order your custom essay Now!
Custom Essays FAQInstant Quote
Assignment Type
Pages
Level
Due date
Custom Essays FAQCustom Essay Writing Services
SPECIAL OFFER! 10% OFF!
Enter FIRST10 as your coupon code at checkout to receive a 10% custom writing discount for your first order!
Features
 Professional Essay Writers
 Top Quality Essay Service
 Available 24/7
 Totally Authentic
 Flexible pricing and great discounts
 Written from scratch
 250 words per page
 6-hour delivery available
 Guaranteed Privacy
 FREE Bibliography
 Writing Research Papers in 3,6 or 12 hours
How many pages is a...
250 words essay = 1 page
300 words essay = 2 pages
500 words essay = 2 pages
600 words essay = 3 pages
750 words essay = 3 pages
800  word essay = 4 pages
1000 words essay = 4 pages
2000 words essay = 8 pages
3000 words essay = 12 pages
5000 words essay = 20 pages
7000 words essay = 28 pages
7500 words essay = 30 pages
10000 words essay = 40 pages
Best Prices
$9.99 / page > in 10 days
$11.99 / page > in 7 days
$13.99 / page > in 5 days
$14.99 / page > in 4 days
$15.99 / page > in 3 days
$17.99 / page > in 48 hours
$19.99 / page > in 24 hours
$23.99 / page > in 12 hours
$25.99 / page > in 6 hours
$29.99 / page > in 3 hours
Custom Essays FAQCustom Writing FAQ
 What does your service offer?
 Is this service legal?
 Whom do you employ for writing?
 How secure is the order processing?
 What kind of written works can you provide?
 How many words do you have per page?
 Can I contact you in case of emergency?
 What are your policies concerning the paper format?
 What about refunds?
 What charge will I have in my bank statement?
 
  Home About US Disclaimer Useful Links Essay Topics & Examples Our Prices Discounts Essay Writing FAQ Cheap Research Papers Order Now Contact Us