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  Ancient Greece
Essay on Ancient Greece and Rome
Ancient Greece and Rome Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History of Ancient Greece. In the Middle Ages, when civilization all but disappeared from Europe, the Arab world would preserve Greek culture and philosophy, particularly that of Aristotle. Farther west, the Byzantine Empire, which grew out of the Roman Empire's eastern branch in Greece, would maintain a very formal, strict, and static version of civilized learning while Western Europe faded into darkness. Just as it is impossible to imagine the world without Greece, so it is impossible to fully appreciate the Hellenic impact on civilization without seeing its influence on the last great society of the ancient world: Rome. As Greece was dying out, preparing to pass the torch to the Romans, two new schools of philosophy...
Essay on Ancient Greece and Rome » 
Essay on The Spread of Hellenistic Culture
The Spread of Hellenistic Culture Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History of Ancient Greece. The period between Alexander's death and the absorption of Greece into the Roman Empire is called the Hellenistic Age. During those two centuries, as Greece itself crumbled, Greek culture spread throughout the Mediterranean and Middle East. It did not come just from Greece, but from a place where the two greatest Mediterranean civilizations met: Alexandria. That great Egyptian city boasted not only the Pharos Lighthouse, one of the Seven Wonders of the World, but by far the world's greatest library. Ashurbanipal of Syria had founded the first true library three centuries earlier, but Alexandria's, with some 700,000 "books" (actually, scrolls), dwarfed all that...
Essay on The Spread of Hellenistic Culture » 
Essay on The Hellenistic Age (323-146 B.C.)
The Hellenistic Age (323-146 B.C.) Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History of Ancient Greece. In the aftermath of Alexander's death, his generals quarreled over the spoils of his conquests. None of them were remotely Alexander's equal in vision; they were merely soldiers, with no ambition to reshape the world. Seleucus (c. 356-281 B.C.) gained control over Persia and Mesopotamia, where an empire under his name would rule for many years. Ptolemy (c. 365-c. 283 B.C.) established a dynasty of even longer standing in Egypt. He and his descendants ruled from 323 until 30 B.C. As for who would rule Macedon and Greece, that was a much thornier question. Alexander's successors fought one another over the European homeland. Seleucus and Ptolemy, along with several others, tried to...
Essay on The Hellenistic Age (323-146 B.C.) » 
Essay on The Age of Alexander the Great (336-323 B.C.)
The Age of Alexander the Great (336-323 B.C.) Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History of Ancient Greece. When he assumed the throne of Macedon, Alexander (356-323 B.C.) was only 20 years old. Within two years, he would embark on a campaign of conquest that would make him ruler, by the age of 30, over almost the entire world as the Greeks knew it. His empire stretched from the Peloponnese to the Indus River and from the mountains of the Hindu Kush to the Cataracts of the Nile. Except for parts of India and Africa, as well as China and of course the Americas, all the civilizations up to that time would come either under direct Macedonian rule or into alliance with Macedon. No leader had ever conquered so much land in so short a time, and no leader would ever do so again...
Essay on The Age of Alexander the Great (336-323 B.C.) » 
Essay on The Reign of Philip II of Macedon (359-336 B.C.)
The Reign of Philip II of Macedon (359-336 B.C.) Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History of Ancient Greece. Philip II (382-336 B.C.) reorganized Macedon, consolidating his power in the court and transporting people from various regions of the country to other parts. It was a strategy employed by the Assyrians to prevent local groups from challenging the central authority. In Philip's case it gave him a free hand to extend his control far beyond Macedon's borders. Philip had invented a new weapon called the pike, a spear some sixteen feet long--a good nine or ten feet longer than the spears of Greek hoplites. Armed with pikes, his army was the most powerful in the region. Between 354 and 339 B.C., he conquered an empire that stretched across the Balkan Peninsula...
Essay on The Reign of Philip II of Macedon (359-336 B.C.) » 
Essay on Greece under Macedonian Rule (338-146 B.C.)
Greece under Macedonian Rule (338-146 B.C.) Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History of Ancient Greece. In the early 330s B.C., Greece began to experience rumblings from the north from a people beyond its borders who considered themselves heirs to the Grecian heritage, even if the Greeks themselves did not consider them entirely Greek. They seemed to have come out of another time, a world quite removed from the refinements of Athens--a world more like the Greece of myth, when heroes such as Achilles walked the earth. They were the Macedonians, a hard, warlike nation who, along with the much softer Lydians, considered themselves the descendants of Heracles. They absorbed the culture of Greece. Unlike the Spartans, they recognized that their focus on warfare and survival brought...
Essay on Greece under Macedonian Rule (338-146 B.C.) » 
Essay on The End of Classical Greece (404--338 B.C.)
The End of Classical Greece (404--338 B.C.) Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History of Ancient Greece. If the Spartans expected to replace Athens as leaders of Greece, they were to be disappointed. Military authority was no match for the vast influence Athens enjoyed thanks to its extraordinary advancement in a multitude of areas. The Peloponnesian War simply left a power vacuum, which Macedon would fill less than seventy years later. Historians frequently use words such as "inept" or "clumsy" to describe Sparta's handling of its leadership role. After centuries of isolation from the mainstream of Greek civilization, all the Spartans knew how to do was to maintain what they already had. When they tried to apply to Athens methods that had worked in Sparta, they failed...
Essay on The End of Classical Greece (404--338 B.C.) » 
Essay on The Peloponnesian War (431-404 B.C.)
The Peloponnesian War (431-404 B.C.) Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History of Ancient Greece. Other problems lay on the horizon for Athens. For a long time, a conflict with Sparta had been simmering. As early as 459 B.C., the two had clashed over control of Megara, an Attic seaport west of Athens. For many years afterwards, there was occasionally fighting between Athens and Sparta. When all-out war finally came, Megara was its immediate cause. The people of Corcyra, off the northwest coast near Epirus, had always had tense relations with the Corinthians who had colonized their island some 300 years before. When civil war broke out between the oligarchs and democrats of the island, Corinth moved in to suppress the democratic revolt. Quickly the lines were drawn: Athens...
Essay on The Peloponnesian War (431-404 B.C.) » 
Essay on The Age of Pericles (460-429 B.C.)
The Age of Pericles (460-429 B.C.) Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History of Ancient Greece. Athens had been destroyed by Persia, and Themistocles had led efforts at rebuilding in the decade that followed the defeat of the Persians. But he was ostracized in 470 B.C., and leadership of Athens fell to others. Then in 460 B.C., Pericles became archon (chief government official), and in the next thirty-one years he would institute so many reforms and direct the construction of so many splendid buildings that the era of his leadership would come to be known as the Age of Pericles or the Periclean Age. Although Cleisthenes (Pericles's great-uncle, as a matter of fact) had introduced democracy in Athens more than 40 years before, it was far from well established. There was a strong...
Essay on The Age of Pericles (460-429 B.C.) » 
Essay on The Delian League (478-338 B.C.)
The Delian League (478-338 B.C.) Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History of Ancient Greece. In the view of many Greeks, their people had set aside their old differences, joined together as one, and triumphed over the "barbarians." In fact, it was not as simple as that. Although Boeotian hoplites had fought with distinction at Thermopylae, much of Boeotia--united under the leadership of Thebes as the Boeotian League--had sided with the Persians. Likewise Epirus, Thessaly, and other large portions of Greece had either supported Persia or remained neutral. Still, the victories were impressive, particularly given the odds. The heroes of the Persian Wars seemed the equals of legendary figures from the Iliad. The myth of Greek unity was strong enough to build in the Greeks a supreme...
Essay on The Delian League (478-338 B.C.) » 
Essay on The Persian Wars (499-449 B.C.)
The Persian Wars (499-449 B.C.) Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History of Ancient Greece. For years, the kings of Lydia in Asia Minor had had their eyes on the Ionian colonies. Under Croesus in about 550 B.C., the Lydians finally subdued Ionia. Their victory was to be short-lived, however. In 546 B.C., Cyrus the Great of Persia captured all of Lydia and subdued the Ionian city-states. Problems in Ionia quieted down for half a century, but in 499 B.C. Miletus led the other city-states in a revolt against the Persians. Athens and the offshore city-state of Eretria sent troops to support the revolt. Darius I, the Persian ruler, responded by burning Eretria in the summer of 490 B.C. Shortly afterward, the Persians sailed to Marathon, a city on the coast of Attica, just 26 miles...
Essay on The Persian Wars (499-449 B.C.) » 
Essay on Artists and Scientists of Ancient Greece
Artists and Scientists of Ancient Greece Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History of Ancient Greece. There was a religious character to much of the poetry that flourished during the Classical Age. Among the finest poets of the era was Pindar (c. 522-c. 438 B.C.), whose most famous works were his odes to the victors in the Olympic Games. He was but the most prominent of many, and there were at least a dozen important poets in his time. As with Pindar, among the most noted works of the sculptor Praxiteles (fl. 370-330 B.C.) were those he created in honor of Olympic heroes. He sculpted the statues at two of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus and the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus. Then of course there was Phidias, the other most notable sculptor of...
Essay on Artists and Scientists of Ancient Greece » 
Essay on Playwrights of Classical Greece
Playwrights of Classical Greece Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History of Ancient Greece. In Classical Greece, the relationship between philosophy and literature became well-established. This was clear in the work of Aristophanes (c. 450-c. 388 B.C.), an Athenian playwright known for his comedies. A friend of the old order, Aristophanes poked wicked fun at Socrates, Plato, and others who promoted new views of society. Certainly he was a conservative, but he was too hilarious to be a stuffed shirt. Plays such as The Clouds and The Frogs are still funny today. Only eleven of Aristophanes's forty plays have survived, and the work of the great tragic playwrights has suffered similar devastation. In fact, Aristophanes is the only comic playwright whose work is even known today...
Essay on Playwrights of Classical Greece » 
Essay on Philosophers of Classical Greece
Philosophers of Classical Greece Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History of Ancient Greece. By the time of Socrates, philosophy had dwindled from the noble pursuits of earlier thinkers to the childish squabbling of the Sophists. The Greek root sophos means "clever" or "wise," as in sophisticated, and certainly the Sophists were clever. A product of the explosion in knowledge that had come from the work of earlier philosophers like Zeno, they sought to use logic for their own purposes. They went around the land, earning money by teaching young men how to be more effective at speaking and arguing, but there seemed no higher purpose to their pursuits. All they wanted was to get ahead in the world--and to argue. For this reason, the word sophist entered the English language...
Essay on Philosophers of Classical Greece » 
Essay on Great Figures of Classical Greece (c. 500-338 B.C.)
Great Figures of Classical Greece (c. 500-338 B.C.) Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History of Ancient Greece. The Classical Age in Greece is one of the most celebrated periods in the history of civilization. There has been no other era quite like it, when so many outstanding figures appeared on the scene at the same time. It was a time when philosophy, literature, sculpture, architecture, politics, and many other fields of human endeavor reached a high point. No wonder, then, that a period of just 75 years within the approximately 160 years of the Classical Age would come to be known as the Golden Age (479-404 B.C.), the brightest phase of Athens's history. Even shorter was the brilliant Age of Pericles (c. 495-429 B.C.), who led the city for just three decades. Not only was the...
Essay on Great Figures of Classical Greece (c. 500-338 B.C.) » 
Essay on The Olympic Games--Ancient and Modern
The Olympic Games--Ancient and Modern Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History of Ancient Greece. In 1894, exactly 1,500 years after the ancient Olympics ended, a French baron named Pierre de Coubertin (1863-1937) resurrected them. Coubertin saw the Olympics as a way to bring the nations of the world together in peace. He presided over the first modern Olympics at Athens in 1896. Except in 1916, 1940, and 1944 (during the two world wars) the Games would be held every four years thereafter, with the addition of Winter Games in 1924. (Starting in 1994, the Winter Games were held in evennumbered non-Olympic years.) By the 1980s and 1990s, however, the Olympics began to be plagued by a series of problems. On several occasions, nations boycotted the Games--that is, they refused...
Essay on The Olympic Games--Ancient and Modern » 
Essay on The Birth of Philosophy and Science in Ancient Greece
The Birth of Philosophy and Science in Ancient Greece Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History of Ancient Greece. Though the architecture of Greece is one of its visible legacies, some of the most significant Greek contributions to the modern world cannot be seen: democracy, for instance, and philosophy. The latter word comes from two Greek roots that together mean "love of knowledge." Originally, the term was applied to all forms of study. Even today, when a person completes a doctor's degree, the highest educational level in most disciplines, he or she most often receives a "doctorate of philosophy" degree, which is what the term "PhD" stands for in Latin. The word philosophy is used in many ways, but in its purest sense it means a search for a general understanding of values...
Essay on The Birth of Philosophy and Science in Ancient Greece » 
Essay on The Arts in Archaic Greece
The Arts in Archaic Greece Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History of Ancient Greece. Throughout Greece, but particularly in Athens, the arts began to flourish in Archaic times. Poetry entered its first flowering with writers such as Sappho (c. 610-c. 580 B.C.) One of the few prominent women of ancient Greece, Sappho lived on the isle of Lesbos in Asia Minor. Her work concerned jealousy and the pains of love, often for other women. Thus the English word for a homosexual woman became lesbian, though some scholars have suggested that Sappho was writing about an ideal kind of love rather than anything explicitly sexual. In any case, homosexuality was quite common in ancient Greece, where men and women lived virtually separate lives. The Archaic Age saw developments in pottery...
Essay on The Arts in Archaic Greece » 
Essay on The Birth of Democracy in Ancient Athens
The Birth of Democracy in Ancient Athens Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History of Ancient Greece. Sparta might be considered, along with Ch'in China, an early model of totalitarianism, whereas Athens was the birthplace of democracy, or rule by the people. As it first came to prominence during the Dark Ages, Athens followed a path not unlike Sparta's, with rule by an oligarchy descended from the original tribes of Attica. The city grew, however, and by about 700 B.C. dominated all of Attica. Eventually there was not enough food for everyone. The food shortage led to widespread discontent in the mid-600s B.C. This helped to usher in the age of the tyrants. In modern times, "tyrant" refers to an extremely cruel leader. The original tyrants were not necessarily bad rulers...
Essay on The Birth of Democracy in Ancient Athens » 
Essay on The Militaristic World of Sparta
The Militaristic World of Sparta Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History of Ancient Greece. Sparta lay on the southeastern Peloponnese, in a region once called Laconia. To this day, the word laconic describes someone with a clipped, abrupt way of speaking. Likewise the word spartan, meaning "without luxury or comfort," is part of the English language as well. Established by the Dorians in the 800s B.C., Sparta was also called Lacedaemon after its mystical founder. The city was ruled by two kings, descendants of an early monarch; the real power, however, lay in the hands of an oligarchy, a small ruling group. Sparta's oligarchy consisted of some thirty men, all over sixty years in age. Below the oligarchy were the citizens, a term that does not have the same meaning in modern America...
Essay on The Militaristic World of Sparta » 
Essay on The Olympic Games in Ancient Greece
The Olympic Games in Ancient Greece Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History of Ancient Greece. First held in 776 B.C., the Olympics were a model for other festivals such as the Pythian Games at Delphi. Most followed a similar structure. The Games included not only athletic contests but artistic ones--poetry and drama competitions, for instance--as well as religious services. As with the ceremonial ball game of the Olmec, the Olympic Games were not so much a form of entertainment as they were a form of worship. At first, the athletic part of the Games consisted of just one contest, a foot race of about 200 yards. Eventually, however, the Games stretched to five days. The Greeks added more events longer foot races; the pentathlon, which combined five different track...
Essay on The Olympic Games in Ancient Greece » 
Essay on Archaic Greece (c. 700-c. 500 B.C.)
Archaic Greece (c. 700-c. 500 B.C.) Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History of Ancient Greece. Already by the latter part of the Dark Ages, Greece was awakening. For the first time, the peoples of the Greek mainland and isles began to see themselves as one culture if not one nation. They called themselves Hellenes. Words such as Hellenistic describe their civilization. Part of the Greeks' awareness of themselves came from contact with other lands. In about 850 B.C., they began trading with other peoples. This led to an increase both in wealth and knowledge. The following century saw the rise of city-states. By 700 B.C., Hellenistic culture had begun to flower. From that point historians date the Archaic Age in Greece. Among the unifying factors of Greek culture were religious...
Essay on Archaic Greece (c. 700-c. 500 B.C.) » 
Essay on Iliad - The Tale of the Trojan War
Iliad - The Tale of the Trojan War Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History of Ancient Greece. Of the many stories about the Trojan War (sometimes collectively referred to as the "Troy tale") the most important are Homer's two great works, the Iliad and the Odyssey. Like the Sumerian Gilgamesh, these are epics, or long poems recounting the adventures of legendary heroes. A popular misconception about the Iliad is that it concerns the entire Trojan War, but in fact it takes place over the space of a few days in the tenth year of the war. Homer's tale does not even recount the most famous story of the war, that of the "Trojan Horse." The roots of the Trojan conflict began when Zeus fell in love with the sea-goddess Thetis. He would have married her, but he knew from Prometheus...
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Essay on The Foundations of Greek Culture and Civilization
The Foundations of Greek Culture and Civilization Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History of Ancient Greece. Though people consider Homer one of the greatest writers of all time, for centuries many believed that he never existed. Rather than a single figure named "Homer," some suggested, the name had been given to a group of poets who together composed the works attributed to him. But just as Schliemann proved the existence of Troy, scholars came to believe that there really was a poet named Homer. They can say only that he lived some time between 900 and 700 B.C. Most likely Homer was a wandering poet who earned his living by going to towns and presenting his tales--the "movies" of his day. Often he is depicted as blind; certainly he did not rely on reading and writing for...
Essay on The Foundations of Greek Culture and Civilization » 
Essay on The Dark Ages in Ancient Greece (c. 1100-c. 700 B.C.)
The Dark Ages in Ancient Greece (c. 1100-c. 700 B.C.) Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History of Ancient Greece. History is filled with fascinating chains of events, which are like a string of dominoes falling one by one--only, in the case of historical events, the results are much less predictable. The building of the Great Wall of China in the 200s B.C., which displaced nomadic tribes from the region, created a series of shock waves felt all to the way to the gates of Rome some 600 years later. What happened in Greece in the 1100s B.C. was similar, though on a much smaller scale. From the north, in Macedon, came a group of barbarians who moved into Epirus and Thessaly. The Macedonians would later have an enormous impact on Greek history, but at this early stage, their primary...
Essay on The Dark Ages in Ancient Greece (c. 1100-c. 700 B.C.) » 
Essay on The Mycenaean Age in Ancient Greece (c.1650-c.1100 B.C.)
The Mycenaean Age in Ancient Greece (c.1650-c.1100 B.C.) Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History of Ancient Greece. The Mycenaeans probably came from the Black Sea area starting in about 2800 B.C. Undoubtedly they were part of the Indo-European invasion: their language was an early form of Greek, itself an Indo-European tongue. By 2000 B.C., they had conquered the native peoples of Greece and had settled in the Peloponnese. A warlike people, the Mycenaeans built a Bronze Age civilization that flourished throughout the region beginning in about 1650 B.C. The Mycenaeans, who had lived in the shadow of the Minoans for a long time, adopted aspects of Minoan civilization. Their language was probably unrelated to that of the Minoans; however, in its written form, they adapted...
Essay on The Mycenaean Age in Ancient Greece (c.1650-c.1100 B.C.) » 
Essay on The Minoan Civilization (c. 2000-c. 1450 B.C.)
The Minoan Civilization (c. 2000-c. 1450 B.C.) Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History of Ancient Greece. At some point during the Neolithic Age, a people called the Minoans settled on Crete. Historians do not know where the Minoans came from, though it is likely they had their origins in Asia Minor. It is less of a mystery why they were drawn to Crete, which has a sunny, pleasant climate. Its hillsides abound with sweet-smelling flowers. The fertile soil is ideal for planting grains and fruit--most notably grapes and olives. From an early point, wine and olive oil became the most significant products of the area. They remain a major part of Mediterranean cuisine. In about 2000 B.C., the Minoan civilization underwent a sudden upsurge, entering a golden age. For the next...
Essay on The Minoan Civilization (c. 2000-c. 1450 B.C.) » 
Essay on Geography of Ancient Greece
Geography of Ancient Greece Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History of Ancient Greece. Greece is a rugged land at the southeastern corner of the European continent, across the Aegean Sea from Asia Minor (modern Turkey) to the east. To the west, on the other side of the Ionian Sea, is Italy. Southward lies the island of Crete. Farther still, in a southeastward direction across the Mediterranean, is Egypt. In observing the map of Greece, three notable facts are clear. First is its location, close to many great centers of ancient civilization; second is its rough coastline, a series of islands, inlets, and peninsulas; and third is its small size. A little more than 50,000 square miles (129,500 square kilometers), it is about as large as the state of Alabama. It is hard to imagine...
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Essay on The Palace of Knossos
The Palace of Knossos Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History. The unearthing of King Minos's labyrinth, the most dramatic discovery of 20th-century European archaeology, began to unfold along with the century in 1900 and was still offering major surprises decades later. Although Sir Arthur Evans (1851-1941), the keeper of the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford, was not the first to appreciate the possibilities of the mound at Knossos, a few miles south of modern-day Iraklion, Crete, it was he who succeeded in buying the property at a propitious time, when the hold of the Ottoman Turks on the island had been loosed. From the very first day, the finds were spectacular. Though the myth of Minos was considered a possible echo of a time when Crete was the dominant sea power...
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Essay on The Archaic Period in Greek History
The Archaic Period in Greek History Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History. The Archaic Period in Greek history (c. 700-500 BC) laid the groundwork for the political, economic, artistic, and philosophical achievements of the Classical Period. Perhaps one of the greatest gifts to Western civilization by the ancient Greeks was the beginning of democratic government and philosophy. The seventh century BC witnessed the decline of the old aristocratic order that had dominated Greek politics and the rise of the tyrant. For the Greeks the term tyrant referred to someone who had seized power through unconstitutional means. Tyrants were often accomplished men from aristocratic families who had fallen from political grace. They rode the tide of discontent...
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Essay on Alexander's Campaign Against Persia (334 BC)
Alexander's Campaign Against Persia (334 BC) Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History. Alexander embarked on a campaign against Persia in the spring of 334 BC. The Persians had attacked Athens in 480, burning the sacred temples of the Acropolis and enslaving Ionian Greeks. Alexander, a Macedon, won great favor with the Greeks by uniting them against Persia. He set out with an army of 30,000 infantry, 5,000 cavalry, and a fleet of 120 warships. The core force was the infantry phalanx, with 9,000 men armed with sarissa. The Persian army had about 200,000 men, including Greek mercenaries. Memnon, the Greek mercenary general, led the Persian force. Alexander had an excellent knowledge of Persian war strategy from an early age. In the spring of 334 BC he crossed the Hellespont...
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Essay on Alexander's Place in History
Alexander's Place in History Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History. Alexander the Great, King of Macedon 336-323 BC, was arguably the most successful military commander of ancient history, conquering most of the known world before his death. Born in 356 BC in Pella, Macedonia. Alexander is also known in Zoroastrian Middle Persian works such as the Arda Wiraz as "the accursed Alexander" due to his destruction of the Persian Empire and its capital Persepolis. He is also known in Eastern traditions as Dhul-Qarnayn (the two-horned one), apparently due to an image on coins minted during his rule that seemingly depicted him with the two ram's horns of the Egyptian god Ammon. In Iran, north-west India and modern-day Pakistan, he is known as Sikandar-e-Azam...
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Essay on The Peloponnesian War
The Peloponnesian War Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History. The Peloponnesian War began in 431 BC between the Athenian Empire (or The Delian League) and the Peloponnesian League which included Sparta and Corinth. The war was documented by Thucydides, an Athenian general, in his work History of the Peloponnesian War. Most of the extant comedies of Aristophanes were written during this war, and poke fun at the generals and events. The war lasted 27 years, with a 6-year truce in the middle, and ended with Athens' surrender in 404 BC. When war broke out between Athens and Sparta, few Greeks foresaw that it would be different from any war they had ever experienced or even imagined. The twenty-seven-year conflict cost thousands upon thousands of lives and proved...
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Essay on The Greco-Persian Wars
The Greco-Persian Wars Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History. The Greco-Persian Wars or Persian Wars were a series of conflicts between the Greek world and the Persian Empire that started about 500 BC and lasted until 448 BC. At the end of the 6th century BC, Darius the Great ruled over an immense realm, from Western China to Eastern Europe. In 513 BC Darius for the first time conquered Thrace and Macedonia. Macedonian king Alexander I became his vassal. But the conquest of Asia Minor (546 BC) left the Ionian Greeks under Persian rule, while the other Greeks were free, a state of affairs that was going to cause trouble sooner or later. Persian satraps (governors) of Asia Minor installed tyrants in most of Ionian cities and forced Greeks to pay taxes for the "King of Kings"...
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Essay on Ancient Athens
Ancient Athens Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History. Athens was the leading city in Greece during the greatest period of Greek civilization during the 1st millennium BC. During the "Golden Age" of Greece (roughly 500 BC to 300 BC) it was the Western world's leading cultural and intellectual center, and indeed it is in the ideas and practices of ancient Athens that what we now call "Western civilization" has its origins. After its days of greatness, Athens continued to be a prosperous city and a centre of learning until the late Roman period. The history of Athens is the longest of any city in Europe: Athens has been continuously inhabited for at least 3,000 years. It was the birthplace of democracy and it became the leading city of Ancient Greece in the...
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Essay on Ancient Sparta
Ancient Sparta Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History. Sparta was an ancient city in Greece, the capital of Laconia and the most powerful state of the Peloponnesus. Tradition relates that Sparta was founded by Lacedaemon, son of Zeus and Taygete, who called the city after his wife, the daughter of Eurotas. But Amyclae and Therapne (Therapnae) seem to have been in early times of greater importance than Sparta, the former a Minoan foundation a few miles to the south of Sparta, the latter probably the Achaean capital of Laconia and the seat of Menelaus, Agamemnon's younger brother. Eighty years after the Trojan War, according to the traditional chronology, the Dorian migration took place. A band of Dorians united with a body of Aetolians to cross the Corinthian Gulf...
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Essay on Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on History. No soldier in history is more indisputably "great" than Alexander, surpassing the majority even of good and eminent generals, as do Napoleon and very few others. What marks him out--even more than the quality both of his swift tactical insight and deliberate strategic planning - is the "daemonic" strength of will and leadership with which he dragged a war weary army with unbroken success to Khodjend and the Punjab. He wrote his name across the Near and Middle East for two hundred years; and yet his work was ephemeral, in that the Empire which he left, even in the strong hands of the early Seleukids, was dying on its feet from the first generation. Even his personality made no permanent impression...
Essay on Alexander the Great » 
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