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  Electronics Research Paper Topics
Research Paper on Electronic Calculators
Electronic Calculators - Electronics - Science and Technology Research Paper Topics. An electronic calculator is a calculating "machine" that uses electronic components, such as integrated circuits, transistors, and resistors to process the numbers that have been entered through a keyboard. The electronic calculator is usually inexpensive and pocket-sized, using solar cells for its power and having a gray liquid crystal display (LCD) to show the numbers. Depending on the sophistication, the calculator might simply perform the basic mathematical functions (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division) or might include scientific functions (square, log, trig). For a slightly higher cost, the calculator will probably include programmable scientific and business functions. Either way, the calculator is small, self-powered, and relatively disposable. Yet it was not always that way. The room-sized Z3 developed by Konrad Zuse and the ENIAC of the mid-twentieth century are considered the world's first digital computers, but they really were little more than electronic calculators...
Research Paper on Electronic Calculators » 
Research Paper on Mechanical and Electromechanical Calculators
Mechanical and Electromechanical Calculators - Electronics - Science and Technology Research Paper Topics. The widespread use of calculating devices in the twentieth century is intimately linked to the rise of large corporations and to the increasing role of mathematical calculation in science and engineering. In the business setting, calculators were used to efficiently process financial information. In science and engineering, calculators speeded up routine calculations. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, mechanical calculators were already in widespread use, and by 1822 Charles Babbage was at work on his difference engine (which he never completed because of the mechanical complexity of thousands of brass cogs and gears). Based on technology developed over several centuries, early twentieth century calculators can be divided into two major types: (1) the slide rule; and (2) the adding machine and related devices. Invented by William Oughtred in the seventeenth century, the slide rule...
Research Paper on Mechanical and Electromechanical Calculators » 
Research Paper on Quartz Clocks and Watches
Quartz Clocks and Watches - Electronics - Science and Technology Research Paper Topics. The wristwatch and the domestic clock were completely reinvented with all-new electronic components beginning about 1960. In the new electronic timepieces, a tiny sliver of vibrating quartz in an electrical circuit provides the time base and replaces the traditional mechanical oscillator, the swinging pendulum in the clock or the balance wheel in the watch. Instead of an unwinding spring or a falling weight, batteries power these quartz clocks and watches, and integrated circuits substitute for intricate mechanical gear trains. When quartz timepieces first hit the market, it seemed unlikely that the expensive gadgets would sell. Instead they won over consumers and revolutionized the way timepieces are made, sold, and used. Today, quartz is the most common source of time and frequency signals, not only in clocks and watches but also in scientific instruments and in other consumer products like computers, cell phones...
Research Paper on Quartz Clocks and Watches » 
Research Paper on Control Technology: Electronic Signals
Control Technology: Electronic Signals - Electronics - Science and Technology Research Paper Topics. The advancement of electrical engineering in the twentieth century made a fundamental change in control technology. New electronic devices including vacuum tubes (valves) and transistors were used to replace electromechanical elements in conventional controllers and to develop new types of controllers. In these practices, engineers discovered basic principles of control theory that could be further applied to design electronic control systems. The voltage and current regulation technology of electrical power networks was among the fields that witnessed an early transition from electromechanical to electronic control. In the early twentieth century, the most prevalent voltage-current regulator was the ''Tirrill'' regulator made by the General Electric Company. A Tirrill regulator had a constantly vibrating contact that moved a resistor in and out of a generator's excitation circuit. It used the presence or...
Research Paper on Control Technology: Electronic Signals » 
Research Paper on Electric Motors
Electric Motors - Electronics - Science and Technology Research Paper Topics. The main types of electric motors that drove twentieth century technology were developed toward the end of the nineteenth century, with direct current (DC) motors being introduced before alternating current (AC) ones. Most important initially was the "series" DC motor, used in electric trolleys and trains from the 1880s onward. The series motor exerts maximum torque on starting and then accelerates to its full running speed, the ideal characteristic for traction work. Where speed control independent of the load is required in such applications as crane and lift drives, the "shunt" DC motor is more suitable. The electricity supply industry favored AC systems. DC motors could be adapted to operate on AC supplies, though not so well. The reversal of the current at each half cycle of the supply did not affect the direction in which the motor ran since both the field and the armature were reversed, but it induced "eddy" currents in the...
Research Paper on Electric Motors » 
Research Paper on Electronics
Electronics - Electronics - Science and Technology Research Paper Topics. Electronic systems in use today perform a remarkably broad range of functions, but they share the technical characteristic of employing electron devices such as vacuum tubes, transistors, or integrated circuits. Most electron devices in use today function as electric switches or valves, controlling a flow of electrons in order to perform useful tasks. Electron devices differ from ordinary electromechanical switches or current- or voltage-control devices in that an applied electric current or field controls electron flow rather than a mechanical device. Electronic devices are ''active,'' like machines, but have no moving parts, so engineers distinguish them both from electromechanical devices and from other ''passive'' electrical components such as wires, capacitors, transformers, and resistors. When the word electronics was coined around 1930, it usually referred to so-called vacuum tubes (valves), which utilize electrons...
Research Paper on Electronics » 
Research Paper on Hall Effect Devices
Hall Effect Devices - Electronics - Science and Technology Research Paper Topics. The ''Hall effect,'' discovered in 1879 by American physicist Edwin H. Hall, is the electrical potential produced when a magnetic field is perpendicular to a conductor or semiconductor that is carrying current. This potential is a product of the buildup of charges in that conductor. The magnetic field makes a transverse force on the charge carriers, resulting in the charge being moved to one of the sides of the conductor. Between the sides of the conductor, measurable voltage is yielded from the interaction and balancing of the polarized charge and the magnetic influence. Hall effect devices are commonly used as magnetic field sensors, or alternatively if a known magnetic field is applied, the sensor can be used to measure the current in a conductor, without actually plugging into it (''contactless potentiometers''). Hall sensors can also be used as magnetically controlled switches, and as a contactless method of detecting...
Research Paper on Hall Effect Devices » 
Research Paper on Infrared Detectors
Infrared Detectors - Electronics - Science and Technology Research Paper Topics. Infrared detectors rely on the change of a physical characteristic to sense illumination by infrared radiation (i.e., radiation having a wavelength longer than that of visible light). The origins of such detectors lie in the nineteenth century, although their development, variety and applications exploded during the twentieth century. William Herschel (c. 1800) employed a thermometer to detect this ''radiant heat''; Macedonio Melloni, (c. 1850) invented the ''thermochrose'' to display spatial differences of irradiation as color patterns on a temperature-sensitive surface; and in 1882 William Abney found that photographic film could be sensitized to respond to wavelengths beyond the red end of the spectrum. Most infrared detectors, however, convert infrared radiation into an electrical signal via a variety of physical effects. Here, too, nineteenth century innovations continued in use well into the twentieth century...
Research Paper on Infrared Detectors » 
Research Paper on Integrated Circuits: Design and Use
Integrated Circuits: Design and Use - Electronics - Science and Technology Research Paper Topics. Integrated circuits (ICs) are electronic devices designed to integrate a large number of microscopic electronic components, normally connected by wires in circuits, within the same substrate material. According to the American engineer Jack S. Kilby, they are the realization of the so-called ''monolithic idea'': building an entire circuit out of silicon or germanium. ICs are made out of these materials because of their properties as semiconductors--materials that have a degree of electrical conductivity between that of a conductor such as metal and that of an insulator (having almost no conductivity at low temperatures). A piece of silicon containing one circuit is called a die or chip. Thus, ICs are known also as microchips. Advances in semiconductor technology in the 1960s (the miniaturization revolution) meant that the number of transistors on a single chip doubled every two years, and led to lowered...
Research Paper on Integrated Circuits: Design and Use » 
Research Paper on Integrated Circuits: Fabrication
Integrated Circuits: Fabrication - Electronics - Science and Technology Research Paper Topics. The fabrication of integrated circuits (ICs) is a complicated process that consists primarily of the transfer of a circuit design onto a piece of silicon (the silicon wafer). Using a photolithographic technique, the areas of the silicon wafer to be imprinted with electric circuitry are covered with glass plates (photomasks), irradiated with ultraviolet light, and treated with chemicals in order to shape a circuit's pattern. On the whole, IC manufacture consists of four main stages: 1. Preparation of a design 2. Preparation of photomasks and silicon wafers 3. Production 4. Testing and packaging. Preparing an IC design consists of drafting the circuit's electronic functions within the silicon board. This process has radically changed over the years due to the increasing complexity of design and the number of electronic components contained within the same IC. For example, in 1971, the Intel 4004 microprocessor was...
Research Paper on Integrated Circuits: Fabrication » 
Research Paper on Josephson Junction Devices
Josephson Junction Devices - Electronics - Science and Technology Research Paper Topics. One of the most important implications of quantum physics is the existence of so-called tunneling phenomena in which elementary particles are able to cross an energy barrier on subatomic scales that it would not be possible for them to traverse were they subject to the laws of classical mechanics. In 1973 the Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to Brian Josephson, Ivan Giaever and Leo Esaki for their work in this field. Josephson's contribution consisted of a number of important theoretical predictions made while a doctoral student at Cambridge University. His work was confirmed experimentally within a year of its publication in 1961, and practical applications were commercialized within ten years. The device that has commonly become known as a Josephson junction consists of a thin piece of insulating material between two superconductors. The thickness of the insulator is generally of the order of 25 A...
Research Paper on Josephson Junction Devices » 
Research Paper on Laser Applications
Laser Applications - Electronics - Science and Technology Research Paper Topics. More than 1000 different lasers (an acronym for light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation) exist and can be classified according to the type of lasing material employed, which may be a solid, liquid, gas, or semiconductor. The characteristic wavelength and power output of each laser type determines its application. The first true lasers developed in the 1960s were solid-state lasers (e.g., ruby, or neodymium: yttrium-aluminum garnet "Nd:YAG" lasers). Ruby lasers were used as early as 1961 in retinal surgery and are today used mainly in surgery and scientific research, and increasingly for micromachining. Gas lasers (helium and helium-neon being the most common, but there are also carbon dioxide lasers), developed in 1964, were soon investigated for surgical uses. Gas lasers were first used in industry in 1969 and are still heavily used in high-power applications in manufacturing for drilling, cutting...
Research Paper on Laser Applications » 
Research Paper on Lasers in Optoelectronics
Lasers in Optoelectronics - Electronics - Science and Technology Research Paper Topics. Optoelectronics, the field combining optics and electronics, is dependent on semiconductor (diode) lasers for its existence. Mass use of semiconductor lasers has emerged with the advent of CD and DVD technologies, but it is the telecommunications sector that has primarily driven the development of lasers for optoelectronic systems. Lasers are used to transmit voice, data, or video signals down fiber-optic cables. Theodore Maiman, of Hughes Aircraft Company in the U.S., demonstrated the first laser in 1960, some four decades after the prediction of the lasing phenomenon by Einstein in 1917. Following this demonstration, in synthetic ruby crystals, it was inevitable that lasing action in other media would be investigated. It was two years later in 1962 that the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), IBM and General Electric simultaneously built the first semiconductor lasers using gallium arsenide (GaAs) as the lasing medium. Initial lasers were severely limited by heating problems and could only operate for short periods. Teams at Bell Labs, U.S. and the Ioffe Physical Institute in Russia succeeded with continuous operation at room temperature in 1970, with commercial production emerging from 1975 onwards. The development of silica optical fiber, through the 1960s and into the 1970s, has provided the complementary technology to drive and dominate the development of lasers for optoelectronics
Research Paper on Lasers in Optoelectronics » 
Research Paper on Lasers: Theory and Operation
Lasers: Theory and Operation - Electronics - Science and Technology Research Paper Topics. Lasers (an acronym for light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation) provide intense, focused beams of light whose unique properties enable them to be employed in a wide range of applications in the modern world. The key idea underlying lasers originated with Albert Einstein who published a paper in 1916 on Planck's distribution law, within which he described what happens when additional energy is introduced into an atom. Atoms have a heavy and positively charged nucleus surrounded by groups of extremely light and negatively charged electrons. Electrons orbit the atom in a series of ''fixed'' levels based upon the degree of electromagnetic attraction between each single electron and the nucleus. Various orbital levels also represent different energy levels. Normally electrons remain as close to the nucleus as their energy level permits, with the consequence that an atom's overall energy level is minimized. Einstein realized that when energy is introduced to an atom; for example, through an atomic collision or through electrical stimulation, one or more electrons become excited and move to a higher energy level. This condition exists temporarily before the electron returns to its former energy level. When this decay phenomenon occurs, a photon of light is emitted. Einstein understood that since the energy transitions within the atom are always identical, the energy and the wavelength of the stimulated photon of light are also predictable; that is, a specific type of transition within an atom will yield a photon of light of a specific wavelength
Research Paper on Lasers: Theory and Operation » 
Research Paper on Light Emitting Diodes
Light Emitting Diodes - Electronics - Science and Technology Research Paper Topics. Light emitting diodes, or LEDs, are semiconductor devices that emit monochromatic light once an electric current passes through it. The color of light emitted from LEDs depends not on the color of the bulb, but on the emission's wavelength. Typically made of inorganic materials like gallium or silicon, LEDs have found frequent use as ''pilot,'' or indicator, lights for electronic devices. Unlike incandescent light bulbs, which generate light from ''heat glow,'' LEDs create light more efficiently and are generally more durable than traditional light sources. Despite having some evidence that Ernest Glitch produced luminescence during mid-nineteenth century experiments with crystals made from silicon and carbon, Henry Joseph Round is credited with the first published observation of electroluminescence from a semiconductor in 1907. Round, a radio engineer and inventor, created the first LED when he touched a silicon carbide...
Research Paper on Light Emitting Diodes » 
Research Paper on Lighting, Public and Private
Lighting, Public and Private - Electronics - Science and Technology Research Paper Topics. At the turn of the twentieth century, lighting was in a state of flux. In technical terms, a number of emerging lighting technologies jostled for economic dominance. In social terms, changing standards of illumination began to transform cities, the workplace, and the home. In design terms, the study of illumination as a science, as an engineering profession, and as an applied art was becoming firmly established. Overt competition between lighting methods was a relatively new phenomenon exacerbated by the spread of electric lighting during the 1880s (Edison's Lighting System and its many competitors), which rivaled the firmly entrenched gas lighting networks. During the late Victorian period, competitors marshaled science to justify the superiority of their technologies. Gas lighting, revitalized by efficient burners, incandescent mantles, and high-pressure operation, vied with the new filament electric lamps and, in...
Research Paper on Lighting, Public and Private » 
Research Paper on Lighting Techniques
Lighting Techniques - Electronics - Science and Technology Research Paper Topics. In 1900 electric lighting in the home was a rarity. Carbon filament incandescent lamps had been around for 20 years, but few households had electricity. Arc lamps were used in streets and large buildings such as railway stations. Domestic lighting was by candle, oil and gas. Victorian gas lighting was just a burning jet of gas from a small hole, the flame little brighter than a few candles. In the 1890s the efficiency was greatly increased by the gas mantle, a fine web of rare earth oxides, which are ''selective emitters,'' giving light only at specific wavelengths when heated. Early mantles were upright, held above the flame on a fireclay support. The ''inverted'' mantle, fully developed by 1905, sent light downward where it was needed. It hung from a porcelain unit that provided thermal insulation between flame and gas pipe and also deflected the combustion products away from the metal pipe. A further advance was the high...
Research Paper on Lighting Techniques » 
Research Paper on Photocopiers
Photocopiers - Electronics - Science and Technology Research Paper Topics. The photocopier, copier, or copying machine, as it is variously known, is a staple of modern life. Copies by the billions are produced not only in the office but also on machines available to the public in libraries, copy shops, stationery stores, supermarkets, and a wide variety of other commercial facilities. Over the years, various processes have been employed. By far the most common type of photocopier today is the electrostatic, or xerographic. It is the type most people are familiar with, and arguably that with which most people associate the term photocopier. It was the electrostatic process that revolutionized copying as a part of everyday life. The modern photocopying era began in 1960 with the introduction of the Xerox 914, the first push-button, plain-paper copier. Within one year, sales doubled, and Fortune magazine called the 914 ''the most successful product ever marketed in America.'' While ''photocopying'' to most people...
Research Paper on Photocopiers » 
Research Paper on Photosensitive Detectors
Photosensitive Detectors - Electronics - Science and Technology Research Paper Topics. Sensing radiation from ultraviolet to optical wavelengths and beyond is an important part of many devices. Whether analyzing the emission of radiation, chemical solutions, detecting lidar signals, fiber-optic communication systems, or imaging of medical ionizing radiation, detectors are the final link in any optoelectronic experiment or process. Detectors fall into two groups: thermal detectors (where radiation is absorbed and the resulting temperature change is used to generate an electrical output) and photon (quantum) detectors. The operation of photon detectors is based on the photoelectric effect, in which the radiation is absorbed within a metal or semiconductor by direct interaction with electrons, which are excited to a higher energy level. Under the effect of an electric field these carriers move and produce a measurable electric current. The photon detectors show a selective wavelength-dependent response...
Research Paper on Photosensitive Detectors » 
Research Paper on Quantum Electronic Devices
Quantum Electronic Devices - Electronics - Science and Technology Research Paper Topics. Quantum theory, developed during the 1920s to explain the behavior of atoms and the absorption and emission of light, is thought to apply to every kind of physical system, from individual elementary particles to macroscopic systems such as lasers. In lasers, stimulated transitions between discrete or quantized energy levels is a quantum electronic phenomena (discussed in the entry Lasers, Theory and Operation). Stimulated transitions are also the central phenomena in atomic clocks. Semiconductor devices such as the transistor also rely on the arrangement of quantum energy levels into a valence band and a conduction band separated by an energy gap, but advanced quantum semiconductor devices were not possible until advances in fabrication techniques such as molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) developed in the 1960s made it possible to grow extremely pure single crystal semiconductor structures one atomic layer at a time...
Research Paper on Quantum Electronic Devices » 
Research Paper on Rectifiers
Rectifiers - Electronics - Science and Technology Research Paper Topics. Rectifiers are electronic devices that are used to control the flow of current. They do this by having conducting and nonconducting states that depend on the polarity of the applied voltage. A major function in electronics is the conversion from alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC) where the output is only one-half (either positive or negative) of the input. Rectifiers that are currently, or have been, in use include: point-contact diodes, plate rectifiers, thermionic diodes, and semiconductor diodes. There are various ways in which rectifiers may be classified in terms of the signals they encounter; this contribution will consider two extremes--high frequency and heavy current--that make significantly different demands on device design. Diodes assumed a special importance after the invention of wireless. The conventional method of transmitting audio signals was to use amplitude modulation (developed by Reginald A...
Research Paper on Rectifiers » 
Research Paper on Strobe Flashes
Strobe Flashes - Electronics - Science and Technology Research Paper Topics. Scarcely a dozen years after photography was announced to the world in 1839, William Henry Fox Talbot produced the first known flash photograph. Talbot, the new art's co-inventor, fastened a printed paper onto a disk, set it spinning as fast as possible, and then discharged a spark to expose a glass plate negative. The words on the paper could be read on the photograph. Talbot believed that the potential for combining electric sparks and photography was unlimited. In 1852, he pronounced, ''It is in our power to obtain the pictures of all moving objects, no matter in how rapid motion they may be, provided we have the means of sufficiently illuminating them with a sudden electric flash.'' The electronic stroboscope fulfills Talbot's prediction. It is a repeating, short-duration light source used primarily for visual observation and photography of high-speed phenomena. The intensity of the light emitted from strobes also makes them...
Research Paper on Strobe Flashes » 
Research Paper on Superconductivity Applications
Superconductivity Applications - Electronics - Science and Technology Research Paper Topics. The 1986 Applied Superconductivity Conference proclaimed, ''Applied superconductivity has come of age.'' The claim reflected only 25 years of development, but was justifiable due to significant worldwide interest and investment. For example, the 1976 annual budget for superconducting systems exceeded $30 million in the U.S., with similar efforts in Europe and Japan. By 1986 the technology had matured impressively into applications for the energy industry, the military, transportation, high-energy physics, electronics, and medicine. The announcement of high-temperature superconductivity just two months later brought about a new round of dramatic developments. By 1986 the energy industry witnessed development of large superconducting projects for fusion power generation, magnetic energy storage, transmission lines, and industrial motors and generators. For instance, the international large coil test...
Research Paper on Superconductivity Applications » 
Research Paper on Superconductivity Discovery
Superconductivity Discovery - Electronics - Science and Technology Research Paper Topics. As the twenty-first century began, an array of superconducting applications in high-speed electronics, medical imaging, levitated transportation, and electric power systems are either having, or will soon have, an impact on the daily life of millions. Surprisingly, at the beginning of the twentieth century, the discovery of superconductivity was completely unanticipated and unimagined. In 1911, three years after liquefying helium, H. Kammerlingh Onnes of the University of Leiden discovered superconductivity while investigating the temperature-dependent resistance of metals below 4.2œKelvin. Later reporting on experiments conducted in 1911, he described the disappearance of the resistance of mercury, stating, ''Within some hundredths of a degree came a sudden fall, not foreseen [by existing theories of resistance]. Mercury has passed into a new state, which ... may be called the superconductive state.'' By...
Research Paper on Superconductivity Discovery » 
Research Paper on Transistors
Transistors - Electronics - Science and Technology Research Paper Topics. In 1906, the American inventor Lee de Forest developed a triode, a three-element vacuum tube (or ''thermionic'' valve). Dubbed the de Forest Audion, it was a device that could detect and electronically amplify radio and telephone signals. In 1909 the American company Bell American Telephone & Telegraph (AT&T) bought de Forest's patent and improved the tube so that it could be used to amplify signals in long-distance telephony. A practical problem was that the vacuum tubes were often unreliable, slow, used too much power, and produced too much heat. For years, researchers in Western countries tried to make a solid-state amplifier--what became the transistor--in an attempt to enable the creation of smaller, faster, less power-hungry electronics. Early experiments in transistor technology were based on the analogy between the semiconductor and the vacuum tube: the ability to both amplify and effectively switch an electrical signal on...
Research Paper on Transistors » 
Research Paper on Valves/Vacuum Tubes
Valves/Vacuum Tubes - Electronics - Science and Technology Research Paper Topics. The vacuum tube has its roots in the late nineteenth century when Thomas A. Edison conducted experiments with electric bulbs in 1883. Edison's light bulbs consisted of a conducting filament mounted in a glass bulb. Passing electricity through the filament caused it to heat up and radiate light. A vacuum in the tube prevented the filament from burning up. Edison noted that electric current would flow from the bulb filament to a positively charged metal plate inside the tube. This phenomenon, the one-way flow of current, was called the Edison Effect. Edison himself could not explain the filament's behavior. He felt this effect was interesting but unimportant and patented it as a matter of course. It was only fifteen years later that Joseph John Thomson, a physics professor at the Cavendish Laboratory at the University of Cambridge in the U.K., discovered the electron and understood the significance of what was occurring...
Research Paper on Valves/Vacuum Tubes » 
Research Paper on Traveling Wave Tubes
Traveling Wave Tubes - Electronics - Science and Technology Research Paper Topics. One of the most important devices for the amplification of radio-frequency (RF) signals-- which range in frequency from 3 kilohertz to 300 gigahertz--is the traveling wave tube (TWT). When matched with its power supply unit, or electronic power conditioner (EPC), the combination is known as a traveling wave tube amplifier (TWTA). The amplification of RF signals is important in many aspects of science and technology, since the ability to increase the strength of a very low-power input signal is fundamental to all types of long-range communications, radar and electronic warfare. The traveling wave tube owes its name to its mode of operation: it is designed to cause an RF carrier wave to travel along its length in a carefully predetermined manner. The energy for amplification is derived from a high-powered electron beam, which is made to interact with the RF wave carried on a slow wave structure, usually in the form of a helix...
Research Paper on Traveling Wave Tubes » 
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