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Research Paper on Physical Activity and Obesity
Physical Activity and Obesity Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Obesity. Physical Activity is defined as bodily movement (any form) produced by the contraction of skeletal muscles that increases energy expenditure above the basal level, and can be categorized in various ways, including type, intensity or strenuousness and purpose. Obesity is a condition describing excess body weight in the form of fat, with a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or greater...
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Psychology Essays and Research Papers

  ADHD Research Paper Topics
Research Paper on 47XYY Syndrome and ADHD
47XYY Syndrome and ADHD Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on ADHD. 47XYY syndrome may mimic ADHD, but they are two completely different conditions. In human beings females have one X chromosome inherited from their mothers and an X chromosome from the father. Males have an X chromosome from the mother and a Y chromosome from the father. There is a rare disorder in which the male may have an extra Y chromosome. Called the XYY trisomy syndrome, the individual may appear to be a normal male...
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Research Paper on Paul H. Wender - a Pioneer in Treating ADHD
Paul H. Wender Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on ADHD. Known by his colleagues as the ''Dean of ADHD,'' Paul H. Wender, MD, has been a pioneer in identifying and treating ADHD. Wender obtained his undergraduate degree at Harvard and his medical degree at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons and had special training in child, adolescent, and adult psychiatry at Harvard, Johns Hopkins, and St. Elizabeth Hospital...
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Research Paper on Vision Problems and ADHD
Vision Problems and ADHD Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on ADHD. If a child cannot see properly, school and daily activities are nearly impossible, which may cause ADHD-like symptoms, especially in educational settings. According to the Optometrists Network (2007), approximately 20 percent of school-aged children may have some learning-related vision disorders. When the special education, learning-disabled, and remedial populations are taken into consideration, about 70 percent of students have a visual component to their learning problems. This figure includes those with diagnosed learning...
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Research Paper on Tourette's Syndrome and ADHD
Tourette's Syndrome and ADHD Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on ADHD. Many children with Tourette's syndrome (TS) have symptoms of ADHD, but only rarely is ADHD considered a comorbid condition. Tics are common in childhood. According to Peterson et al. (2001), tics occur in between 4 and 18 percent of children and adolescents, but have a high degree of remission by adolescence. TS is a rare but more serious condition occurring in one to five cases in 1,000 individuals. Compulsive muscular or vocal tics characterize this neurological disorder. The person may have various involuntary movements...
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Research Paper on Teaching Children with ADHD
Teaching Children with ADHD Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on ADHD. Many of the points that relate to good teaching apply to all children. Whether this is a school or home situation, key principles are important: - Communicate with the child precisely and clearly. Tell the child exactly what to do. The focus must be very sharp and not lost in a fog of detail or ambiguity. - Protect the child by reducing distractions, unwanted stimuli, and teach to the child's cognitive and personal strengths. - Protect and nurture the child's self-esteem by maximizing opportunities for success, communicating...
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  Adolescent Psychology Research Paper Topics
Essay on Adolescent Development
Adolescent Development Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Adolescent Psychology. Adolescence is the transitional period of growth, development, and maturation that begins at the end of childhood (about 10 years of age). The onset of puberty can begin as early as age 8 or as late as age 15 in girls and as early as age 9.5 years and as late as age 15 in boys. It is the defining marker of the start of adolescence. The end of adolescence generally occurs between the ages of 17 and 21 years and is marked by the individual reaching full physical and developmental maturity or young adulthood. This developmental phase involves significant physical, hormonal, cognitive, emotional, and social changes. A neurodevelopmental perspective of adolescence holds that most changes...
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Essay on Storm and Stress
Storm and Stress Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Adolescent Psychology. G. Stanley Hall, a monumental figure in the field of child and adolescent development, described adolescence as suggestive of some ancient period of "storm and stress." Hall's recapitulation theory of human development predicted storm and stress to be the norm of adolescence, rather than an exception, because each individual has to go through the major evolutionary stages, with the period of adolescence recapitulating the time from savagery to civilization. Adolescents have to experience pubertal changes and juggle myriad tasks to overcome chaos and become stable, responsible adults. This process of breaking the old moorings to attain higher levels will inevitably incur...
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Essay on Juvenile Delinquency
Juvenile Delinquency Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Adolescent Psychology. Juvenile delinquency has traditionally been defined as behavior exhibited by children and adolescents that has legal ramifications, such as engaging in illegal activity (statutory and criminal). Juvenile delinquents include youth who have contact with law enforcement and those who are adjudicated through juvenile court for a crime. These are behaviors that violate the rules of a society and result in contact with the juvenile justice system. Originally, the juvenile justice system was created as a separate entity from the adult legal system in recognition of the developmental differences between children and adults. As such, the juvenile justice system was primarily concerned...
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Essay on Dating Across History
Dating Across History Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Adolescent Psychology. The definition and practice of dating continues to change across time and varies significantly among different cultures. For example, in 1977, according to Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, dating in the United States was defined as a "social engagement between two people of the opposite sex." Recently, however, this definition of dating in the United States has been modified in several ways. First, the construct of dating is no longer restricted to heterosexual interactions; instead, it can also transpire between two individuals of the same sex. At present, dating can also take place in groups rather than being restricted to a dyadic exchange. Furthermore, although dating...
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Essay on Late Adolescence (Ages 17-21 Years)
Late Adolescence (Ages 17-21 Years) Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Adolescent Psychology. During this stage of development, adolescents are facing high school graduation, placement tests, and often college or career selection activities. They are expected to make major decisions about the rest of their lives. By the end of late adolescence, most youth reach full physical, cognitive, social, and emotional maturity, and most issues of emancipation are essentially resolved. Specialization of gross motor skills, gains in strength, and aerobic capacity are fully developed; however, some adolescents may continue to develop speed and increase in size; these changes occur at a slower rate compared with during middle adolescence, and females continue to accumulate fat mass...
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  Aging Research Paper Topics
Essay on Theories of Aging: Psychological, Sociological, and Biological
Theories of Aging: Psychological, Sociological, and Biological Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Aging and Older Development. For more than 40 years, researchers in gerontology have commented on the need for theories of aging. K. Warner Schaie suggested that theories were needed to integrate the large amount of research data that was accumulating across disciplines. Timothy Salthouse has commented that the field of cognitive aging has virtually no theories that can account for a wide range of phenomena. More recently, Vern Bengtson and colleagues have stated that many gerontology researchers have not focused on theory building, and therefore, the development of theories of aging has not progressed as rapidly as the accumulation of data. Despite this lag in theory...
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Essay on Understanding the Process of Aging
Understanding the Process of Aging Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Aging and Older Development. Aging is inevitable. Although the average life expectancy has increased dramatically in recent years, we have yet to discover the proverbial fountain of youth. As such, our body gradually succumbs to the aging process. This process is so powerful that it inundates every aspect of life, from changes in appearance and limited physical mobility to cognitive impairments that may rob us of our very essence. These age-related changes are resultant of both pathological and normal aging processes. Although agerelated diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's can be traced to pathological aberrations, "normal" aging surely contributes to the downward progression of these...
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Essay on Ageism: Prejudice and Discrimination against Older People
Ageism: Prejudice and Discrimination against Older People Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Aging and Older Development. Robert N. Butler first introduced the term ageism to refer to prejudice and discrimination against older people based on the belief that aging makes people less attractive, intelligent, sexual, and productive. Ageism comprises three distinguishable yet interconnected aspects: (1) prejudicial attitudes toward older adults, old age, and the aging process; (2) discriminatory practices that focus on behaviors against older people; and (3) institutional practices and policies that perpetuate stereotypes about older adults, reduce their opportunity for life satisfaction, and undermine their personal dignity. With medical improvement...
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Essay on Very Old Age Characteristics
Very Old Age Characteristics Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Aging and Older Development. Because of the growing population of older adults in technologically advanced countries, researchers in a number of disciplines are becoming increasingly more interested in examining differences between older adults and very old adults as well as the transition to very late adulthood. Very old adults (also referred to as the oldest old) are typically defined in the literature as those adults who are 85 years old or older; however, some researchers set the criterion at 75 years old. In general, this population has a higher percentage of women compared with other age groups and is characterized by a high degree of comorbidity (i.e., multiple illnesses or conditions)...
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Essay on Gerontology - The Study of Aging
Gerontology - The Study of Aging Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Aging and Older Development. From the time of conception onward, humans are constantly aging, developing, and getting older. Although not a new area of investigation and study, gerontology (operationally defined as the scientific study of the aging process) has until recently taken a back seat to many other areas of scientific investigation. One reason for this is that many individuals do not want to think about aging and getting older, although these processes are inevitable. However, the study of aging and gerontology (as well as geriatrics) has taken center stage within many areas, including biology, psychology, sociology, and education, among others. Questions about how we age, why we age...
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  Anxiety Research Paper Topics
Essay on Future of Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Future of Generalized Anxiety Disorder Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Psychology. There may be no future for generalized anxiety disorder if the profession cannot agree on what is generalized anxiety disorder. We can no longer afford to have too discrepant views on generalized anxiety disorder and have one ''version'' of generalized anxiety disorder for use by clinical psychologists and the other for use by psychiatrists. It is an embarrassing paradox that generalized anxiety disorder is apparently one of the most common psychiatric disorders in the general population...
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Essay on Efficacy of Cognitive and Behavioral Treatments
Efficacy of Cognitive and Behavioral Treatments Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Psychology. Some studies indicate that cognitive and behavioral treatments of generalized anxiety disorder is superior to behavior therapy alone. Other studies reported no advantage of cognitive and behavioral treatments over either behavior therapy or cognitive therapy alone, with some advantage of cognitive and behavioral treatments over behavior therapy alone being evident only 12 months after the end of treatment. When cognitive and behavioral treatments with greater emphasis on an...
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Essay on The Use of Behavior Therapy in Generalized Anxiety Disorder
The Use of Behavior Therapy in Generalized Anxiety Disorder Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Psychology. The use of behavior therapy in generalized anxiety disorder is based on the hypothesis that pathological anxiety and worry are maintained by symptoms of tension, particularly muscle tension. Therefore, a significant decrease in muscle tension, usually by means of muscle relaxation, leads to a decrease in anxiety in general. Stated otherwise, the goal of behavior therapy in generalized anxiety disorder is to achieve good symptom control and, more specifically, control...
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Essay on Psychological Treatment of Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Psychological Treatment of Generalized Anxiety Disorder Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Psychology. Pathological worry as the main target of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in generalized anxiety disorder has been more elusive than behaviors such as avoidance as the main target of CBT in many other anxiety disorders. Perhaps this is the main reason that CBT for generalized anxiety disorder is still largely a ''work in progress.'' The process of developing and refining CBT approaches to generalized anxiety disorder is occurring alongside conceptual developments in...
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Essay on Generalized Anxiety Disorder Treatment
Generalized Anxiety Disorder Treatment Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Psychology. As with other anxiety disorders, early treatment of generalized anxiety disorder is more likely to be effective than treatment that starts later in the course of generalized anxiety disorder. Many persons with generalized anxiety disorder often tolerate their anxiety and distress for years, believing that it is in their ''nature'' to worry and that there is little that can be done to change that. As a result, they often seek help and treatment when the disorder has become more severe...
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  Biographies of Famous Psychologists
Essay on Sigmund Freud - Biography of Sigmund Freud
Sigmund Freud - Biography of Sigmund Freud Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Biographies of Famous Psychologists. Sigmund Freud is arguably the most influential psychologist in history. Born in Freiberg, Moravia (now Pribor, Czech Republic), lived in Vienna, Austria from about age 5 until his forced exile to London in 1938. Completing his medical degree in 1881, Freud's early interest was in neurology; he studied hypnosis as a treatment for neurosis under Charcot in Paris. Returning to Vienna, he married Martha Bernays, with whom he had six children, and began private practice. Throughout his career, Freud developed many collaborations, although most of them dissolved acrimoniously. His first, and perhaps most influential, was with Josef Breuer, a Viennese physician treating...
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Essay on Alfred Adler - Biography of Alfred Adler
Alfred Adler - Biography of Alfred Adler Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Biographies of Famous Psychologists. Alfred Adler was a physician and psychologist who created the Individual Psychology movement. Adler wrote 19 books and many articles and papers. He gave numerous lectures and demonstrations internationally. He was born in Rudolfsheim, Austria, and he had rickets as a young child. In his later description of the development of personality, physiologic and environmental conditions that increased a young child's felt inferiority were seen as pivotal. He also had an older, healthy, and competitive brother, Sigmund, with whom he experienced intense rivalry for their parents' attention. This struggle sensitized him to the significance of family...
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Essay on Albert Bandura - Biography of Albert Bandura
Albert Bandura - Biography of Albert Bandura Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Biographies of Famous Psychologists. Albert Bandura is a past president of the American Psychological Association (1973) and has been a professor at Stanford since 1953. Bandura was born in Alberta, Canada. He received his BA from the University of British Columbia in 1949 and his PhD in clinical psychology from the University of Iowa in 1952. Following his graduation, Bandura began teaching at Stanford and continues there as a faculty member to this day. Bandura was trained as a psychologist in the behavioral tradition, believing that only the observable is worth studying. However, as his career developed, he became interested in cognitions, including mental images and language...
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Essay on B. F. Skinner - Biography of B. F. Skinner
B. F. Skinner - Biography of B. F. Skinner Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Biographies of Famous Psychologists. In establishing a natural science of behavior, developing a philosophy of that science, and advancing their implications for improving the human condition, Burrhus Frederic (B. F.) Skinner became the most eminent psychologist of the 20th century. He was born and raised in Susquehanna, Pennsylvania, as American Progressivism and modernism neared their height. He received an AB in English from Hamilton College in 1926 and a PhD in psychology from Harvard University in 1931. He afterward held positions at Harvard (1931-1936), the University of Minnesota (1936-1945), Indiana University (1945-1947), and Harvard again (1947-1974), retiring as Professor Emeritus in 1974...
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Essay on Jean Piaget - Biography of Jean Piaget
Jean Piaget - Biography of Jean Piaget Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Biographies of Famous Psychologists. The Swiss psychologist and renowned scientist in cognitive psychology, Jean Piaget is arguably best known for formulating his influential theory of childhood cognitive development. Piaget was the oldest child of Rebecca Jackson and Arthur Piaget, an academic in the field of medieval literature. Piaget studied the natural sciences at the University of Neuchatel and by the age of 21 had published 25 articles on mollusks. In 1918, he was granted a doctorate degree in biology and began pursuing his interest in incorporating empirical methods into the field of genetic epistemology--the study of the development of knowledge. Following graduation, Piaget studied psychoanalysis and experimental methodology at the University of Zurich and then at the Sorbonne in Paris. It was in Paris that Piaget collaborated with Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon...
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  Cognitive Development Research Paper Topics
Essay on Abstract Reasoning
Abstract Reasoning Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Cognitive Development. In the development of abstract reasoning capacity, cognitive manipulation of objects or data is used to formulate conclusions about relationships. For example, in learning mathematics, one must proceed from understanding the concept of multiple objects in the present visual field to understanding the concept of addition. These new conclusions are successive, just like mathematics themselves. This process is a cognitive transcending of lower-level knowledge to form a new construction, or what Jean Piaget dubbed reflective abstraction. Piaget concluded that the accumulation of knowledge was based partly on this concept of new construction. His hypothesis of schemas application involves two joint...
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Essay on Theory of Mind
Theory of Mind Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Cognitive Development. Like all social animals, human children develop in a complicated social world, filled with numerous events involving the actions of other social agents. The ability to reason about the behaviors of these social agents is one of the most essential tasks in all of human cognition. For this reason, the question of how children come to reason about their social world has been a hot topic in the field of developmental psychology for some time. Much of this developmental work surrounds the question of how and when children develop a theory of mind. A theory of mind (ToM) can be defined as the capacity to represent the mental states--the beliefs, thoughts, perceptions, desires, and intentions--of...
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Essay on Stages of Moral Development
Stages of Moral Development Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Cognitive Development. According to Webster's Dictionary, morality refers to "the quality of being in accord with standards of good or right conduct." Individual variability in perceptions of what is "good" or "right" behavior exists. In addition, behavioral responses to moral dilemmas differ among people. The study of moral development has been ongoing for a number of years and has become more popular within the past decade. With increases in societal problems such as violence in our schools and heavy drug use among children and youth, the topic of moral development is currently being treated as a critical one in the field of psychology (Damon, 1999). Most of the psychological research in this area has...
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Essay on Social Cognition
Social Cognition Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Cognitive Development. How is it that two individuals can interact with the same person yet come away with vastly different impressions of the person? Can we feel good about ourselves, yet still have concerns about our basic worth? Why do our moods have such a profound effect on our judgments and decision making? Why do we sometimes experience negative thoughts about members of certain ethnic groups? Can we control these thoughts if we want to? Questions such as these are the focus of social cognition researchers. Specifically, social cognition is a sub-area of psychology that focuses on the mental processes that come into play when individuals interact with one another. In this sub-area, mental processes are defined very...
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Essay on Information Processing Theory
Information Processing Theory Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Cognitive Development. Information processing theories explain how people work with or perform mental operations on information they have received. These operations include all mental activities that involve noticing, taking in, manipulating, storing, combining, or retrieving information. This approach to human development emphasizes the fundamental mental processes involved in attention, perception, memory, decision making, and reasoning. Basically, information processing theory attempts to explain how humans think. Prior to the evolution of information processing theory, the field of psychology was dominated by behaviorism, a school of thought in which emphasis was placed solely on externally observable behaviors...
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  OCD Research Paper Topics
Essay on Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Future
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Future Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Psychology. There is a strong tendency to move obsessive compulsive disorder from the group of anxiety disorders to a new nosological group built around obsessive compulsive disorder. The advantages and disadvantages of this move, if the architects of the future classification systems decide to proceed with it, remain to be ascertained. Regardless of how obsessive compulsive disorder will be classified, further research is expected to advance our understanding of its psychopathology. It is not yet...
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Essay on Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Cognitive Therapy
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Cognitive Therapy Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Psychology. Cognitive therapy is based on the cognitive model of obsessive compulsive disorder, which proposes that modifications of appraisals and beliefs related to obsessions and compulsions are required for treatment outcome to be successful. Cognitive therapy may be particularly suitable for the treatment of obsessions. In clinical practice, cognitive therapy is often combined with ERT, which may be more effective for treating compulsions. There are two goals of cognitive therapy...
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Essay on Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Prevention
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Prevention Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Psychology. Predictors of outcome of ERP (whether administered alone or in conjunction with medications) have been identified by many studies. To some extent, these studies have been helpful in guiding treatment decisions in obsessive compulsive disorder. Thus, ERP does not seem to be a suitable or sufficient treatment option for patients with severe forms of obsessive compulsive disorder and for those with severe depression, severe personality disturbance, hoarding, and obsessions, especially sexual...
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Essay on Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Treatment Problems
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Treatment Problems Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Psychology. Difficulties in the course of ERP usually arise from provocation of anxiety and distress and prevention of relief that would have been obtained from a compulsion or other neutralizing acts. Being unable to perform compulsion is particularly frightening to patients who strongly believe that this will lead to something dreadful. Patients can fully engage in ERP only if they trust their therapist, if the therapist has succeeded in enlisting patients' collaboration, and if they are...
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Essay on Response Prevention and Treatment of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
Response Prevention and Treatment of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Psychology. The response prevention component is often described imprecisely and understood partially by patients. It also relies heavily on patients' motivation and self-discipline to refrain from performing a compulsion when they feel the greatest urge to do so. In addition, response prevention continues as long as possible after the end of exposure. That means that patients are expected to refrain from performing the compulsion not only during and immediately after the...
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  PTSD Research Paper Topics
Essay on Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Future
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Future Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Psychology. The concept of post-traumatic stress disorder has been seriously challenged. The way in which this challenge is responded to will ultimately determine the fate of posttraumatic stress disorder so that its validity is confirmed or it becomes just another chapter in the history of psychiatry. Considering only the vast intellectual and financial resources invested into posttraumatic stress disorder-inspired research, the latter outcome seems unlikely. Additional resources are now needed to disentangle...
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Essay on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Combined Treatments
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Combined Treatments Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Psychology. Combining pharmacotherapy with psychological treatments, especially CBT, for chronic posttraumatic stress disorder seems reasonable because either treatment alone often produces a partial improvement or is effective only for some symptoms. This has created an expectation that combining pharmacotherapy and CBT would improve outcome. While combined treatments are apparently used frequently in clinical practice, their efficacy in posttraumatic stress disorder has hardly been...
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Essay on Psychodynamic Psychotherapy in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
Psychodynamic Psychotherapy in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Psychology. Psychodynamic psychotherapy may be suitable only for a subset of patients with post-traumatic stress disorder. It may be indicated for patients who are motivated to explore their traumatic experiences and whose goal is not merely to have these experiences ''under control.'' It should not be used if patients have disruptive emotional dysregulation, poor impulse control, or a significant substance use problem. The goal of psychodynamic psychotherapy is a healing reconstruction...
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Essay on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Group Therapy
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Group Therapy Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Psychology. It is not clear whether group therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder is useful and how it should optimally be conducted. A group format may allow its members to share their experiences and support each other. It may also facilitate exposure to traumatic stimuli through encouragement from group members and observation of other patients' exposure during the group sessions. Some posttraumatic stress disorder patients feel that only people who have undergone similar traumatic...
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Essay on Anxiety Management Techniques in CBT
Anxiety Management Techniques in CBT Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anxiety Disorders. Anxiety Management Techniques are often used as part of the CBT package, with the goals of alleviating tension, anxiety, and hyper arousal symptoms. They may also assist posttraumatic stress disorder patients in their struggle to regain some control over their symptoms and may help them engage with anxiety-provoking CBT procedures, particularly exposure. Anxiety management techniques often involve use of muscle relaxation and breathing retraining in a way similar to their use in other anxiety...
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  Panic Disorder Research Paper Topics
Essay on Future of Panic Disorders Treatment
Future of Panic Disorders Treatment Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Psychology. A decision to designate recurrent panic attacks as a separate disorder has been controversial ever since panic disorder was introduced into psychiatric nosology. The survival of panic disorder as a diagnostic entity first depends on demonstrating that unexpected panic attacks are not a product of fiction. If unexpected panic attacks cannot be reliably distinguished from situational attacks on the basis of the criteria other than lack of context in which they appear, the raison deter...
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Essay on Psychodynamic Psychotherapy and Psychoanalysis
Psychodynamic Psychotherapy and Psychoanalysis Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Psychology. Psychodynamic therapy and psychoanalysis are used if general indications for these forms of psychotherapy are present. These include the patient's ability to make meaningful connections between various experiences, phenomena, symptoms, and external events, along with the willingness to understand these connections and relationships in relevant context (''introspectiveness''), ability to withstand unpleasant emotions and frustrations, delay gratification, resist impulsive urges and form...
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Essay on Exposure-Based Therapy for Agoraphobia
Exposure-Based Therapy for Agoraphobia Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Psychology. The behavioral technique of exposure is the key component of the treatment of agoraphobia. Even if the formal exposure-based therapy is not used, at least some basic principles of exposure should be incorporated into every treatment approach to agoraphobia. Gradual exposure in vivo is by far the most common type of exposure therapy for agoraphobia. Its use entails a construction of phobic hierarchies on the basis of a behavioral analysis, with initial exposure to situations that elicit...
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Essay on Panic Symptoms Control Techniques
Panic Symptoms Control Techniques Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Psychology. The most common techniques used for alleviation of symptoms of anxiety and panic are controlled, slow breathing (breathing retraining) and relaxation. The use of controlled, slow breathing can avert hyperventilation or restore normal breathing pattern in patients who are already hyperventilating. Insofar as the panic symptoms are caused by hyperventilation, restoration of the normal breathing pattern can alleviate or even eliminate these symptoms. Controlled, slow breathing relies on three components...
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Essay on Panic Control Treatment
Panic Control Treatment Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Psychology. Panic control treatment is a commonly used form of CBT, with greater emphasis on behavioral components of treatment. It is based largely on the model of panic attacks as false alarms and the concepts of interoceptive conditioning and learned alarms. In contrast to the goals of treatment in cognitive therapy, the main goal of panic control treatment is a better control of symptoms of anxiety and panic. The key technique of panic control treatment is interoceptive exposure, which is similar to behavioral experiments...
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  Psychoanalysis Research Paper Topics
Essay on Freud's Views on Sexual Instinct
Freud's Views on Sexual Instinct Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Sex and Gender Issues. Other philosophers, such as Friedrich Nietzsche (1844- 1900), believed in a sexual instinct as a force operating in the human psyche, but it was Schopenhauer's ideas that influenced the thinking of Freud. Freud believed that the human psyche was a dynamic system comprised of conscious wishes, motivations, and actions, which were themselves influenced by unconscious desires and drives. Throughout his long career Freud would develop theories about how the unconscious relates to the conscious as well as how the unconscious is structured. He used these theories as the basis for treating patients suffering from various psychological disorders and symptoms. Early in his career, for example...
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Essay on Freud and the Psychoanalytic View on Sadism
Freud and the Psychoanalytic View on Sadism Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Sex and Gender Issues. In his Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality (1905), Freud referred to Krafft-Ebing's writings and formed his own psychoanalytic theories around the general characteristics of sadism and masochism. Freud's discussion of sadism and masochism, like that of Krafft-Ebing, concludes that the two are ''the most common and the most significant of all the perversions'' (Freud 1963, p. 23). Sadism is instinctual and tied to a life-preserving aggression. Freud writes of this aggressive quality specifically in males as a natural, biologically determined, desire to subjugate, to quash the resistance of the sexual object and thus ensure coitus. Sadism is the exaggeration of such aggression to the point...
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Essay on Psychoanalysis: The Theories of Jacques Lacan
Psychoanalysis: The Theories of Jacques Lacan Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Sex and Gender Issues. Perhaps the most influential of Freud's followers, however, was Jacques Lacan (1901-1981), a French psychiatrist who took up Freud's ideas. Working with psychotic patients, Lacan reinterpreted Freud's work through the insights of philosophy and more contemporary theories of language. Lacan saw the individual as a flexive system that, inevitably suffering the trauma of separation from the fullness of its pre-Oedipal existence, develops language, desire, and drives as ways to fill in for the lackin-being precipitated by the inevitable recognition that one is separate and alone. Lacan used the analogy of the insight of individual separateness gained by seeing oneself...
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Essay on Psychoanalysis: Freud and His Followers
Psychoanalysis: Freud and His Followers Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Sex and Gender Issues. Freud, who began as a neurologist and studied with Charcot in Paris, offered what became the most far-reaching and influential model of psychic functioning. Beginning his studies with hysterical female patients, Freud developed a talking cure, in which patients talked to him, narrating dreams, feelings, and experiences. By listening to and analyzing how a patient related thoughts and feelings, the analyst could deduce what the repressed material was that produced symptoms. In The Interpretation of Dreams (1899), Freud suggested that dreams represent not only the expression of unconscious thoughts but also wish fulfillment, and that dream expressions follow specific rules--a dream grammar...
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Essay on Psychoanalysis before Freud
Psychoanalysis before Freud Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Sex and Gender Issues. Although Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) is probably the most famous as well as the most influential psychoanalyst, psychoanalysis as known in the early twenty-first century started a century before Freud began his work. In the late eighteenth century, Franz Anton Mesmer (1734-1815), a Viennese medical doctor, believed that individuals had what he called animal magnetism, which was quite literally a magnetic fluid in the body. If the fluid became disorganized, individuals suffered symptoms that could be cured by using magnets or the laying on of the physician's hands to realign the magnetic elements of the fluid. Mesmer believed that for healing to occur, patients needed to have an intense rapport...
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  Sexuality Research Paper Topics
Essay on Male to Female Transsexuals
Male to Female Transsexuals Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Sex and Gender Issues. Male-to-female (MTF) transsexual refers to biologically born males who identify as female or as a woman and who may seek to undergo or have undergone hormonal and/or surgical intervention(s) to align their external physical sex with their internal female gender identity. Conversely, female-to-male (FTM) transsexual refers to biologically born females who identify as males or as a man and seek to undergo or have undergone hormonal and/or surgical interventions to align their physical characteristics with their male gender identity. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-IV, the prevalence of MTF is approximately 1 in 30,000 whereas the prevalence...
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Essay on Female to Male Transsexuals
Female to Male Transsexuals Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Sex and Gender Issues. Female-to-male (F2M, F-M, or FTM) transsexuals (sometimes called ''female-toward-male'' or ''female-to-male'') are female-born persons who suffer from intense, often painful feelings that their assigned sex does not match their actual gender (a condition called gender dysphoria and clinically diagnosed as gender identity disorder). As opposed to transvestites who habitually cross-dress, transsexuals live fulltime as men or women and may undergo sex-reassignment surgery (SRS) in order to transition from one sex to another. Transsexuals may also identify as transgender (an umbrella term coined in the 1970s to refer to multiple gender-bending identities). Some reserve the term...
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Essay on The Third Sex
The Third Sex Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Sex and Gender Issues. The term third sex originated in the late nineteenth century among sexologists as a way to describe homosexual men and lesbians. It did not carry the moral or legal stigma of sodomite, and suggested an innate or biological factor existed in behaviors that fell outside traditional categories of male and female. However, it also conflated same-sex desire with gender variance. Karl Heinrich Ulrichs used the word Urning in the 1860s to describe a third sex male being who desired other men; Richard von Krafft-Ebing used the term sexual invert to describe a similar being in his 1886 Psychopathia Sexualis. Havelock Ellis and John Addington Symonds followed suit in their 1896 study, Sexual Inversion...
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Essay on Sexuality: Science, Research, and Understanding
Sexuality: Science, Research, and Understanding Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Sex and Gender Issues. Sexuality can refer to sexed beings, reproductive function, genital expression, a libidinal drive, the nature of sexual desire, or sexual identity. At one time it was assumed that all beings were sexually oriented toward heterosexual sexual behavior, thus the biological sex of a person was thought to indicate his or her sexuality. However, as homosexuality demonstrates, one's biological sex does not necessarily predict one's sexual behavior, nor does sexual behavior reflect biological sex. Thus, sexuality is understood in the early twenty-first century to refer only to sexual behavior and not to gender or biological sex (though these factors may influence it)...
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Essay on Sexual Perversion
Sexual Perversion Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Sex and Gender Issues. Sexual perversion is an old-fashioned diagnostic term that served as a label for sexual activities considered outside the norm of heterosexual sexual desire and activity. This norm was defined as coitus with a person of the opposite sex with the aim of achieving orgasm through genital penetration. Any other type of sexual activity, regardless of the sex of the participants, was traditionally considered perverse. Sexual perversion appears most famously in Richard von Krafft-Ebing's nineteenth-century medical textbook Psychopathia Sexualis, first published in German in 1886. There sexual perversion is defined as a disease of the sexual instinct, as opposed to sexual perversity...
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  Social Phobia Research Paper Topics
Essay on Psychoanalytic Approaches of Social Phobias
Psychoanalytic Approaches of Social Phobias Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Psychology. The main tenet of the psychoanalytic theory of phobias is that there is some fundamental anxiety behind every fear. Therefore, the therapist's task is to uncover this fundamental anxiety and the associated intrapsychic conflicts; without such an uncovering, the understanding of phobias is only superficial. Moreover, if the conflicts are not resolved, the treatment may lead to a replacement of one type of phobia with another (''symptom substitution''), a claim that has...
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Essay on Future of Social Anxiety Disorder
Future of Social Anxiety Disorder Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Psychology. Social anxiety disorder is still often considered to be just another term for ''too much'' shyness. There is little appreciation that social phobia and shyness differ in more than degree of severity. Therefore, the concept of social phobia will be useful to the extent that it is clearly delineated from shyness and other forms of normal social anxiety, and further efforts need to be made to draw a practical, not only academic, demarcation line between social phobia and shyness. This task is...
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Essay on Social Skills Training
Social Skills Training Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Psychology. Social skills training is derived from the social skills deficits model of social phobia and based on the assumption that social phobia patients have a basic deficiency in social skills. A ''true'' deficit in social skills does not characterize all patients with social phobia, but those who are grossly socially inept may benefit from social skills training. Social skills training is used with the purpose of helping patients acquire skills that would be useful in various social situations. There are several...
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Essay on Group Therapy for Social Phobia
Group Therapy for Social Phobia Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Psychology. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for social phobia may be conducted in a group setting, as it offers some advantages over individual treatment. These advantages include simulation of various social situations, greater opportunities for social exposure and different forms of role-play, support from other members of the group, learning through observation of other group members, the giving and receiving of feedback about social performance, and modification of one's own attitudes and views as a result...
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Essay on Cognitive Therapy of Social Phobia
Cognitive Therapy of Social Phobia Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Psychology. Cognitive therapy is based on the cognitive model of social phobia (see Etiology and Pathogenesis, above), which emphasizes the key role of faulty appraisals of oneself (as weak, inadequate, etc.), others (as powerful, negative assessors of the patient), and social interactions and situations (as being inherently dangerous). Therefore, the goal of cognitive therapy is to correct these appraisals and replace them with more accurate alternatives. Cognitive therapy may also aim to change some...
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  Specific Phobias Research Paper Topics
Essay on Future of Specific Phobias
Future of Specific Phobias Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Psychology. While specific phobias are common in the general population, they are relatively rarely encountered in clinical settings. One way of interpreting this discrepancy is to assume that specific phobias represent a minor form of psychopathology, because most sufferers can apparently live without seeking help for it. The other interpretation is that people with specific phobias may feel embarrassed to seek help or that there are other impediments to their treatment. Regardless of the interpretation, there is...
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Essay on Psychological Treatments for Specific Phobias
Psychological Treatments for Specific Phobias Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Psychology. Although exposure therapy is quite efficacious in the treatment of specific phobias (with response rates of up to 80%--90%), some patients find it too demanding, fail to maintain motivation for treatment, and/or are unable to complete the course of therapy. It is estimated that as many as 25%--50% of patients drop out of behavioral treatment of specific phobias. For patients who fail behavior therapy or are not sufficiently motivated for it, exploring other treatment options is worthwhile...
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Essay on Exposure Therapy for Specific Phobias
Exposure Therapy for Specific Phobias Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Psychology. Exposure-based treatment has been modified for certain types of specific phobias. For example, in blood-injection-injury phobia, patients often fear fainting during exposure as much as they fear the actual phobic stimulus. To minimize the possibility of fainting during exposure, ''applied tension'' has been used: it requires patients to induce muscle tension during exposure because fainting is incompatible with the physiological correlates of tension. If the main underlying emotion is disgust...
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Essay on Exposure-Based Treatments of Specific Phobias
Exposure-Based Treatments of Specific Phobias Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Psychology. The type of exposure therapy used most commonly in the treatment of specific phobias is gradual exposure in vivo. Imaginal exposure sometimes precedes exposure in vivo or is conducted at the same time as exposure in vivo. Progressive muscle relaxation is usually not used during exposure in vivo, unless patients develop severe physical symptoms. Patients are exposed to various components of phobic stimuli in the gradual, hierarchy-based sequence. For example, patients with a dog phobia...
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Essay on The Treatments of Specific Phobias
The Treatments of Specific Phobias Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Psychology. It is practically impossible to treat specific phobias without some form of exposure. This is why behavior therapy has such an important role in treatment. Even Freud considered exposure necessary in the treatment of phobias, but exposure therapy has never been integrated with psychoanalysis or psychodynamic therapy. The treatment of specific phobias to some extent depends on the type of phobia. It relies very much on patients' motivation, as patients may be more tempted than those with other...
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