ESSAY EMPIRE's custom essays
  Home Essay Topics & Examples Our Prices Research Papers Term Papers Essay Writing Order now Contact Us  
 Argumentative Essays and Research Papers
 Art and Culture Essays and Research Papers
 Business Essays and Research Papers
 Custom Essay Writing Services
 Environmental Essays and Research Papers
 Health Essays and Research Papers
 History Essays and Research Papers
 How to Write an Essay
 Literature Essays and Research Papers
 Media Essays and Research Papers
 Philosophy Essays and Research Papers
 Political Science Essays and Research Papers
 Psychology Essays and Research Papers
 Religion Essays and Research Papers
 Research Paper Examples
 Research Paper Topics & Ideas
 Science Essays and Research Papers
 Shakespeare Essays and Research Papers
 Sociology Essays and Research Papers
Todat' Free Samples Essay
Research Paper on Physical Activity and Obesity
Physical Activity and Obesity Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Obesity. Physical Activity is defined as bodily movement (any form) produced by the contraction of skeletal muscles that increases energy expenditure above the basal level, and can be categorized in various ways, including type, intensity or strenuousness and purpose. Obesity is a condition describing excess body weight in the form of fat, with a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or greater...
Popular Essay Topics
 Research Paper on Organizational Crime
 Research Paper on Human Trafficking
 Research Paper on Capital Punishment
 Research Paper on Community Corrections
 Research Paper on Crime Prevention
 Research Paper on Ancient Political Thought
 Research Paper on Asian Political Thought
 Research Paper on Islamic Political Thought
 Research Paper on Christian Political Thought
 Research Paper on Early Modern and Classical Liberal Political Thought
 Research Paper on Standards for Psychotherapy
 Research Paper on Support Groups
 Research Paper on Agoraphobia
 Research Paper on Alcohol Abuse
 Research Paper on Alzheimer's Disease
 Research Paper on Technology and the Environment
 Research Paper on Sociology of Terrorism
 Research Paper on the Sociology of Violence
 Research Paper on Environmental Sociology
 Research Paper on Applied Sociology
Copyright ©, 2004-2012. All rights reserved

You Are Here: Home > Essay Topics > Psychology Essays and Research Papers > Aging Research Paper Topics  > Essay on Ageism: Prejudice and Discrimination against Older People

  Aging Research Paper Topics

Essay on Ageism: Prejudice and Discrimination against Older People

Robert N. Butler first introduced the term ageism to refer to prejudice and discrimination against older people based on the belief that aging makes people less attractive, intelligent, sexual, and productive. Ageism comprises three distinguishable yet interconnected aspects: (1) prejudicial attitudes toward older adults, old age, and the aging process; (2) discriminatory practices that focus on behaviors against older people; and (3) institutional practices and policies that perpetuate stereotypes about older adults, reduce their opportunity for life satisfaction, and undermine their personal dignity.

With medical improvement and scientific advances, the population is aging at an unprecedented rate. The proportion of U.S. residents older than 65 years rose from 9.2% in 1960 to 12.6% in 1990 and is predicted to reach 17.7% in 2020. Most developed countries in Western society show similar trends. The population structure change leads to concern about the resources necessary to support elders. This concern has resulted in continual debate among legislators and in the media on aging-related issues, such as federal debt, social security, health care, and housing. The theme of such debate focuses on whether there are ageism practices in the corresponding area and how to protect elders from age-related discrimination. Overall, a trend has been expected that older individuals would wield considerably more political power, be more active in the workplace and education, and have a much greater stake in the world's economic output.

There are legislative acts providing broad protections against ageism, such as the 1967 Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) and the amended Older Workers' Benefit Protection Act. The former was designed to protect employees older than 40 years from differential treatment in all phases of the employment process. The latter act was designed to ensure that early retirement packages and other incentives that require workers to waive their right to sue for age discrimination are offered in a way that does not unduly harm the worker. However, a recent Supreme Court ruling implies that elders do not deserve special protections against ageism because they do not constitute a group with a history of discrimination. Consistent with this, mandatory retirement and increasing insurance costs on the basis of age alone, rather than competence or demonstrated health risks, are still legal.

Although the ADEA legislation has allowed many older workers to continue employment, there are still other manifestations of ageism in the workplace. First, hiring and firing practices are age differentiated. Qualified older workers are less likely to be hired for positions than same qualified young workers. When forced to downsize, organizations are likely to target early retirement and layoffs at older workers. These observed patterns of employment that favor young workers over older workers may be due to the stereotypical beliefs about physical and mental declines of older individuals. Second, organizations are often reluctant to train older workers. Accumulated evidence suggests that strongly held societal beliefs are responsible, such as older people are unwilling to change, not worth training because they will not be around long, learn too slowly, do poorly in the classroom, and are computer illiterate. Third, declining earnings by older workers have been related to ageism. Stereotypes about older workers as being unable to perform and produce at levels that are required by the workplace are common. They lead to age differences in wages, after controlling for worker background, education, training, experience, job characteristics, and labor market conditions.

In summary, ageism is a form of discrimination based on age alone. Because of the changing demographics in Western society, it becomes increasingly important to protect the elderly from ageism in all aspects of their lives.



Butler, R. N. (1969). Age-ism: Another form of bigotry. Gerontologist, 9, 243-246.

Cockerham, W. C. (1997). This aging society. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Issacharoff, S., & Harris, E. W. (1997). Is age discrimination really age discriminations? The ADEA's unnatural solution. New York University Law Review, 72, 780-840.

Kimel et al. v. Florida Board of Regents (1999). No. 98-791, slip op. (S. Ct. January 11, 1999).

Nelson, T. D. (Ed.). (2002). Ageism: Stereotyping and prejudice against older persons. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Palmore, E. B. (1999). Ageism: Negative and positive. New York: Springer.

U.S. Bureau of the Census. (1989). Projections of the population of the United States by age, sex, and race: 1988-2080, Current population reports: Population estimates and projections. Series P-25, No. 1018. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

EssayEmpire offers you the best custom essay writing services, along with term paper, thesis paper, and research paper writing help. Our company employs professional essay writers who are fully qualified in a variety of academic fields. If you require a high quality writing service that is capable of writing authentic essays, term papers or research papers because you simply don't have the time or resources to do them yourself or maybe they seem too complicated and time consuming, you don't need to look any further. EssayEmpire is the perfect place for all your needs. If you need high quality Essay on Ageism: Prejudice and Discrimination against Older People at affordable prices please use our essay writing services offered by EssayEmpire.

Essay on Theories of Aging: Psychological, Sociological, and Biological
Essay on Understanding the Process of Aging
Essay on Very Old Age Characteristics
Essay on Gerontology - The Study of Aging
Essay on Wisdom and Age
Essay on Widowhood and Widowerhood
Essay on Older Adulthood
Essay on Aging Population and Generation Gap
Essay on Aging and Dementia
Essay on Chronological Age
Essay on The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA)
Essay on Aging and Assisted Living Facilities (ALFs)
Essay on Aging Well
Essay on Aging Parents
Essay on Age Discrimination
Essay on Aging and Advance Directives
Essay on Aging and Activities of Daily Living (ADLs)
Essay on Communication and Aging Population
Essay on Aging and Alzheimer's Disease
Essay on Aging in Society

Check our prices! Order your custom essay Now!
Custom Essays FAQInstant Quote
Assignment Type
Due date
Custom Essays FAQCustom Essay Writing Services
Enter FIRST10 as your coupon code at checkout to receive a 10% custom writing discount for your first order!
 Professional Essay Writers
 Top Quality Essay Service
 Available 24/7
 Totally Authentic
 Flexible pricing and great discounts
 Written from scratch
 250 words per page
 6-hour delivery available
 Guaranteed Privacy
 FREE Bibliography
 Writing Research Papers in 3,6 or 12 hours
How many pages is a...
250 words essay = 1 page
300 words essay = 2 pages
500 words essay = 2 pages
600 words essay = 3 pages
750 words essay = 3 pages
800  word essay = 4 pages
1000 words essay = 4 pages
2000 words essay = 8 pages
3000 words essay = 12 pages
5000 words essay = 20 pages
7000 words essay = 28 pages
7500 words essay = 30 pages
10000 words essay = 40 pages
Best Prices
$9.99 / page > in 10 days
$11.99 / page > in 7 days
$13.99 / page > in 5 days
$14.99 / page > in 4 days
$15.99 / page > in 3 days
$17.99 / page > in 48 hours
$19.99 / page > in 24 hours
$23.99 / page > in 12 hours
$25.99 / page > in 6 hours
$29.99 / page > in 3 hours
Custom Essays FAQCustom Writing FAQ
 What does your service offer?
 Is this service legal?
 Whom do you employ for writing?
 How secure is the order processing?
 What kind of written works can you provide?
 How many words do you have per page?
 Can I contact you in case of emergency?
 What are your policies concerning the paper format?
 What about refunds?
 What charge will I have in my bank statement?
  Home About US Disclaimer Useful Links Essay Topics & Examples Our Prices Discounts Essay Writing FAQ Cheap Research Papers Order Now Contact Us