ESSAY EMPIRE's custom essays
  Home Essay Topics & Examples Our Prices Research Papers Term Papers Essay Writing Order now Contact Us  
 
Samples
 Argumentative Essays and Research Papers
 Art and Culture Essays and Research Papers
 Business Essays and Research Papers
 Custom Essay Writing Services
 Environmental Essays and Research Papers
 Health Essays and Research Papers
 History Essays and Research Papers
 How to Write an Essay
 Literature Essays and Research Papers
 Media Essays and Research Papers
 Philosophy Essays and Research Papers
 Political Science Essays and Research Papers
 Psychology Essays and Research Papers
 Religion Essays and Research Papers
 Research Paper Examples
 Research Paper Topics & Ideas
 Science Essays and Research Papers
 Shakespeare Essays and Research Papers
 Sociology Essays and Research Papers
Todat' Free Samples Essay
Research Paper on Physical Activity and Obesity
Physical Activity and Obesity Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Obesity. Physical Activity is defined as bodily movement (any form) produced by the contraction of skeletal muscles that increases energy expenditure above the basal level, and can be categorized in various ways, including type, intensity or strenuousness and purpose. Obesity is a condition describing excess body weight in the form of fat, with a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or greater...
Popular Essay Topics
 Research Paper on Organizational Crime
 Research Paper on Human Trafficking
 Research Paper on Capital Punishment
 Research Paper on Community Corrections
 Research Paper on Crime Prevention
 Research Paper on Ancient Political Thought
 Research Paper on Asian Political Thought
 Research Paper on Islamic Political Thought
 Research Paper on Christian Political Thought
 Research Paper on Early Modern and Classical Liberal Political Thought
 Research Paper on Standards for Psychotherapy
 Research Paper on Support Groups
 Research Paper on Agoraphobia
 Research Paper on Alcohol Abuse
 Research Paper on Alzheimer's Disease
 Research Paper on Technology and the Environment
 Research Paper on Sociology of Terrorism
 Research Paper on the Sociology of Violence
 Research Paper on Environmental Sociology
 Research Paper on Applied Sociology
Copyright © EssayEmpire.com, 2004-2012. All rights reserved

You Are Here: Home > Essay Topics > History Essays and Research Papers > 20th Century History  

  20th Century History
Essay on The Franco Regime: Dictatorship and Modernization
The Franco Regime: Dictatorship and Modernization Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History. The Spanish Civil War brought the Franco Regime to power and an abrupt change, through repressive dictatorship, to Spanish society. A single-party state, featuring a fascist-inspired system of vertical syndicates, was designed by Franco as an ''organic'' alternative to supposed ''inorganic'' marxist and liberal-capitalist political models. Under Franco, all power rested in the dictator's hands and a program of ideological mobilization was effected through propaganda organizations that targeted youth, university students, and women. All of the rights accorded women under the Republic were rescinded and pronatalist policies were promulgated. Trade union activities outside...
Essay on The Franco Regime: Dictatorship and Modernization » 
Essay on The Marshall Plan
The Marshall Plan Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History. After six years of war, Europe lay devastated, with two crises especially urgent: a shortage of food and a shortage of coal for heating. During 1946-47, the average German lived on a semistarvation died of just 1,800 calories daily, and if the German people were slowly starving, some were quickly freezing as well. During the brutal winters of 1945, 1946, and 1947, hundreds, perhaps thousands died in homes unheated for lack of fuel. Although the United States had begun sending aid and relief to all of Europe even before the end of the war (amounting to approximately $9 billion by early 1947), these efforts were not sufficient, and the hope that Britain and France would recover sufficiently...
Essay on The Marshall Plan » 
Essay on The French Foreign Legion
The French Foreign Legion Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History. The celebrated French foreign legion (Legion Etrangere) was created in 1831 by King Louis-Philippe for the purpose of patrolling and policing French colonial possessions in North Africa. Until the later 20th century, membership in the legion was restricted to foreign volunteers, who, after serving five years with good conduct, were granted French citizenship. Membership in the foreign legion has never required the swearing of an oath of allegiance to France but, rather, an oath to the legion itself, in keeping with the legion's unofficial motto, "Legio patria nostra" ("The legion is our fatherland"). Another feature of enlistment in the foreign legion is a high degree of anonymity. In most...
Essay on The French Foreign Legion » 
Essay on Northern Ireland Conflict
Northern Ireland Conflict Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History. The Anglo-Irish Treaty in 1921, which officially concluded the Irish War of Independence, established the Irish Free State as a virtually autonomous nation. One provision in the treaty, however, radically undermined the nature of the new state: Ireland was to be partitioned, with six counties in the northeast section of the country remaining a part of the United Kingdom, to be known as Northern Ireland. In these six counties, the majority--approximately two-thirds--were Protestants, vehemently opposed to assimilation with the overwhelmingly Catholic South. These religious differences, in effect since the late 17th century, when England established Protestant settlements in the North...
Essay on Northern Ireland Conflict » 
Essay on The Beer Hall Putsch of 1923
The Beer Hall Putsch of 1923 Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History. In 1923, German anger and resentment over soaring inflation, defeat in World War I, and the subsequent terms of the Versailles Treaty led to wide spread opposition to the national government. In the province of Bavaria and its capital city, Munich, resistance took the form of a conservative movement to secede from Germany and reestablish Bavaria as an independent monarchy. But Munich was also the headquarters of the fledgling National Socialist (Nazi) Party, who wanted to see Bavaria not as an independent state but as the base for a revolt that would take over the national government under the leadership of Adolf Hitler. To achieve that goal, Hitler persuaded the distinguished German general...
Essay on The Beer Hall Putsch of 1923 » 
Essay on The Mexican Revolution (1910-1920)
The Mexican Revolution (1910-1920) Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History. In 1910, an armed rebellion led by Francisco Madero overthrew the government of Porfirio Díaz, establishing Madero as president in 1911. However, Madero was slow to enact the reforms he had promised, and his two allies, Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata, openly rebelled against him. In 1913, Madero was killed by his own chief of staff, Victoriano Huerta, who declared himself president. The forces lined up against Huerta included, along with Villa and Zapata, Venetiano Carranza and Alvaro Obregon. In July 1914, Huerta resigned, and Venetiano Carranza assumed the presidency. Villa now carried on the fight against Carranza, who forced Villa to retreat to the American border. In 1916...
Essay on The Mexican Revolution (1910-1920) » 
Essay on The Mau Mau Uprising
The Mau Mau Uprising Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History. When the African nation of Kenya was still a British colony, the colonial administration pursued a policy of expropriating the most desirable land for white settlers, forcing natives off the land and thereby providing a cheap labor force for the new owners. This situation did not go unchallenged, but it was not until the post-World War II period that returning native veterans who had fought for Great Britain and militant intellectuals, such as Jomo Kenyatta, began to organize effectively around the issues of landownership and native unemployment. In 1947, Kenyatta became the president of the Kenyan African Union. Shortly thereafter a secret society developed among the Kikuyu, the largest...
Essay on The Mau Mau Uprising » 
Essay on Lenin (Vladimir Ulyanov)
Lenin (Vladimir Ulyanov) Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History. The founding father of the Soviet Union, Lenin (birth name: Vladimir Ulyanov) became involved in revolutionary activity as a student at Kazan University. In 1895, he was arrested and sentenced to five years' exile in Siberia. While there, he published The Development of Capitalism in Russia (1899), a work that established his reputation as a formidable Marxist theorist. On his return, he lived in exile in Geneva, publishing his highly controversial pamphlet What Is to Be Done (1902), a revision of Marxist theory calling for a revolution led by a core of professionals rather than waiting for the working class to acquire a revolutionary consciousness. This departure from the theories...
Essay on Lenin (Vladimir Ulyanov) » 
Essay on The Korean War (1950-1953)
The Korean War (1950-1953) Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History. At the Potsdam Conference in July-August 1945, the Allies, having already achieved victory in Europe, agreed that, following the impending defeat of Japan, Korea, which had been controlled by Japan since 1910, would be temporarily partitioned, with Russian troops occupying the northern section of the country and Americans controlling the southern portion. The dividing line would be the thirty-eighth parallel, latitude. This temporary arrangement was to be the first step in the formation of an independent, unified Korea. The unification plan soon ran aground as the United States and the Soviet Union could not agree on the form of government to be established. As a result, the northern...
Essay on The Korean War (1950-1953) » 
Essay on The Great Hanshin (Kobe) Earthquake (1995)
The Great Hanshin (Kobe) Earthquake (1995) Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History. At 5:46 A.M. on January 17, 1995, an earthquake hit the city of Kobe in western Japan. The quake lasted for only 20 seconds, but it resulted in the destruction of highways, railways, ports, and more than 100,000 buildings. Measuring 7.2 on the Richter scale, the quake left 5,000 people dead and more than 300,000 homeless. Many of the buildings were destroyed by fires, which raged through the city unabated for days, since there was no water in the city's mains to combat them. Survivors, without water, gas or electricity, huddled in remaining public buildings, freezing in the January cold. The elevated Hanshin expressway collapsed, sending more than 1,600 feet of the roadway crashing...
Essay on The Great Hanshin (Kobe) Earthquake (1995) » 
Essay on The Irish War of Independence 1919-1921
The Irish War of Independence 1919-1921 Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History. In the wake of the Easter Rising of 1916, nationalist fervor in Ireland intensified. Attempts to negotiate a form of home rule foundered on the question of the exclusion of six counties in the northern province of Ulster from the newly proposed government. In the general election of 1918, Sinn Fein, the most aggressive of the Irish parties, won a significant victory, but instead of joining the English Parliament to which they had been elected, they set up their own parliament, the Dail Eireann, in Dublin. Meanwhile Michael Collins, a veteran of the Easter Rising and member of the Dail, organized and led a guerrilla army, to be known from 1919 on as the Irish Republican Army (IRA)...
Essay on The Irish War of Independence 1919-1921 » 
Essay on The Irish Republican Army (IRA)
The Irish Republican Army (IRA) Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History. The forerunner of the IRA was the Irish Republican Brotherhood, a secret group of militants, founded in 1858 and supported to a large degree by immigrant Irish in the United States. With the coming of World War I in 1914, the brotherhood, together with elements from two smaller groups, the Irish Citizen Army and the Irish Volunteers, planned an uprising sometime during the war to take advantage of England's focus on the European front. In 1916, they staged the Easter Rising, a quixotic attempt to set up an Irish republic. The rising was easily squelched, but the extreme British reprisals, which included the summary executions of the leaders of the revolt, had the effect of creating...
Essay on The Irish Republican Army (IRA) » 
Essay on The Irish Civil War (1922-1923)
The Irish Civil War (1922-1923) Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History. The Anglo-Irish treaty that ended the Irish War of Independence passed the newly formed Dail Eireann (Irish Parliament) by a narrow margin (64-57) on January 7, 1922. The antitreaty forces, led by the Irish president Eamon De Valera, withdrew from the new government, arguing that the treaty betrayed the ideal of an independent, united Ireland. The Treaty created an Ireland that was, strictly speaking, neither independent nor united, an "Irish Free State" with de facto independence, but still a part of the British Commonwealth. It also provided for the partitioning of Ireland into two separate entities, establishing six northern counties in the province of Ulster as Northern Ireland...
Essay on The Irish Civil War (1922-1923) » 
Essay on Indonesian Uprising/Coup (1965)
Indonesian Uprising/Coup (1965) Indonesia is an island nation consisting of more than 13,000 islands stretching across 3,000 miles of the Pacific Ocean. Formerly a Dutch colony, which during World War II had been occupied by the Japanese, Indonesia gained independence in 1949 under the leadership of Achmad Sukarno. Beginning with a democratic government, President Sukarno introduced significant reforms in health and education, but he grew increasingly autocratic and corrupt over the years. In 1963, he precipitated an unsuccessful military "confrontation" with the newly independent state of Malaysia, which generated dissent in the Indonesian army. In the meantime, economic failures created severe suffering among the poorest section of the population, further agitated by...
Essay on Indonesian Uprising/Coup (1965) » 
Essay on The French Indochina War 1946-1954
The French Indochina War 1946-1954 Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History. From the late 19th century until 1950, the term Indochina referred to three states, Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam, all formerly under the control of a French colonial government. During World War II, in the wake of France's early defeat, the Japanese army, while never formerly occupying Indochina, used it as a staging area for military operations. The strongest opposition to the Japanese presence came from a group of guerrilla fighters, known as the Vietminh, led by the charismatic communist commander Ho Chih Minh. The Vietminh enjoyed considerable success against the Japanese, and in August 1945, after the formal defeat of Japan, they marched into Hanoi, proclaiming the northern section...
Essay on The French Indochina War 1946-1954 » 
Essay on The Hungarian Uprising of 1956
The Hungarian Uprising of 1956 Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History. In World War II, Hungary fought on the side of Germany. In 1944, Soviet troops invaded and occupied the country and continued to maintain a military presence after the war. The Soviet Union helped to set up a communist state, headed by Matyas Rakosi, first secretary of the Communist Party and a devoted Stalinist, whose regime imitated his master's. Highlights of Rakosi's oppressive reign included his imprisonment of the Hungarian Catholic primate Cardinal Joseph Mindszenty and the execution of his rival Laszlo Rajk. With Joseph Stalin's death in 1953 and Nikita Khrushchev's policy of de-Stalinization in effect, Rakosi's regime became increasingly untenable. On orders from...
Essay on The Hungarian Uprising of 1956 » 
Essay on The Islamic Revolution in Iran (1979)
The Islamic Revolution in Iran (1979) Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History. In 1956, the shah of Iran, in response to widespread discontent, initiated his "White Revolution," a reform movement aimed at modernizing Iran's economy while promoting the country internationally by establishing its role as the "arbiter of East and West"--that is, as a diplomatic mediator between the Arab world and the West. However, in the course of pursuing these goals, he attempted to weaken the hold of Islamic culture, encouraging, for example, large numbers of students to study abroad and giving greater rights to women, including the right to wear nontraditional clothing. These reforms drew the fire of many Muslim clergy. In response, the shah's regime became increasingly...
Essay on The Islamic Revolution in Iran (1979) » 
Essay on The Holocaust
The Holocaust Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History. Although the history of the world is replete with examples of various forms of genocide and mass slaughter, the Nazis' extermination of the Jews marks the first carefully planned, systematic, scientifically assisted attempt to annihilate an entire people. And for these reasons, the Holocaust is historically unique and profoundly troubling in the questions it raises about human nature and Western civilization. Its immediate origins were the inscrutable mind and will of Adolf Hitler, who, in a 1939 speech, "prophesied" that "if the Jewish international financiers succeed in involving the nations in another war, the result will not be world bolshevism and therefore a victory for Judaism, it will be the...
Essay on The Holocaust » 
Essay on Adolf Hitler Biography
Adolf Hitler Biography Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History. Adolf Hitler was born in a small town in Austria, Braunau on the Inn. His father was a customs official; his mother had been a maid in the Hitler household. As a young man, Adolf moved to Vienna to pursue a career as an artist, but the Vienna Academy of Fine Arts rejected his application, and in 1913 he moved to Munich and joined the German army. During World War I, he was wounded and sent to a military hospital. While he was still a patient there, the armistice was declared, an act that he viewed as a betrayal of Germany, the result of the machinations of Jews and Marxist revolutionaries. He became a political instructor for the army, a post that put him in touch with other dissident military figures...
Essay on Adolf Hitler Biography » 
Essay on The Fall of the Habsburg Empire
The Fall of the Habsburg Empire Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History. From the 15th to the 20th centuries, the House of Hapsburg was the most enduring and powerful dynasty in Europe. For a good part of that time, Hapsburg rulers also held the title of Holy Roman emperor. Although the empire varied in size throughout the centuries, its core consisted of Austria, Hungary, northern Italy, Bohemia (Czech Republic), Slovakia, Croatia, and Slovenia. Attempts to retain control over this wide range of peoples and lands became increasingly difficult in the wake of the strong movements for independence that sprang up in the late 19th century. Added to the administrative problems were the continual power struggles with foreign governments that further weakened the empire...
Essay on The Fall of the Habsburg Empire » 
Essay on Gulag in Soviet Union
Gulag Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History. Gulag is a Russian acronym for "Chief Administration of Corrective Labor Camps," the bureau of the secret police that administered the hundreds of prisons and camps, stretched throughout the Soviet Union during the reign of Joseph Stalin, from the 1920s to his death in 1953. In the course of that period, an estimated 15 million perished in these camps, many of them the victims of Stalin's 1920s attempts to impose collectivism in agriculture, or his 1930s policy of the great terror, or his post-World War II purges of returning Russian prisoners of war, Jews, and professionals. The government's early justification for the system invoked the idea of "corrective labor," the use of work to rehabilitate all those...
Essay on Gulag in Soviet Union » 
Essay on The Regime of the Greek Colonels (Military Junta of 1967-1974)
The Regime of the Greek Colonels (Military Junta of 1967-1974) Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History. In the wake of the assassination of Grigorios Lambrakis in 1963, the center-right government of Constantine Karamanlis could not hold. Elections in November brought George Papandreou's Center Union party to power. Papandreou relied heavily on his American-educated economist son, Andreas, who was suspected of being affiliated with ASPIDA (Shield), a leftwing cabal within the army. King Constantine, who ascended to the throne in 1964, maneuvered the elderly Papandreou into resigning in July of 1965. The subsequent government had little legitimacy, and when new elections were finally called in 1967, a cadre of junior officers, anticipating...
Essay on The Regime of the Greek Colonels (Military Junta of 1967-1974) » 
Essay on The Greek Civil War (1945-1949)
The Greek Civil War (1945-1949) Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History. During Germany's World War II occupation of Greece, marked by devastating famine in the cities and retaliatory massacres in the villages, the civilian population as a whole may have suffered more intensely than any in Western Europe. But during the attempt to organize an effective resistance and to make common cause with the British, then the only enemy of Germany able to assist, Greece slipped inexorably and almost seamlessly into an even crueler civil war. King George II's questionable decisions during the electoral crises of 1936, in which long-standing tensions between right and left resulted in an impasse, created the fault lines along which the murderous midcentury schism developed...
Essay on The Greek Civil War (1945-1949) » 
Essay on The Greco-Turkish War of 1919-1922
The Greco-Turkish War of 1919-1922 Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History. One of the defining events of modern Greek history is what the Greeks themselves refer to as the Asia Minor catastrophe, the failed invasion of Turkey that in 1922 resulted in the massacre of many Greeks whose families had lived in Turkey for centuries and in the next year forced an exchange of Christian and Muslim populations that created considerable logistic, economic, and social burdens for the Greek government. The Greek War of Independence from Turkey (1821-28) had established a core state, but it had also left much to be desired by those who thought that much more of the Greek-speaking world should have been included within its borders. Gradually the "Great Idea," the conviction...
Essay on The Greco-Turkish War of 1919-1922 » 
Essay on The Great Terror in Soviet Union (1934-1938)
The Great Terror in Soviet Union (1934-1938) Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History. The assassination in 1934 of Sergey Kirov, the head of the Communist Party in Leningrad and a loyal supporter of Joseph Stalin, provided the Soviet dictator, faced with growing criticism of his regime, with an excuse to begin a ruthless hunt for the murderer. Most historians believe that Stalin, fearful of Kirov's growing popularity, had ordered the murder. In any case, the investigation of the murder became the starting point for the Great Terror--purges conducted by Stalin's henchmen that laid waste the leadership of the Communist Party and the general staff of the Soviet army. Among its distinctive barbarities were three public "show trials" of leading Communist figures, men who had...
Essay on The Great Terror in Soviet Union (1934-1938) » 
Essay on The Great Depression (1929-1939)
The Great Depression (1929-1939) Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History. In the 1920s, America underwent a period of seemingly unmatched prosperity, signaled by high levels of consumption and production. Much of that prosperity was founded on debit spending by businesses and consumers. Innovative technology had created sharp increases in industrial production and installment buying. The stock market crash of 1929 exposed the fragility of that economy, with consequences that stretched far beyond the borders of the United States. The American economy sneezed and the rest of the world caught a cold. Western European nations, struggling to recover from a disastrous war and relying heavily on American loans, had serious problems, now exacerbated by raised...
Essay on The Great Depression (1929-1939) » 
Essay on The Development of Fascism in Europe
The Development of Fascism in Europe Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History. Fascism is a political ideology that glorifies the state. It also emphasizes the superiority of the race associated with the state and stresses the danger to the national health of the "contaminating" presence of minority populations, such as Jews or foreigners. A fascist government is headed by an all-powerful leader, "a strong man," who claims that he will lead the nation to recapture its idealized past glory. Fascism developed in Europe in the aftermath of World War I in response to economic turmoil and the growing threat represented by various forms of socialism. Like socialism, fascism made its appeal to the masses. Its torch-lit parades, featuring massive columns of men...
Essay on The Development of Fascism in Europe » 
Essay on The Easter Rising (1916)
The Easter Rising (1916) Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History. On Easter Monday, April 24, 1916, armed members of the Irish Volunteer Army took control of the General Post Office and several other buildings in Dublin, proclaiming an Irish republic. The Dublin action was originally conceived as the first step in a national insurrection, but the national uprising had been cancelled when a ship bearing 20,000 rifles was captured by the British authorities off the coast of Ireland. Nevertheless, the Dublin contingent, led by James Connolly and Padraig Pearse, chose to implement the plan despite their certain knowledge that the insurrection would fail. Pearse, in particular, was convinced that nothing less than a blood sacrifice, drawing the analogy to Christ...
Essay on The Easter Rising (1916) » 
Essay on Cultural Revolution in China
Cultural Revolution in China Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History. In 1966, Mao Zedong, chairman of the Chinese Communist Party, disturbed by what he claimed were increasingly bureaucratic and bourgeois tendencies within the party, launched the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution. Mao's real motive was his fear of losing power to the party establishment and of the rivalry represented by Liu Shaoqi, who had assumed the title of president after Mao's "Great Leap Forward" program, an attempt to revolutionize Chinese agriculture, had proved to be a disaster. Mao promoted the Cultural Revolution as a power-to-the-people program that would bypass party leadership. After ensuring the continued support of the military, he enlisted in his crusade students in the...
Essay on Cultural Revolution in China » 
Essay on Fidel Castro and Cuban Revolution
Fidel Castro and Cuban Revolution Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History. In 1895, Cuba was still a colony of Spain when Jose Marti's Cuban Revolutionary Party launched a war of independence. Three years later, the United States joined the battle against Spain, and, in 1902, Cuba was proclaimed an independent republic. From the beginning Cuba's "independence" was seriously compromised by the Platt Amendment to the Cuban constitution, permitting the United States the right to intervene in Cuban affairs under special circumstances. In 1934, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt revoked the Platt Amendment, but by that time the island's economic dependence on the American market for its principal export, sugar, was an accepted fact. In 1952, a military coup...
Essay on Fidel Castro and Cuban Revolution » 
Essay on The Fall of Communism
The Fall of Communism Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History. By the mid-1980s, the governments of the Soviet bloc in Eastern Europe--Poland, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania, and the Soviet Union itself--began to reveal political and economic weaknesses of critical proportions. By 1989, the people's simmering rage over the suppression of freedom and, in Timothy Garton Ash's phrase, "the structures of organized lying," that defined Communist governments, erupted in public, nonviolent demonstrations. Another underlying cause of the demonstrations was discontent with the standard of living, the product of outmoded and rigid economic policies, summed up by a striking shipyard worker in Gdansk, Poland: "Forty years of socialism"...
Essay on The Fall of Communism » 
Essay on The Cold War (1946-1991)
The Cold War (1946-1991) Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History. The term cold war denotes the period of unarmed struggle between the United States and its allies and the Soviet Union and its allies in the aftermath of World War II. In the course of 45 years, the two superpowers engaged in struggles and confrontations that fell short of actual hostilities, each side motivated by the fear of the other's achieving world domination. Although the period witnessed a number of "hot" wars that were rooted in the superpower struggle, notably in Korea and Vietnam, none of them directly pitted American and Soviet military forces against each other (always excluding the "military advisers," who seemed to be hovering in the background of all the hot spots)...
Essay on The Cold War (1946-1991) » 
Essay on The Battle of Chosin Reservoir (Korean War)
The Battle of Chosin Reservoir (Korean War) Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History. The United Nations intervention in the Korean War in July 1950 halted the advance of the invading North Korean troops, forcing them into a rapid retreat across the thirty-eighth parallel, the dividing line between North and South Korea. Buoyed by the success of his strategy, notably his surprise landing of United States Marines at Inchon Harbor, the UN supreme commander Douglas MacArthur divided his forces on either side of the impassable Tabaek mountain range, which runs north-south. Supporting this disastrous decision was the inept military intelligence that seriously underestimated the strength and intention of the Chinese troops massed on the border. On the western side...
Essay on The Battle of Chosin Reservoir (Korean War) » 
Essay on China in the 20th Century
China in the 20th Century Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History. By the beginning of the 20th century, the weaknesses of the Manchu dynasty reign of the dowager empress Cixi led to the increasing encroachment of Western commercial powers on Chinese soil. Chinese discontent erupted in the boxer rebellion (1900), in which foreigners and Christian missionaries were massacred and the Western consulates in the capital city of Peking (Beijing) were placed under siege. As a result, an international Western military force descended on China. This army soon quelled the uprising, wreaking damage and extracting demands that further weakened the imperial government. For the rest of the decade, the alienation of the imperial Qing dynasty from the mass of Chinese people...
Essay on China in the 20th Century » 
Essay on Cambodia under Pol Pot
Cambodia under Pol Pot Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History. Cambodia had been a colony of France until 1953, when it gained independence under the rule of Prince Sihanouk. Sihanouk pursued a policy of neutrality in the Cold War, alternately wooing the Soviet Union and the United States. During the Vietnam War, North Vietnamese forces used Cambodia as a supply base along the border. As a result, American planes steadily bombed areas of the country, and in 1970, while Sihanouk was out of the country, American troops supported a coup that brought General Lon Nol to power. Communist guerrillas in Cambodia, known as the Khmer Rouge and led by Pol Pot, began to step up their campaign against the government. In 1975, the capital city of Pnomh Penh fell to the...
Essay on Cambodia under Pol Pot » 
Essay on The End of the British Empire
The End of the British Empire Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History. At the beginning of the 20th century the British Empire, which had established itself on every continent but Antarctica, was so vast that it validated the boast that on it "the sun never set." It appeared as permanent as the long reign of the queen in whose name it was ruled. However, by 1902, Victoria was dead, and the empire had suffered its first major setback in the Boer War. Five years later, in 1907, finding imperial administrative burdens overwhelming, England agreed to confer "dominion" status--de facto self-government--on Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and South Africa. Although the empire seemed to rebound after the victory in World War I, when it acquired added power...
Essay on The End of the British Empire » 
Essay on The Boer War (1899-1902)
The Boer War (1899-1902) Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History. In the late 19th century, present-day South Africa consisted of two British colonies, Cape Colony and Natal, and two independent republics, the Orange Free State and the Transvaal. Governing the latter two were the Boers, descendants of early Dutch settlers in the region. The abundant natural resources of these two Boer republics constituted an attractive lure to their British neighbors, especially entrepreneurs like Cecil Rhodes, onetime prime minister of Cape Colony. In particular, the discovery in 1886 of rich veins of gold in the Transvaal provided a powerful incentive for the British to extend their control into the two republics. Alarmed by the obvious intentions of their powerful...
Essay on The Boer War (1899-1902) » 
Essay on The Berlin Wall
The Berlin Wall Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History. At the end of World War II, the Allies divided Germany into four zones, each one administered by one of the four Allied powers--France, Great Britain, the United States, and the Soviet Union. Berlin was also divided into four zones, even though geographically it was situated in the eastern zone, administered by the Soviets. In 1948, the Soviets tried to control all of Berlin by blockading all roads and railroad traffic into the city. The western Allies responded with the Berlin Airlift, flying in huge amounts of food and supplies to the Allied zones. The airlift proved to be a success, as did the economy of western Germany, which in the 1950s underwent a remarkable recovery, West Berlin...
Essay on The Berlin Wall » 
Essay on Armenian Genocide of 1915
Armenian Genocide of 1915 Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History. From the 16th to the 20th centuries, the nation of Armenia was part of the Ottoman Empire under the control of the Turks. Because the Armenians were Christians, they suffered from various forms of ill-treatment by their Muslim rulers. In 1895, the Armenians protested their status within the empire, calling for territorial autonomy. As a result, more than 200,000 Armenians were brutally massacred by Turkish troops. Earlier, part of Armenia had been ceded to Russia in 1878, and, when World War I erupted, some Armenians joined the Russian forces to fight against the Turks. In retaliation the Turkish government in 1915 ordered the deportation of the entire Armenian population to Syria...
Essay on Armenian Genocide of 1915 » 
Essay on Arab-Israeli Conflict (1948-)
Arab-Israeli Conflict (1948-) Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History. The ancient land called Palestine has been settled by both Arabs and Jews since biblical times. A movement called Zionism, designating Palestine as a new nation for the scattered Jewish people, was started in the 1890s by the Austrian journalist Theodor Herzl and quickly began to focus Jewish ambition and Arab discontent. Jews from Eastern Europe began to emigrate to Palestine. Before this, Jews and Arabs (mainly Muslims) lived side-by-side, with all the ordinary attendant difficulties associated with two different cultures in close contact. In modern times, Palestine was first in the hands of the Ottoman Empire (until 1918) and then controlled by Great Britain, under an internationally...
Essay on Arab-Israeli Conflict (1948-) » 
Essay on Apartheid (1948-1992)
Apartheid (1948-1992) Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History. In the aftermath of the Boer War, the Union of South Africa, consisting of the British colonies of Natal and Cape Colony, and the Dutch-speaking republics of the Transvaal and the Orange Free State, united as the Union of South Africa in 1910. The country prospered under the impetus of the gold and mining industries. As a result, the native African population started to abandon their traditional tribal life in the country and, in search of employment, moved toward the prosperous industrial centers, where they huddled in shanty towns. The presence of increasing numbers of blacks nearby triggered a reaction in the white community. Segregation of the races had always been a de facto condition...
Essay on Apartheid (1948-1992) » 
Essay on Antarctic Expeditions
Antarctic Expeditions Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History. Although the continent of Antarctica was sighted as early as 1820, it was not until the 20th century that explorers were able to penetrate deep into the frozen interior. In 1911, a race to reach the South Pole between a Norwegian group led by Roald Amundsen and a British team under Robert Scott resulted in Amundsen's reaching the Pole on December 15, with Scott arriving a month later on January 18, 1912. Returning to their base, Scott and his crew encountered unusually severe weather and ran out of supplies. Scott and the last two of his men perished within 11 miles of their base camp sometime after March 29, 1912, the date of the last entry in Scott's diary. A later expedition (1914-16) led by...
Essay on Antarctic Expeditions » 
Essay on The Angolan War of Independence
The Angolan War of Independence Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History. The African nation of Angola had been a colony of Portugal for many years, populated by increasing numbers of European Portuguese following World War II. Resistance to this domination and the exploitation of the country's natural resources took the form of the establishment of native political parties: the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) and the National Front for the Liberation of Angola (FNLA). By 1961, these parties, realizing that the Portuguese government had no intention of following other European nations in granting independence to African colonies, engaged in a guerrilla war that was to persist for 13 years. During most of that time, the Portuguese forces...
Essay on The Angolan War of Independence » 
Essay on The Amritsar Massacre (1919)
The Amritsar Massacre (1919) Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History. In 1919, the British colonial government in India assumed emergency powers in order to ensure calm at a time when Mohandas K. Gandhi was leading his satya grapha campaign of passive resistance to British rule. The emergency powers only served to inflame the situation, leading to riots, particularly in the Punjab, the northeastern province of India. Among the trouble spots was Amritsar, a city of 150,000 people, many of whom were protesting the arrest of two of their local leaders. Eventually the protest turned violent, and more than 1,000 troops under the command of Brigadier General Rex Dyer were called in to restore control. On April 13, some 10,000 people gathered in a walled meeting...
Essay on The Amritsar Massacre (1919) » 
Essay on The Algerian War of Independence
The Algerian War of Independence Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History. Algeria had been a French colony since 1948, when, in 1954, Algerian nationalists, buoyed by the success of Vietnamese rebels in the Indochina War, formed the Front de Liberation Nationale (FLN) and launched a series of small attacks on the colonial government. In 1956, the FLN bombed two popular cafes in Algiers, setting off the battle of Algiers, a struggle that lasted for a year, ending with the capture of the FLN chief, Yacef Saadi. But the fight continued elsewhere in Algeria, where the terrorism of the rebels was matched by that of the Organization de l'Armee Secrete (OAS), the most recalcitrant of the French Algerians. Meanwhile, in a foreshadowing of the American home front...
Essay on The Algerian War of Independence » 
Essay on The Fight against Drugs
The Fight against Drugs Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History. The fight against drugs dates back as far as 1880, when the United States and China signed an agreement prohibiting opium's being shipped from one country to the other. However, it was specifically under Richard Nixon's administration in the early 1970s that the domestic war on drugs sparked renewed interest in international enforcement of curtailing the supply of illicit drugs. Actions were especially successful in Turkey, but not in Mexico - a center of the drug trade that would only strengthen over the years. Something other than interdiction efforts had to be done to upset the supply of drugs. This is when the kingpin strategy was adopted and began making the war on drugs much more...
Essay on The Fight against Drugs » 
Essay on The Cuban Revolution (1959)
The Cuban Revolution (1959) Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History. On January 1, 1959, a broad-based insurrectionary movement - with Fidel Castro at its helm - overthrew the dictatorship of Fulgencio Batista and inaugurated the Cuban revolution, a process of social transformation that continues to the present writing. Its ideology was at first broadly nationalist and democratic, but by 1961 the revolution was proclaimed unambiguously socialist and Marxist-Leninist. One of only a handful of social revolutions in 20th-century Latin America, the Cuban revolution had a major impact not only within Cuba but around the world. In Latin America, the revolution encouraged the formation of leftist and neo-Marxist ideologies and movements of national liberation...
Essay on The Cuban Revolution (1959) » 
Essay on Berlin Blockade and Airlift (1948-49)
Berlin Blockade and Airlift (1948-1949) Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History. The Berlin blockade was a diplomatic crisis and military operation during the cold war precipitated by the Soviet Union's blockade of the city of Berlin from June 18, 1948, to May 12, 1949, and the subsequent relief effort launched by the United States, the United Kingdom, and France to provide provisions for the western half of the city. The Berlin blockade was one of the first major diplomatic crises of the cold war. The Western Allies' ability to provide for the city proved to be a major diplomatic victory and ensured the creation of a pro-Western West German state. However, it also ensured the division of Germany and Berlin for the next four decades. The diplomatic struggle over...
Essay on Berlin Blockade and Airlift (1948-49) » 
Essay on The Tiananmen Square Massacre (1989)
The Tiananmen Square Massacre (1989) Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History. The Tiananmen Square protests were a series of prodemocracy demonstrations in the People's Republic of China in 1989. The protests were the culmination of a movement inspired by the wave of democratization that swept across Eastern Europe at the end of the Cold War. The Beijing government brutally suppressed the protestors, earning international condemnation and U.S. and European Union sanctions. The nationwide demonstrations followed economic and political reforms under Deng Xiaoping. Chinese students, intellectuals, and a growing business class sought further freedoms and a political transition to democracy. In 1989, prodemocracy Chinese began to gather in Beijing and other...
Essay on The Tiananmen Square Massacre (1989) » 
Essay on The 1991 Soviet Coup d'Etat
The 1991 Soviet Coup d'Etat Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History. In 1991, hard-line Communists attempted to overthrow Mikhail Gorbachev in order to stop his democratic and economic reforms and prevent the breakup of the Soviet Union. Gorbachev was scheduled to sign a new treaty granting more power and autonomy to the constituent republics within the Soviet Union. On 18 August 1991, leading conservatives in the Politburo and senior security officials seized control of the government and placed Gorbachev under arrest at his vacation dacha in the Crimea. They installed an eight-member committee to act as a transitional government. Soviet vice president Gennady Yanayev was named acting president. Russian president Boris N. Yeltsin led popular opposition...
Essay on The 1991 Soviet Coup d'Etat » 
Essay on Operation Restore Hope \ Battle of Mogadishu (1993)
Operation Restore Hope \ Battle of Mogadishu (1993) Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History. After the overthrow of dictator Muhammad Siad Barre in 1911, civil war resulted in the deaths of more than 250,000 Somalis. In response, the UN, with support of the administration of George H. W. Bush, launched an operation to provide food and medical supplies. The United States deployed 25,000 troops as part of the mission. However, warlords and local militia leaders continued to struggle for predominance and hijacked aid shipments to enhance their power and influence. On 5 June 1993, militias loyal to Mohamed Farrah Aidid ambushed and killed 24 Pakistani peacekeepers. The United States subsequently launched a series of operations to capture Aidid and his senior...
Essay on Operation Restore Hope \ Battle of Mogadishu (1993) » 
Essay on The Lebanon Hostage Crisis
The Lebanon Hostage Crisis Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History. Beginning in 1985, Americans and other Westerners were routinely kidnapped in Lebanon by Islamic extremist groups, including Hezbollah and Islamic Jihad. Many of the groups had ties to Iran, and the administration of President Ronald W. Reagan arranged the release of a number of hostages by secretly providing arms to Iran (the weapons were flown into Iran in August and September 1985). The covert program was an integral component of the Iran-Contra Scandal of 1987. After the scandal, a new round of kidnappings took place in and around Beirut. Meanwhile, several foreign hostages were killed in captivity. Lt. Col. William F. Buckley, an American intelligence agent, was kidnapped in 1984...
Essay on The Lebanon Hostage Crisis » 
Essay on The Iran-Iraq War
The Iran-Iraq War Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History. After Abdol Karim Qasim's coup d'etat in July 1958, disputes between Iran and Iraq intensified. From the earliest days of the coup, the Iraqi press published articles against Iran and Radio Baghdad broadcast anti-Iran programs. Iraqi officials began to mistreat Iranians residing in Iraq and to harass Iranian nationals in border regions. The government of Iran showed tolerance and resilience and seized every opportunity to ameliorate the situation. In the latter part of October 1958, Iranian leaders expressed hope that the government of Iraq would participate in the session of the special commission charged with settling boundary problems and questions relating to the Shatt al-Arab waterway by...
Essay on The Iran-Iraq War » 
Essay on Benito Mussolini Biography
Benito Mussolini Biography Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History. Benito Mussolini, the oldest of Alessandro Mussolini's and Rosa Maltoni's three children, was born on July 29, 1883, in Predappio, a village about ten miles from the city of Forli in that region of east-central Italy called Romagna. Predappio was divided into several scattered groups of houses, and each group had its name. The Mussolinis lived in the one that was then called Dovia. In the early formation of Benito's character four factors are outstanding: the influence of his native Romagna, a land of restlessness and rebellion, once called the Sicily of continental Italy; the ideology of his father, a village blacksmith, atheist, and convinced revolutionary; the middle-class heritage and devout...
Essay on Benito Mussolini Biography » 
see also:
  Research paper on American History
  Essay Writings on American Revolution
  Term Papers on Ancient Egypt
  Research paper on Ancient Greece
  Essay on Ancient Mesopotamia
  Research paper on Ancient Rome
  Free Paper on Ancient World History
  Research Papers on Australian History
  Research paper on Early Modern History
  Writing Essay on Famous Historical Figures
  Custom Writing Essay on Founding Fathers
  Essay Writings on Medieval History
  Term Papers on Mesoamerican Civilizations
  Research paper on Revolutionary War & War of 1812
  Essay on U.S. Presidents
  Research paper on World War I History
  Free Paper on World War II History




Check our prices! Order your custom essay Now!
Custom Essays FAQInstant Quote
Assignment Type
Pages
Level
Due date
Custom Essays FAQCustom Essay Writing Services
SPECIAL OFFER! 10% OFF!
Enter FIRST10 as your coupon code at checkout to receive a 10% custom writing discount for your first order!
Features
 Professional Essay Writers
 Top Quality Essay Service
 Available 24/7
 Totally Authentic
 Flexible pricing and great discounts
 Written from scratch
 250 words per page
 6-hour delivery available
 Guaranteed Privacy
 FREE Bibliography
 Writing Research Papers in 3,6 or 12 hours
How many pages is a...
250 words essay = 1 page
300 words essay = 2 pages
500 words essay = 2 pages
600 words essay = 3 pages
750 words essay = 3 pages
800  word essay = 4 pages
1000 words essay = 4 pages
2000 words essay = 8 pages
3000 words essay = 12 pages
5000 words essay = 20 pages
7000 words essay = 28 pages
7500 words essay = 30 pages
10000 words essay = 40 pages
Best Prices
$9.99 / page > in 10 days
$11.99 / page > in 7 days
$13.99 / page > in 5 days
$14.99 / page > in 4 days
$15.99 / page > in 3 days
$17.99 / page > in 48 hours
$19.99 / page > in 24 hours
$23.99 / page > in 12 hours
$25.99 / page > in 6 hours
$29.99 / page > in 3 hours
Custom Essays FAQCustom Writing FAQ
 What does your service offer?
 Is this service legal?
 Whom do you employ for writing?
 How secure is the order processing?
 What kind of written works can you provide?
 How many words do you have per page?
 Can I contact you in case of emergency?
 What are your policies concerning the paper format?
 What about refunds?
 What charge will I have in my bank statement?
 
  Home About US Disclaimer Useful Links Essay Topics & Examples Our Prices Discounts Essay Writing FAQ Cheap Research Papers Order Now Contact Us