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Physical Activity and Obesity Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Obesity. Physical Activity is defined as bodily movement (any form) produced by the contraction of skeletal muscles that increases energy expenditure above the basal level, and can be categorized in various ways, including type, intensity or strenuousness and purpose. Obesity is a condition describing excess body weight in the form of fat, with a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or greater...
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Research Paper on Acting White
Acting White - Anthropology - Sociology Research Paper Topics. African American adolescents sometimes ridicule their peers for behaving in ways they identify as characteristic of whites. A variety of behaviors may trigger this response: manner of speech and dress, choice of television shows or sports, and, most troubling, demonstrating a commitment to academic success by participating in class, studying hard, and enrolling in advanced classes. This phenomenon was given prominence in an article published in 1986 by ethnographers Signithia Fordham and John Ogbu, reporting a study of a predominantly black high school in Washington, D.C. Since then, the burden of "acting white" has emerged as one of the standard explanations for the black-white gap in test scores and academic...
Research Paper on Acting White » 
Research Paper on African American Studies
African American Studies - Anthropology - Sociology Research Paper Topics. African American studies (also called black studies, African and African American studies, Africana and Pan-African studies, and African diaspora studies) combine general intellectual history, academic scholarship, and a radical movement for fundamental educational reform (Alkalimat et al. 1977). From its inception the field has embraced the focus of academic excellence and social responsibility in a unique approach that addresses traditional issues of "town and gown." Though born out of turbulence, the discipline's ability to persevere since its formal establishment in university settings makes it a lasting testament to the legacy of the Black Power movement and the goals of a long list...
Research Paper on African American Studies » 
Research Paper on African Americans
African Americans - Anthropology - Sociology Research Paper Topics. The term African American has typically referred to descendants of enslaved and indentured black Africans transplanted by force into what is now the United States. The terms African American, black, and Afro-American are sometimes used interchangeably. African American has supplanted other designations, such as Negro, derived from the word Negroid, coined in the eighteenth century by European anthropologists. African American is sometimes applied more broadly to descendants of all ten million or more Africans forcibly transported to the Western Hemisphere from the beginning of the sixteenth century until the 1860s. Africans shipped to the United States represented over forty ethnic groups from twenty-five...
Research Paper on African Americans » 
Research Paper on The African Crisis Response Initiative
The African Crisis Response Initiative - Anthropology - Sociology Research Paper Topics. The African Crisis Response Initiative (ACRI) is a program that the United States launched in 1996 to address challenges of peacekeeping and conflict management in Africa. Its formation was prompted by fears that the ethnic massacres that occurred in Rwanda in 1994 might also take place in neighboring Burundi, and by the desire of the United States to avoid getting entangled in local conflicts, as occurred in 1993 when eighteen U.S. Army rangers were killed in Somalia, where the United States had intervened to provide humanitarian assistance. Initially, the United States wanted to establish an African force that could intervene to save lives in humanitarian crises...
Research Paper on The African Crisis Response Initiative » 
Research Paper on African Diaspora
African Diaspora - Anthropology - Sociology Research Paper Topics. The African diaspora was the dispersal of African peoples to Asia, Europe, and the Americas. The term is used most commonly for the coerced movement in various slave trades, but the word diaspora has also been used to refer to voluntary migrations from Africa and for population movements within Africa. In some ways, the most consequential movement of peoples from Africa was the first, when the early stages of human evolution took place in the highlands of East Africa. From there, over the last million and a half years, human beings spread out across Africa, gradually adapting to different environments, and then into Asia, Europe, and eventually the Americas. More recent large-scale movements...
Research Paper on African Diaspora » 
Research Paper on The African National Congress
The African National Congress Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. The origins of the African National Congress (ANC) were a conference of black South African notables assembled in 1912 to protest impending legal restrictions on African land ownership. Until the 1940s, the ANC remained decorously circumspect: lobbying, submitting memorandums, and relying heavily on white liberal intermediaries. During World War II (1939-1945), the ANC began to build a mass membership structure and attempted to mobilize popular support by contesting local "advisory board" elections in black townships. By this time, several of its leaders were also members of the Communist Party. Communists had initially concentrated on winning white worker support but switched their efforts to blacks...
Research Paper on The African National Congress » 
Research Paper on Africville (Canada)
Africville (Canada) Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. Africville has correctly been called Canada's most famous black community. It has been the subject of topics (both scholarly and fiction), award-winning documentaries, thousands of newspaper articles (local, national, and international), hundreds of graduate student theses, poems, songs, a jazz suite, symposia, and an exhibition that traveled across Canada and is now housed permanently at the Black Cultural Centre in Halifax Regional Municipality in Nova Scotia. There remains a continuing negotiation between the city of Halifax and the Africville Genealogical Society, which speaks for the former residents of Africville and their descendants, over compensation for the people of Africville and proper recognition...
Research Paper on Africville (Canada) » 
Research Paper on AIDS/HIV Impact in Developing Countries
AIDS/HIV Impact in Developing Countries Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. Developing countries include low- and middle-income economies as well as those in transition from central planning. A wide diversity of political, economic, social, religious, and cultural systems is embraced within such countries, resulting in markedly different HIV/AIDS experiences between neighbors as well as within the nations themselves. Several HIV epidemics often operate in tandem, including injecting drug-use, unprotected heterosexual or male-to-male sexual contact, mother-to-child infection (either in the womb or by breast feeding), and contaminated blood products. Even within a country, epidemics can be extremely diverse. Ninety-five percent of the 38 million adults...
Research Paper on AIDS/HIV Impact in Developing Countries » 
Research Paper on Alpha-male
Alpha-male Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. In 1802 P. Huber related the concept of dominance to the social behavior of bumblebees. Almost 100 years later, Thorleif Schjelderup-Ebbe (1935) wrote about "pecking orders" in chickens, describing a hierarchy in which the top-ranking chicken could peck all the others with impunity and the second-ranking could do the same thing to all except the first one, down to the last-ranking bird, which was pecked by all and could peck none in return. The idea of dominance was applied to explain the directionality of aggressive behavior in animals that live socially and was defined as a relationship learned through previous experience. Ray Carpenter applied the concept to nonhuman primates and considered it a universal...
Research Paper on Alpha-male » 
Research Paper on The American Anthropological Association
The American Anthropological Association Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. The establishment of the American Anthropological Association (AAA) in 1902 was the culmination of a gradual process of professionalization in American anthropology that revealed subdisciplinary, regional, and theoretical tensions within the emerging discipline. The first anthropological society in the United States was the American Ethnological Society, founded in New York by Albert Gallatin (1761-1849) in 1842 and revived by Franz Boas (1858-1942) in the 1890s to balance the Washington-based Bureau of American Ethnology's potential stranglehold that threatened to dominate anthropology on a national scale. Section H of the American Association for the Advancement...
Research Paper on The American Anthropological Association » 
Research Paper on The American Dream
The American Dream Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. The term American Dream traditionally has meant the ability of all Americans to attain a better standard of living, including owning a home and an automobile, and having access to higher education. The term first appeared in 1932, coined by James Truslow Adams in his book The Epic of America. In an indirect sense, it was a reaction to Theodore Dreiser's novel An American Tragedy (1925), in which the protagonist is portrayed as bent on bettering his current status in life, regardless of the consequences. Although the term had not yet been coined, the dream became part and parcel of the national psyche during the 1920s, when consumer goods such as radios, cars, and, most importantly, homes, became readily...
Research Paper on The American Dream » 
Research Paper on Americanism
Americanism Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. Americanism is an ideology that holds that the cultural and political values of the United States are the most ideal and desirable of any in the world. It is closely linked with American exceptionalism, a phrase coined by Alexis de Tocqueville (1805-1859) in 1831. Tocqueville argued that, because of its historical evolution, national credo, historical origins, and distinctive political and religious institutions, the United States is qualitatively different from other nations. Some have characterized Americanism and its beliefs as a "civic religion." Seymour Lipset identifies five key elements of Americanism: liberty, egalitarianism, individualism, populism, and laissez-faire. He avers, "Being an American, however...
Research Paper on Americanism » 
Research Paper on Anthropology
Anthropology Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. Anthropology is the study, analysis, and description of humanity's past and present. Questions about the past include prehistoric origins and human evolution. Study of contemporary humanity focuses on biological and cultural diversity, including language. Compared to other disciplines that address humanity such as history, sociology, or psychology, anthropology is broader in two ways. In terms of humanity's past, anthropology considers a greater depth of time. In terms of contemporary humans, anthropology covers a wider diversity of topics than other disciplines, from molecular DNA to cognitive development and religious beliefs. This depth and breadth correspond to the wide variety of sites and contexts...
Research Paper on Anthropology » 
Research Paper on Biological Anthropology
Biological Anthropology Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. Biological anthropology is concerned with the origin, evolution and diversity of humankind. The field was called physical anthropology until the late twentieth century, reflecting the field's primary concern with cataloging anatomical differences among human and primate groups. Under the name of biological anthropology, it is an ever-broadening field that encompasses the study of: human biological variation; evolutionary theory; human origins and evolution; early human migration; human ecology; the evolution of human behavior; paleoanthropology; anatomy; locomotion; osteology (the study of skeletal material); dental anthropology; forensics; medical anthropology, including the patterns and history...
Research Paper on Biological Anthropology » 
Research Paper on British Anthropology
British Anthropology Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. A. R. Radcliffe-Brown once said that anthropology has two beginnings: the first in 1748 and the second around 1870. For British anthropology, one could add a third beginning, around 1922, when both Radcliffe-Brown and Bronislaw Malinowski began teaching in earnest and published their major field monographs. Radcliffe-Brown's first date, 1748, marks the first publication, in French, of Montesquieu's Spirit of the Laws. Within two years an English edition appeared, and this greatly influenced the anthropological ideas of Scottish writers such as Adam Smith. His anthropological approach, modeled on Montesquieu's, became known as "conjectural history." The idea was that speculation and logical...
Research Paper on British Anthropology » 
Research Paper on Linguistic Anthropology
Linguistic Anthropology Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. Linguistic anthropology examines the links between language and culture, including how language relates to thought, social action, identity, and power relations. It is one of the four traditional subfields of American anthropology, sharing with sociocultural anthropology its aims of explaining social and cultural phenomena, with biological anthropology its concern over language origins and evolution, and with archaeology the goal of understanding cultural histories. Linguistic anthropology has developed through international work across social science disciplines, as researchers attend to language as a key to understanding social phenomena. The discipline overlaps most closely with the sociolinguistic...
Research Paper on Linguistic Anthropology » 
Research Paper on Medical Anthropology
Medical Anthropology Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. Medical anthropology is the subdiscipline of anthropology that focuses on the intersection of health, medicine, society, and culture. Generally thought to include the study of the impact of disease on society and the impact of society and culture on health and disease, medical anthropology encompasses several different paradigms for research, including biocultural anthropology; ethnomedicine; social and cultural factors in the incidence, prevalence, and treatment of disease, or social epidemiology; the political economy of health; and the inclusion of cultural and social concerns in the planning, implementation, and evaluation of projects, which is the core of applied medical anthropology...
Research Paper on Medical Anthropology » 
Research Paper on Public Anthropology
Public Anthropology Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. Public anthropology focuses the distinctive perspectives and methods of anthropology on public issues. Since the founding of anthropology as an academic discipline in the late nineteenth century, it has changed a great deal and divided into numerous specialties and schools of thought, but certain key features abide. Anthropology is comprehensive of space and time: it covers the entire world, and it treats humankind throughout its history and prehistory, including the present. It is also comprehensive in aspect, treating biological as well as cultural features of humans, and it tends to be holistic, considering how various aspects of life fit together rather than attending mainly to one...
Research Paper on Public Anthropology » 
Research Paper on Urban Anthropology
Urban Anthropology Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. Throughout history, cities have been important places of associated life, human diversity, and interaction. However, while twentieth-century sociologists have been at the forefront of urban studies, social and cultural anthropologists have long neglected the city as a relevant field of research. In the late 1930s a few anthropologists, such as Robert Redfield (1897-1958), shifted their attention from tribal and rural communities to peasant city-dwellers. Influenced by the Chicago school, some American anthropologists engaged in problem-centered studies that focused on poverty, ecology, and minorities; they developed such concepts as the "culture of poverty," cited by Oscar Lewis in Five Families...
Research Paper on Urban Anthropology » 
Research Paper on U.S. Anthropology
U.S. Anthropology Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. Some trace the concept of anthropology, an academic discipline devoted to understanding every aspect of humans and their societies, to the Greek culture from which its name, anthropos (human being) and logos (knowledge), derives. According to Merwyn S. Garbarino in Sociocultural Theory in Anthropology: A Short History (1983), it is the breadth of anthropology's coverage, and its ability to combine the categories and interests of other fields like economics, political science, social psychology, sociology and even biology that brands it as unique--a holistic approach to "the study of .. .[humankind] the animal and .[humankind] the social being through time and space" (Garbarino 1983, p. 2). Anthropology...
Research Paper on U.S. Anthropology » 
Research Paper on The Aryans
The Aryans Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. The term Aryan is derived from the Indic word arya (noble). The ancient Hindu Rig Veda (variously dated 4000-1200 BCE) uses arya as a self-designation of its authors. According to another Hindu text, the Manu Smriti (c. sixth century BCE), the inhabitants of the arya-varta (the Hindu heartland) were setting the standards for dharma. In the Bhagavad Gita (c. second century BCE), the Hindu god Krishna tells the warrior Arjuna that it would be an-arya not to fight a just war. In Buddhism, ariya has an ethical connotation: not birth but high moral standards make one an ariya. Gautama Buddha (c. sixth century BCE) taught the ariya saccani, or the "(four) noble truths." Jains also use the word as an expression...
Research Paper on The Aryans » 
Research Paper on The Asiatic Mode of Production
The Asiatic Mode of Production Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. In twentieth-century Marxist politics and social sciences, the concept of the Asiatic mode of production was at the center of debates and controversies over how to apply the idea of mode of production to non-Western societies. Marxist theorists also turned to the Asiatic mode of production to argue for different revolutionary strategies in societies subject to colonial and imperialist domination. The concept's status within Marx's own work is uncertain. The young Marx's references to Asian societies are influenced by a political tradition that, from Aristotle (384-322 BCE) to Charles Montesquieu (1689-1755) and Georg W F. Hegel (1770-1831), saw the Asian continent as characterized by...
Research Paper on The Asiatic Mode of Production » 
Research Paper on Birth Control
Birth Control Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. Birth control refers to the means used to limit or space human fertility. The technological development of these means, the organization of their use, and the fairness of their application are the province of scientists, policymakers, religious leaders, and the users of birth control. The definition includes recent methods such as condoms, sterilization, intrauterine devices, and the birth control pill. It also includes older methods, such as abortion, prolonged nursing of infants, periodic abstinence from sex, herbal tonics, and coitus interruptus. The question of the comparative effectiveness of various techniques often comes up in discussions of birth control. Abortion, some forms of surgical...
Research Paper on Birth Control » 
Research Paper on Out-of-Wedlock Births
Out-of-Wedlock Births Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. Every society has mechanisms and institutions for birthing and rearing children. These may or may not be similar to what we call wedlock. In describing domestic groups, sociologists traditionally treated as normative those households made up of a man and a woman who are formally joined in a long-term relationship and jointly raising their shared biological children. However, from a broader historical and cultural perspective, we know that this is just one of scores of possible domestic arrangements. In numerous cultures, the husband-wife relationship is less important than the extended multigenerational family in terms of child-rearing responsibilities. Households in many societies are polygynous...
Research Paper on Out-of-Wedlock Births » 
Research Paper on Black Towns
Black Towns Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. African Americans have a long history of forming separate settlements and towns in what is today the United States. More than eighty black towns and settlements were established in the United States in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Prior to the Civil War, most black settlements were informally organized. Brooklyn, Illinois, founded in 1830 by runaway slaves and Quakers, was an exception to this general rule. Most black towns were formed after the Civil War and could be found all over the United States from Eatonville, Florida, to Allensworth, California. However, most of these towns were established in the Midwest and Southwest between the end of Reconstruction and World War I. During this period, often referred...
Research Paper on Black Towns » 
Research Paper on Blood and Bloodline
Blood and Bloodline Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. "Blood" is a historical explanation for inherited traits that were believed to pass through "bloodlines," meaning lines of kinship descent. This understanding of heredity derives from the ancient Greek concept that eventually became known as pangenesis. Hippocrates believed that "pan-genes" formed throughout the human body. The Greeks conceived of pangenes as tiny pieces of body parts, which moved through bodily fluids into the genitals, from which they were passed on to offspring. The theory of pangenesis was revitalized by European scientists in the seventeenth century. In the mid-nineteenth century, American racial scientists began to posit a scientific link between bloodlines, culture, and racial...
Research Paper on Blood and Bloodline » 
Research Paper on Borders
Borders Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. All territorial entities have borders, defined as the area where one territory ends and another begins. Borders can be delineated along natural divisions such as mountain ranges or rivers or they can be artificially created. Once delineated, governments demarcate significant portions or all parts of a border with actual markings such as fences, posts, or border checkpoints. The majority of the world's borders are agreed upon, but border disputes exist in all regions of the world. Because border disputes can escalate to armed conflict or war, governments pay significant attention to borders. For this reason, the study of borders is primarily a political issue, but also involves economic and cultural issues...
Research Paper on Borders » 
Research Paper on Brahmins in Caste System
Brahmins in Caste System Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. The word Brahmin appeared for the first time in Purush-Sukta, a section of the Rig Veda. The Purush-Sukta described the divine origin of human beings into the four social groups, or castes, that comprise Hindu society: Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vaishya, and Sudra. According to the Purush-Sukta, God Brahma gave birth to the divinities associated with each caste: Brahmin was born from the mouth, Kshatriya from the arms, Vaishya from the thighs, and Sudra from the calves of Brahma. Later on this concept of the divine origin of Brahmins and other castes was repeated in numerous religious texts, including the Manusmriti, the famous Hindu religious compendium of customary laws. The Manusmriti codifies the Hindu...
Research Paper on Brahmins in Caste System » 
Research Paper on Buraku or Burakumin
Buraku or Burakumin Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. The buraku people, or burakumin (literally, "village people"), are a group of approximately three million ethnic Japanese that is discriminated against by the majority Japanese population. This discrimination manifests itself in higher illness rates and higher unemployment than for mainstream Japanese, lower wages for the same jobs, the existence of illegal blacklists that corporations buy and use to avoid hiring buraku people, the discouragement of marriage between burakumin and non- burakumin Japanese, and the historic complicity of Japanese religious bodies in segregating temples and bestowing prejudicial death names (kaimyo). From the 1990s to 2006, the Internet has been used to post defamatory...
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Research Paper on Burial Grounds
Burial Grounds Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. A burial ground is a place of interment. It is a tract of land, a yard, or an enclosure for the subterranean deposition of human remains. Often the objects of legend, burial grounds have varied throughout time according to the cultural practices and religious beliefs of different peoples. Whereas Aubrey Cannon (1989) maintains that human expressions of death in burial grounds follow a general cross-cultural pattern that cycles between elitism and emulation, James Deetz (1996) suggests that burial grounds showcase culturally specific symbols that are evident in every aspect of a given society's life ways. The first hominids to bury their dead were probably Neanderthals that lived between 20,000 and 75,000...
Research Paper on Burial Grounds » 
Research Paper on African Burial Grounds
African Burial Grounds Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. The final resting places of enslaved and free people of African descent have been examined in diverse contexts throughout the New World. Ranging from late sixteenth-century Mexico to postemancipation Arkansas, these sites reflect the range and complexity of the African diasporic experience. Although many of these sites were examined within a historical forensic paradigm, the greater involvement of African Americans as both clients and producers of burial ground studies is fostering a historically and culturally grounded biocultural approach that is more responsive to the needs and interests of the descendant communities (Blakey 2001; Epperson 1999). In 2000 construction activity in the city...
Research Paper on African Burial Grounds » 
Research Paper on Native American Burial Grounds
Native American Burial Grounds Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. In nearly every culture--and certainly in every religion-- there is some promise of life after death. It is often necessary, therefore, to connect one's mortal remains with after-existence, whether by freeing the soul from its worldly dwelling or preparing those remains for their later state. The meaning attributed to such preparations and the forms they take mirror much of the society they serve and often carry, through the intensity of their attendant emotions, the ideas upon which a culture depends when death threatens the very order of things. The disposition of the dead by American Indians is as varied as the organization of the groups themselves. For many ancient peoples (c. 1000-200 BCE)...
Research Paper on Native American Burial Grounds » 
Research Paper on Anthropology of Caste (Caste System)
Anthropology of Caste (Caste System) Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. The term caste refers, paradigmatically, to a social institution in India and elsewhere in South Asia in which endogamous descent groups, known as castes or subcastes, are hierarchically ranked. It has also been used to described hereditary forms of social stratification in non--South Asian contexts, such as Japan, the American South, and elsewhere. The validity of usage outside of South Asian contexts, however, ultimately turns on how we are to understand the paradigmatic Indian case--a matter of considerable and ongoing debate. This article therefore confines itself to the study of caste in India, from its emergence in the colonial period to today. Throughout South Asia individual...
Research Paper on Anthropology of Caste (Caste System) » 
Research Paper on The Cherokees
The Cherokees Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. The Cherokees have been one of the most historically significant indigenous cultural groups in the southeastern United States. There were three federally recognized Cherokee Indian nations at the beginning of the twenty-first century: the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians (EBCI) in North Carolina, the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma, and the United Keetoowah Band in Oklahoma. In addition, more than fifty other organizations in at least twelve states, as well as many individuals, claim Cherokee descent. The question of who is legitimately Cherokee and how many individual Cherokee Indians exist in America is a point of contention, and the distinction between individual claims to cultural or biological identity, on the one...
Research Paper on The Cherokees » 
Research Paper on Childlessness
Childlessness Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. The term childlessness refers to a lifetime of being childless and can be applied both to couples that have never borne a child and to single women or men. Most research, and hence most available data, focuses on women. In some populations the proportion of women experiencing childlessness has been as low as 2 or 3 percent, and in others it has been ten times this minimum level. In the twentieth-century United States, for instance, the level of childlessness for women born in the first decade of the century (and bearing children during the depression of the 1930s) and for those born in the 1950s (and bearing children during the century's last three decades) was approximately 20 percent. By contrast, it was...
Research Paper on Childlessness » 
Research Paper on Children
Children Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. Although seemingly intuitive, the meaning of the term children depends on the context. From a strict biological perspective, the term children refers to the offspring of a female and male who have mated. However, the term need not refer only to biological offspring, as it also applies to socially defined categories of children including stepchildren, adopted children, and foster children. By law, one is considered a minor until the age of eighteen. However, the law distinguishes children from minors in general. According to the law, a child under the age of fourteen is a "child of tender age." The term juvenile is used to categorize individuals between fourteen and seventeen years of age, thus distinguishing...
Research Paper on Children » 
Research Paper on Chinese Americans
Chinese Americans Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. Chinese Americans can trace their roots to the mid-nineteenth century. Although it is not known when the first Chinese ventured into North America, Harry H. L. Kitano and Roger Daniels (2001) suggest that the first major wave of Chinese immigration to the United States occurred just before the California gold rush of 1849. Although Chinese Americans do not have the long history of African Americans and Latino Americans, they are also not a new immigrant group. Rather, Chinese Americans are a well-established U.S. ethnic group that has faced long-standing social, political, and economic discrimination as well as outright government exclusion (e.g., via immigration laws and policies). Chinese people immigrated...
Research Paper on Chinese Americans » 
Research Paper on Civil Society
Civil Society Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. Civil society (from the Latin civilis societies) is the realm of independent activity and voluntary association that is not organized by the state. The origin of the term is often traced to the Scottish Enlightenment philosopher Adam Ferguson (1723-1816) and his Essay on the History of Civil Society (1767). Ferguson saw the new commercial civilization then displacing the older clan-based feudal order of the Scottish Highlands as enhancing individual liberty through the introduction of "civil society," "civil life," and "economic society." In the same intellectual tradition, another Scottish Enlightenment philosopher and social theorist, Adam Smith (1723-1790), referred to the notion of civil society as the capacity...
Research Paper on Civil Society » 
Research Paper on Civilization
Civilization Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. A Latinate word civilization ranks among the master concepts in the history of modernity. As such, it bears enormous semantic and historical density and has important relations with other master concepts of the modern, such as history (in the modern sense of a collective singular totality), progress, development, culture (in both the high and low senses), and modernity itself. The earliest recorded use of the term civilization in English dates from the first decade of the eighteenth century, though it appeared in a strictly legal context, referring to the conversion of a criminal matter to a civil one; this meaning is now obsolete (even as a juridical dimension extends into present usage). In its relevant...
Research Paper on Civilization » 
Research Paper on Clock Time
Clock Time Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. Throughout most of history, the passage of time was registered by familiar regularities such as day and night and the phases of the moon, or more accurately by the apparent motions of certain stars. The second was defined by the ancient Babylonians to be 1/84,600 of a day. Modern calendars are still based on astronomical time using the Gregorian calendar, introduced in 1582, in which the year is defined as 365.2425 days. Until the scientific revolution and the ages of exploration and industrialization that followed, most people had no need for accurate clocks. Farmers and fishermen measured time in relation to familiar processes in the cycle of work and domestic chores. Labor took place in the natural period...
Research Paper on Clock Time » 
Research Paper on Collective Memory
Collective Memory Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. Contemporary usage of the term collective memory is largely traceable to Emile Durkheim (1858-1917), who wrote extensively in The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life (1912) about commemorative rituals, and to his student, Maurice Halbwachs (1877-1945), who published a landmark study on The Social Frameworks of Memory in 1925. For Halbwachs, who accepted Durkheim's sociological critique of philosophy, studying memory is not a matter of reflecting on the properties of the subjective mind; rather, memory is a matter of how minds work together in society, how their operations are structured by social arrangements: "It is in society that people normally acquire their memories. It is also in society...
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Research Paper on Colonialism
Colonialism Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. The matrix of structures, ideologies, and actions that have formed both historical and contemporary patterns of colonialism have shaped the world-system in irreversible and deeply influential ways. Serious consideration of colonialism recognizes that no matter where the starting point for analyzing colonialism is set, the process, structure, and lingering effects of such a geohistorical phenomenon cannot be grasped in a simplistic or one-dimensional way by either academics or those who continue to live colonized lives, for the implications of such naivete are too severe. Numerous critical scholars--such as Edward Said, Gayatri Spivak, Ania Loomba, Samir Amin, Immanuel Wallerstein, and Wole Soyinka--have devoted their...
Research Paper on Colonialism » 
Research Paper on Primitive Communism
Primitive Communism Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. Primitive communism is the earliest mode of production in Marxist thought. Karl Marx proposed that Asiatic, ancient, feudal, and bourgeois modes of production are epochs that mark the transitions of societies. Also, the changes in the mode of production from primitive communism through slavery, feudalism, capitalism, and socialism to communism are due to the method of dialectic, and the theory of materialism. The dialectic method involves the meeting of extreme forces that merge into synthesis. At the early state of primitive communism, primitive forms of hunting gave way to primitive forms of agriculture and cattle rearing. Also, dialectic changes of the matriarchate to the patriarchate types were...
Research Paper on Primitive Communism » 
Research Paper on Creole
Creole Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. The English term creole derives from the Portuguese antecedent crioulo, which was adopted by the Spanish as criollo ("person native to a locality") and the French as creole. The Portuguese word crioulo is a diminutive of cria, meaning a person raised in the house, usually a servant. The derivation is from the verb criar, "to bring up or raise as children," from the Latin crere, "to beget." Thus, from very early on the term has indicated novel creation, usually of a lower-status person, and has implied that this novelty is "irregular," or out of place. The term gained currency during the initial growth of European colonial power in the sixteenth century. As European powers established colonies in the Americas, Africa, Asia...
Research Paper on Creole » 
Research Paper on Cultural Group Selection
Cultural Group Selection Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. The concept of group selection is controversial in both the natural and social sciences. In contrast to the standard social science assumption of methodological individualism and the biological assumption of the gene as the relevant unit of selection, group selection posits that distinct evolutionary and selection pressures may operate at the level of the group rather than the individual level. As a result, group selection argues that it may be possible for social rules and biological traits to evolve and persist that cause individuals to act altruistically, that is, in ways that are good for others or the group as a whole, but detrimental to particular individuals within the group. In group selection...
Research Paper on Cultural Group Selection » 
Research Paper on Cultural Landscape
Cultural Landscape Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. Landscape is a word introduced into the English language during the late sixteenth century as a technical term used by painters. The word derived from the Dutch landschap and was known in English for some time as landskip. This painterly source of the landscape notion is significant. Landscape was recognized as such because it reminded the viewer of a painted landscape--a piece of inland scenery (Thomas 1984, p. 265; Groth and Wilson 2003, pp. 2-3). Landscape became a prominent, if contested, concept in mid-twentieth-century geography through the work of Carl Sauer (1889-1975)(see Livingstone 1992). His ideas about landscape were influenced by the debates between the German geographer Friedrich Ratzel...
Research Paper on Cultural Landscape » 
Research Paper on Cultural Rights
Cultural Rights Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. The term cultural rights refers to a claimed entitlement on the part of identity groups--typically based on religion, ethnicity, language, or nationality--to be able to express and maintain their traditions or practices. Such an entitlement usually implies some form of political or legal recognition. Cultural rights have developed as a distinct set of rights claims particularly since the 1960s, and then largely in light of the experience of cultural minorities--such as indigenous peoples, substate nationalities, and immigrant groups--living in a state or society that is characterized by a dominant culture. "Cultural rights" thus figure prominently in discussions of national minority rights and multiculturalism...
Research Paper on Cultural Rights » 
Research Paper on Cultural Studies
Cultural Studies Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. Anyone attempting a definition of cultural studies is confronted at the outset by a paradox. On the one hand, the emergence of cultural studies as a recognized discipline or field of study, particularly from the 1970s onward, can be clearly seen in the proliferation of academic departments, degree programs, academic journals, and scholars who proclaim themselves to be producing work in "cultural studies." On the other hand, what precisely "cultural studies" takes as its object or area of study, its definitive theoretical, epistemological, or methodological approach, is less clearly identifiable--indeed, some scholars have claimed it is this very breadth and eclecticism that is the definition of cultural studies...
Research Paper on Cultural Studies » 
Research Paper on Culture
Culture Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. Culture is notoriously one of the most difficult terms to define. The cultural historian Raymond Williams (1921-1988) notes that the difficulty in defining the word is located on its "intricate historical development" in European languages and on the fact that despite its long history the term is relatively new in the English language. The word derives from the Latin cultura, which in turn comes from the Latin verb colere, which had a wide range of meanings that corresponded to different domains in life: agricultural (to cultivate), domestic (to inhabit), religious (to honor a deity through worship), social (to protect).The primary meaning of cultivation, in cultura, has nevertheless been retained within the...
Research Paper on Culture » 
Research Paper on Out-of-Wedlock Births
Out-of-Wedlock Births Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. Every society has mechanisms and institutions for birthing and rearing children. These may or may not be similar to what we call wedlock. In describing domestic groups, sociologists traditionally treated as normative those households made up of a man and a woman who are formally joined in a long-term relationship and jointly raising their shared biological children. However, from a broader historical and cultural perspective, we know that this is just one of scores of possible domestic arrangements. In numerous cultures, the husband-wife relationship is less important than the extended multigenerational family in terms of child-rearing responsibilities. Households in many societies are polygynous...
Research Paper on Out-of-Wedlock Births » 
Research Paper on Social Darwinism
Social Darwinism Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. Social Darwinism is a philosophical, economic, social, and scientific movement that claims that the way society functions is, and ought to be, a reflection of the methods and movements of biological evolution. The term is generally applied to thinkers from around 1850 to the end of the nineteenth century, although the term itself was not popularized until the publication of Richard Hofstadter's Social Darwinism in American Thought in 1944. Despite the title's reference to Charles Darwin (1809-1882), most scholars think that his fellow English evolutionist Herbert Spencer (1820-1903) was a far more influential figure in Britain and America. Postulated links between society and biology are as old as evolutionary thinking...
Research Paper on Social Darwinism » 
Research Paper on Death and Dying
Death and Dying Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. Death is as much a cultural reality as it is a biological one. The only creature known to be aware of its inevitable demise, humans have dealt with their unique insight with considerable creative ritual and belief. Many have argued that religion, philosophy, consumerism, and even civilization itself were all created as antidotes to this terrifying insight (Becker 1973). Mythologist Joseph Campbell (1904-1987) hypothesized that mythmaking began with the first awareness of mortality, forcing early humans to seek purpose, to rationalize the irrational, and to deny death's finality. Perhaps it should thus be of no surprise that much of what we know of past cultures is based on funerary artifacts--their...
Research Paper on Death and Dying » 
Research Paper on Diaspora
Diaspora Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. Diaspora takes its name from the ancient Greek dispersion, meaning "to scatter," and, in the past, has been most closely associated with "the settling of scattered colonies of Jews outside Palestine after the Babylonian exile" (Merriam-Webster 2004, p. 345). For historians and social scientists, the concept embodies an assumption of forced dispersal, but also a shared identity organized around a mythic homeland, and the belief in a massive return (Akenson 1995, pp. 378-379). The creation of Israel, a real nation, did little to diminish this association, and the conflicts surrounding Israel's expansion in the region still generate much discussion about the ongoing victimization of the Jewish people (Cohen 1997)...
Research Paper on Diaspora » 
Research Paper on Discourse
Discourse Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. A sentence is a systematic arrangement of words. A discourse is a systematic arrangement of sentences. The domain of discourse includes various genres--such as narrative, epic, journalistic, or poetic--and thematic fields, from the actuarial to the zoological. It includes register-- high and low, technical and vernacular, polite, allegorical and literal, and so on--and modes, from the written to the oral, and from monological to conversational. It also includes the dimension of style, as well as diverse functional orders, including referential, heuristic, imperative, and connotative. So encompassing a category might seem to be of dubious analytical rigor. But perhaps precisely because it is such a hodgepodge...
Research Paper on Discourse » 
Research Paper on Distinctions, Social and Cultural
Distinctions, Social and Cultural Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. Over the past forty years, there has been a surge of academic inquiry into the relationship between cultural practices and social stratification. In particular, scholars have explored how distinctions drawn between members of varying social strata with respect to lifestyle, preferences, habits, and consumption practices contribute to unequal access to economic and social rewards. This article reviews key works addressing the role of cultural demarcations in the persistence of class inequality, highlights major debates within the field, and suggests potentially fruitful directions for future research. Through his concept of social closure, classical social theorist Max Weber (1958) described...
Research Paper on Distinctions, Social and Cultural » 
Research Paper on Dowry and Bride Price
Dowry and Bride Price Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. Bride price and dowry are terms that refer to payments made at the time of marriage in many cultures, primarily in Asia and Africa. Bride price is typically paid by the groom or the groom's family to the bride's family. Dowry is typically paid by the bride's family to the bride or to the wedded couple. Thus bride price and dowry are not necessarily the converse of each other. However, in the twentieth century, dowry payments in South Asia have increasingly been demanded by and paid to the groom's family (and not just to the bride or the wedded couple). This suggests a usage of the term dowry to mean a groom price, the reverse of a bride price. Bride price and dowry need not be mutually exclusive, and marriage...
Research Paper on Dowry and Bride Price » 
Research Paper on The Dravidians
The Dravidians Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. The Dravidians were the majority population across the Indian subcontinent before the second millennium. The evidence of early Dravidians comes from studying the Indo-Aryan culture, languages, and findings at many mounds, the preeminent of which are Mohenjodaro in Punjab and Harappa in Larkana District in Sind. The sources indicate an early Indian civilization with developments parallel to those of Mesopotamia and Sumeria. Excavations from the 1920s found craftsmanship that defines the Indus (or Harappa) culture of 5,000 years ago. The presence of spears, bows, and cattle suggests society's transition from a matriarchate to a patriarchate state. For transactions they used seals as coins, some of which depict...
Research Paper on The Dravidians » 
Research Paper on Eroticism
Eroticism Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. Although there is no accepted definition of eroticism, it is understood in this entry to describe the focus of an individual's sexual arousal pattern. It differs from erotica (the story, picture, or other media), which depicts and appeals to someone's eroticism. A different perspective defines eroticism as a component of sexuality involving a focus on pleasure and the heightening of arousal for its own sake (Kleinplatz 1996). It is said that anything can be and everything has been eroticized. The subject of an eroticism can be specific or general, stable or fluid over time, and necessary, preferred, or irrelevant for a satisfactory sexual response. The intensity and importance of an eroticism can and does change...
Research Paper on Eroticism » 
Research Paper on Essentialism
Essentialism Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. Essentialism is the idea that members of certain categories have an underlying, unchanging property or attribute (essence) that determines identity and causes outward behavior and appearance. An essentialist account of gender, for example, holds that differences between males and females are determined by fixed, inherent features of those individuals. The doctrine of essentialism is widespread in practice, underlying many approaches (both historical and current) in the biological sciences, the social sciences, and cultural studies. Essentialist ideas underlie much lay skepticism toward biological evolution; such ideas saturate discussions of race and gender as well as of ethnicity and nationality. In gender studies...
Research Paper on Essentialism » 
Research Paper on Ethnicity
Ethnicity Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. Ethnicity refers to the differentiation of groups of people who have shared cultural meanings, memories, and descent produced through social interaction. In classical Greek, the terms ethnos and ethnikos were used in a number of ways to refer to a collectivity that shares similar cultural or biological characteristics--for example, a tribe of people or a band of friends--and who were not Greek, came from outside the nation, were foreign and different, and were also considered inferior, barbarian, and less civilized. This distinction between ethnically marked "others" and nonethnically marked "us" persists in modern popular usage with references to ethnic fashion or food. Sociological accounts of ethnicity are...
Research Paper on Ethnicity » 
Research Paper on Ethno-Epidemiological Methodology
Ethno-Epidemiological Methodology Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. The term ethno-epidemiology has acquired two different but intertwined meanings in the social sciences. On the one hand, it refers to an emergent cross-disciplinary health research methodology that combines the strengths of direct participant observation and other qualitative methods for understanding social meanings and contexts as practiced in medical anthropology with the design, sampling, data collection, and analytical strategies focusing on risk factors and disease outcomes developed in epidemiology. This use is referred to here as ethno-epidemiological methodology. On the other hand, as Michael Agar notes in "Recasting the 'Ethno' in 'Epidemiology'" (1996), the term is also used...
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Research Paper on Ethnology and Folklore
Ethnology and Folklore Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. Ethnology and folklore emerged as the "science of tradition" during the nineteenth century and during the twentieth as a discipline concerned with "expressive culture" and cultural identities, particularly within modernizing societies. Professionals in these fields may call themselves folklorists or ethnologists. Whereas anthropologists frequently sought out homogeneous societies separated from the modern world, folklorists and ethnologists theorized about the persistence, adaptation, and function of tradition within complex societies. Folklore and ethnology are related, sometimes linked, concepts for the way that individuals and groups use tradition to express values, beliefs, and ideas in a number...
Research Paper on Ethnology and Folklore » 
Research Paper on Ethnomethodology
Ethnomethodology Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. Ethnomethodology is an approach to the study of everyday life with a particular emphasis on the construction of cultural meanings amongst minority groups. The term incorporates the prefix ethno- to refer to cultural context, including language and jargon, myths, symbols, and codes of behavior, and the word methodology, which refers to the means, rationale, and philosophical assumptions involved in the approach to investigating such phenomena. Developed by Harold Garfinkel in 1967, ethnomethodology was initially dismissed by prominent social theorists of the time, such as Alvin W. Gouldner (1920-1981), who described Garfinkel's work as "mere Californian sociology" (cited in Garfinkel 2002, p. 3). In spite...
Research Paper on Ethnomethodology » 
Research Paper on Family
Family Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. It is said that families have always existed and that people have always formed families. However, conceptions of family can vary considerably. Until the 1970s, it was believed that the extended family had been a social institution since medieval times throughout the Western world. This family form consists of a married couple and the parents of one of them plus the couple's children. However, Peter Laslett (1915-2001) and his Cambridge colleagues showed that although the extended family existed, it was not a social institution. This belief in the long history of the extended family can be understood to be a myth if one considers the high mortality rate during previous centuries, when many mothers and fathers...
Research Paper on Family » 
Research Paper on Fatherhood
Fatherhood Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. Issues of fatherhood have received considerable attention since the 1990s in academic, practice, and policy discussions as well as in the public domain. This focus on fatherhood, which subsequently came to address responsible fathering, reflects an assumption: that the meaning and enactment of responsible parenting are at the heart of social and cultural debates about the individual and combined roles of families and society in ensuring the health and well-being of children. Throughout the 1970s and 1980s most of the cultural debate about mothers highlighted the question: What, if anything, should mothers do outside the family? By the end of 1990s the debate about fathers had refocused the question to...
Research Paper on Fatherhood » 
Research Paper on Feminism
Feminism Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. Feminism refers to social theories, economic ideologies, political movements, and moral philosophies aimed at bringing equality to women. Feminism has been identified with different groups and different issues over the course of its history. The first wave gave rise to liberal feminists, who fought for the right to vote, access to education, and marriage law reforms in the 1800s and early 1900s. The second wave witnessed the emergence of radical feminists, who protested for work and reproductive rights in the 1960s and 1970s. The numerous feminist groups concerned with all forms of oppression (e.g., racism, classism) evolved as the third wave in the 1990s. The desire for equality predates the existence of the term...
Research Paper on Feminism » 
Research Paper on Human Fertility
Human Fertility Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. The term fertility refers to the actual production of children. It may be distinguished from fecundity, which is the capability to produce children. Demographers make this important distinction, but not all scientists do. Medical scientists, for instance, use the term fertility to refer to reproductive ability. Also, the meaning of the terms of fertility and fecundity are reversed among French-speaking and Spanish-speaking demographers. They too distinguish between the potential and actual production of children. But French-speaking demographers use the term fertilite, and Spanish-speaking demographers the term fertilidad, to refer to reproductive ability, and fecundite and fecundidad, respectively...
Research Paper on Human Fertility » 
Research Paper on Female-Headed Families
Female-Headed Families Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. Families are constructed from primary social relationships, either by circumstance or choice. Scholars and legal experts have defined families as collections of individuals who are related by birth, adoption, or marriage. The sociologist Talcott Parsons set forth a conception of the family as a unit including a breadwinner husband and a homemaker wife. The economist Gary Becker examined the social and economic exchanges that take place among partners, bringing both benefits and costs. Social science definitions of families have become more inclusive of people unrelated by legal marriage who are closely connected or intimately involved, have mutual responsibilities and common interests...
Research Paper on Female-Headed Families » 
Research Paper on Femininity
Femininity Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. Femininity is commonly understood to refer to a collection of qualities or attributes associated with women in distinction from men, whose own qualities are signified by the antonym masculinity. Yet precisely what qualities qualify as feminine (or masculine) is subject to discussion and contention, as is whether such qualities should be considered innate essences or cultural norms. Passivity, submissiveness, and compassionate, caring, nurturing behavior toward others, especially infants, are widely considered feminine traits in comparison to masculine assertiveness and competitiveness. Their prevalence has lent credence to the belief that they are rooted in female biology and anatomy, whether by divine design or...
Research Paper on Femininity » 
Research Paper on Food
Food Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. Food is a biological necessity. Like sex, it has implications for the perpetuation of the species, but unlike sex, it also has implications for the survival of each individual. Social anthropologists point out that food is further implicated in the social and cultural survival of human groups. Acquiring and eating food is thus extended into the realms of the economic, political, and psychological. Human beings are omnivorous, capable of safely eating a particularly wide variety of plant and animal sources of nutrients--a characteristic that has enabled the worldwide distribution of the species. Major, very broad transitions in human modes of living can be traced. Some 10,000 years ago the protracted shift began from...
Research Paper on Food » 
Research Paper on The Colonial Gaze
The Colonial Gaze Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. Modern colonial rule relied not only on the military and economic power of conquering nations, but also on domination over forms of cultural representation. The period of Europe's political expansion, starting in the late fifteenth century, witnessed the development of significant new cultural technologies. From the printing press to photography, film, and sound recording, technical innovations enabled novel ways of documenting and disseminating knowledge about Europe's encounters with the non-Western world. Through newspapers, travelogues, popular magazines, and documentary films, European officials and travelers made images of distant colonial settings available to larger, more diverse metropolitan...
Research Paper on The Colonial Gaze » 
Research Paper on The Gaze
The Gaze Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. Until the nineteenth century, philosophical inquiry into the question of visuality mainly concerned matters of sense perception, the nature of imagination, and the truth-status of representations. A long tradition in western and many nonwestern philosophical discourses gives to vision a particular and relative significance as the medium of both apprehending the world and verifying the truth of predicative statements. Beginning in the seventeenth century, however, scientific inquiries into the mechanics of perception, and post-Cartesian investigations of the relationship between mind and body, led to a split in discourse about visuality. That split was oriented around the opposition between "seeing" and "being seen," and...
Research Paper on The Gaze » 
Research Paper on Globalization: Anthropological Aspects
Globalization: Anthropological Aspects Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. In popular and scholarly discourse, the term globalization is widely used to put a name to the shape of the contemporary world. In the realms of advertising, policy making, politics, academia, and everyday talk, globalization refers to the sense that we are now living in a deeply and increasingly interconnected, mobile, and sped up world that is unprecedented, fueled by technological innovations and geopolitical and economic transformations. As a way to name our contemporary moment, the term globalization entered popular media and advertising in the early 1990s (Tsing 2000). After the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 and the breakup of the Soviet Union, enthusiasm accelerated for increasing...
Research Paper on Globalization: Anthropological Aspects » 
Research Paper on Going Native
Going Native Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. The phenomenon of going native is one of the less commonly known outgrowths of European colonialism. It emerged as a result of the meeting of European and indigenous cultures and drew its strength from the perceived differences between those cultures. The term refers to the desire of non-aboriginals to identify with and immerse themselves in native culture. In North America, cultural conversions of this type have taken a variety of forms. During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, Europeans intent on survival in an unfamiliar terrain were wise to adopt aspects of aboriginal lifestyles in matters ranging from food and clothing to language and transportation. During military conflicts, colonialists taken captive...
Research Paper on Going Native » 
Research Paper on Racial Identification
Racial Identification Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. Racial identification occurs when individuals consider themselves to be a part of an imagined conglomerate of people who are presumed to share certain physical, cultural, intellectual, and moral traits. This identification can be made for cultural, social, legal, or political purposes, and it involves both self-identification and categorization. Self-identification is the choice individuals make when confronted with racial choices. The options usually offered in the U.S. context are white, black, Asian, and Native American. Categorization refers to the way that people are racially identified by others. Economic analysis shows that racial-identification norms arise from the simultaneous processes...
Research Paper on Racial Identification » 
Research Paper on Identity
Identity Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. Identity is a pervasive concept in popular culture. Broadly speaking, identity refers to the overall character or personality of an individual or group. For example, a young mother might define her identity as that which reflects the essence of who she is (such as being a woman, spouse, and parent) and how she got to be that way. A business can have its own identity, perhaps defined by its unique corporate culture or its advertising history. Significant historical events like wars, natural disasters, or surges in immigration can play important roles in helping to define a nation's identity. On the one hand, the defining features of identity frequently entail elements that must be "found" by an individual or group...
Research Paper on Identity » 
Research Paper on Black Immigrants
Black Immigrants Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. The black population in the United States has always been diverse in terms of national origins. A sizeable influx of black immigrants from the Caribbean, Latin America, and sub-Saharan Africa added to that diversity in the second half of the twentieth century. Significant differences in the factors that stimulated migration, characteristics of the migrants, and the contexts they encountered make it possible to speak of two generations of black immigrants: the pre-World War II wave that arrived primarily between 1900 and 1930, and the post-1965 wave that swelled after the Hart-Celler Act (Immigration Reform Act of 1965) and other immigration-policy changes in the United States and Europe...
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Research Paper on Intersectionality
Intersectionality Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. The premise of intersectionality theory, first articulated by feminists of color, is that social differentiation is achieved through complex interactions between markers of difference such as gender, race, and class. In order to comprehend how an individual's access to social, political, and economic institutions is differentially experienced, it is necessary to analyze how markers of difference intersect and interact. In the 1970s feminist theory could be divided into different perspectives based on the identification of the root of women's oppression. Liberal feminists identified unequal access to existing economic and political systems, whereas radical feminists named patriarchy...
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Research Paper on Intersubjectivity
Intersubjectivity Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. In its most general sense of that which occurs between or exists among conscious human actors, intersubjectivity is little more than a synonym for "the social." As used by social scientists, however, intersubjectivity usually denotes some set of relations, meanings, structures, practices, experiences, or phenomena evident in human life that cannot be reduced to or comprehended entirely in terms of either subjectivity (concerning psychological states of individual actors) or objectivity (concerning brute empirical facts about the objective world). In this sense, the concept is usually intended to overcome an unproductive oscillation between methodological subjectivism and objectivism. The concept...
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Research Paper on The Inuit
The Inuit Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. The Inuit make their homes in Chukotka, Alaska, Arctic Canada and Labrador, and Greenland, and are one of the several indigenous peoples of the Circumpolar North. The name Inuit (singular, Inuk) has political as well as cultural and linguistic connotations. It means "the people" in Inuktitut, the language of the Inuit in Greenland and the central and eastern Canadian Arctic. Since the late 1970s the term has become the political designation for all of the peoples once known as Eskimos. The term Eskimo remains correct for archaeologically known populations. Numbering approximately 150,000 people in 2006, contemporary Inuit are diverse in lifestyle, cultural practices, language, and economic and social circumstances...
Research Paper on The Inuit » 
Research Paper on Islam: Shia and Sunni
Islam: Shia and Sunni Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. Islam was born in the Arabian Peninsula in the seventh century CE, a time when the peninsula was populated by nomadic tribes, as well as settled agriculturalists and merchants. There was no central authority beyond a scattering of tribal leaders, most of them devoted to polytheistic religions. The Prophet Muhammad was born around 570 CE, in Mecca. His family came from a poor branch (the Banu Hashim) of the leading Meccan tribe (the Quraysh). His father died before he was born and his mother died when he was a child; he was brought up by his grandfather and uncle. As a young man, Muhammad worked as the business manager of a wealthy widow named Khadijah (d. 619). He was dubbed "the trustworthy" for his business...
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Research Paper on Japanese Americans
Japanese Americans Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. There may well be no other group that simultaneously represents and challenges the meaning of such terms as American dream, model minority, or reparations. These terms are essential to debates about immigration policies, racial politics, and economic opportunities in the United States. Like other immigrant groups, Japanese Americans (Nikkei) embody the struggles, contradictions, and possibilities that are inherent in the promise of a new life in America. And like other nonwhite groups in the United States, the attempts of Japanese Americans to take advantage of what American life promised were met with racism. And like many other U.S. minority groups, racial or not, Japanese Americans have faced an enormous...
Research Paper on Japanese Americans » 
Research Paper on Evolutionary Theory of Kinship
Evolutionary Theory of Kinship Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. Altruistic behavior--"self-sacrificial behavior performed for the benefit of others" (Wilson 1975, p. 578)--has long been a paradox for evolutionary theorists, because natural selection favors traits that contribute to the reproductive success ("individual fitness") of those who possess or perform them. Hence, altruism, which by definition contributes to the reproductive success of competitions at the expense of performers, ought not to evolve by natural selection. Yet it is widespread in nature. The sterile worker castes in bees, ants, and wasps provide prime examples (Wilson 1975). In 1964 William Hamilton, a graduate student at the University of London, saw that biological altruism can evolve...
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Research Paper on Kshatriyas in Caste System
Kshatriyas in Caste System Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. The word Kshatriya (from the Sanskrit ksatra, meaning "power") refers to the military and administrative subdivisions of South Asian society that arose by the first millennium BCE and those who claim descent from them. It is the second of four varnas (commonly known as castes) in an idealized Hindu social order. Despite shifting political configurations under and after colonialism, the designation Kshatriya remains potent as a status marker in the Indian Subcontinent and, to a lesser degree, Southeast Asia due to its prestigious ritual entitlements and literary associations. Although the word itself is not used, the earliest reference to Kshatriyas as a ruling class appears in the Rig Veda...
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Research Paper on Leisure
Leisure Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. Leisure is not an essential human characteristic or pursuit. Yet it has a history and a variety of cultural manifestations (in language, rituals, and recurring occasions and events) determined by a variety of historical settings. Through its bewildering array of forms, leisure's only constant is its relation to work. Work and leisure are a mutually defining pair in their origin and through their historical development. Indeed, as work changed, so did leisure. Originally, and still today among hunters and gatherers, humans had no abstract, general word for subsistence-related activities. The concept of work emerged with humans' ability to control other humans--primarily with slavery. As humans recognized work...
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Research Paper on Landlords
Landlords Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. A landlord is a person or organization that rents out real estate, holding the rights to receive the rentals paid by tenants. Usually a landlord has a freehold estate, a legal right to the possession of, and income from, real estate. A land lord can also be a tenant who subleases the premises to another tenant. A lease divides the estate into a leased fee estate for the owner and a leasehold estate for the renter, the latter providing rights of possession, as laid out in the lease, for a specified duration. If the lease expires and the tenant continues to have possession, he has a tenancy at sufferance. "Land" in this context includes all space that can be controlled, including territory with water and in the atmosphere...
Research Paper on Landlords » 
Research Paper on Magic
Magic Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. In ancient times, the term magic referred to the doctrines and practices of the "magi," a Zoroastrian caste of priests centered in Persia. The term meant "gift of God" in its original language, but as individuals claiming to be magi contacted Mediterranean cultures, it came to mean any itinerant specialist in fortune-telling or other forms of the occult. Europeans looked positively upon the magi because in the New Testament the magi were celebrated in Matthew's account of the nativity of Jesus. But by 500 BCE the term magi also had a pejorative sense as many impostors made a living by pretending to possess supernatural powers gained in the mysterious East. The ars magica, or "the practices of would-be magi"...
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Research Paper on Malnutrition
Malnutrition Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. Malnutrition describes the measurable impairment to individual health and well-being resulting from insufficient or unbalanced food intake relative to physiological needs. The term is often compared and contrasted with hunger, which refers to the subjective feeling of discomfort caused by lack of food, and food insecurity, which describes lack of access to nutritionally adequate food in a socially acceptable manner. Malnutrition usually arises in situations of national or regional food shortage (its acute form is famine), where geographic regions or nations lack adequate food supply, and food poverty, where households lack resources (entitlements) to produce or acquire adequate nourishment. But individual food...
Research Paper on Malnutrition » 
Research Paper on Marxist Anthropology
Marxist Anthropology Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. Karl Marx was born in the Trier of the German Rhineland in 1818. He studied law and philosophy in Bonn and Berlin, completing a doctorate at the University of Jena in 1841. His thesis, "The Difference between the Democritean and Epicurean Philosophy of Nature," explored the earliest materialist philosophies of the two Greek atomists, and demonstrates the inception of a nascent scholarly interest in crafting a sophisticated materialist critique of German idealism. Not surprisingly, his earliest writings, The Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts (1844), as well as the unpublished "Theses on Feuerbach" (1845) and The German Ideology (1845), all represent attempts to conceptualize a practice...
Research Paper on Marxist Anthropology » 
Research Paper on Marxism
Marxism Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. Marxism is a family of critiques, theories, and political goals loosely organized around the theories and criticisms formulated by Karl Marx (1818-1883) in the middle of the nineteenth century. Central to this body of theory are several key ideas: the view that capitalism embodies a system of class exploitation; that socialism is a social order in which private property and exploitation are abolished; and that socialism can be achieved through revolution. Revolutionary leaders and theorists, and several generations of social scientists and historians, have attempted to develop these central ideas into programs of political action and historical research. The challenges for Marxist political parties fall in two general areas...
Research Paper on Marxism » 
Research Paper on Masculinity
Masculinity Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. Masculinity refers to the social roles, behaviors, and meanings prescribed for men in any given society at any one time. As such, it emphasizes gender, not biological sex, and the diversity of identities among different groups of men. Although we experience gender to be an internal facet of identity, the concept of masculinity is produced within the institutions of society and through our daily interactions (Kimmel 2000). Much popular discourse assumes that biological sex determines one's gender identity, the experience and expression of masculinity and femininity. Instead of focusing on biological universals, social and behavioral scientists are concerned with the different ways in which biological sex comes...
Research Paper on Masculinity » 
Research Paper on Matriarchy
Matriarchy Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. Matriarchy is a complex and controversial term. It is emotionally and politically loaded, and has been seen as suppressed history (Walker 1996b), utopian theory (Perkins Gilman [1915] 1992), deluded fantasy (Marshall 1998), and dangerous degeneration or dysfunction (Frazier 1949; Moynihan 1965). Barbara Walker, citing Wolfgang Lederer's Fear ofWomen, argues that Amazon was a "Greek name for Goddess-worshipping tribes in North Africa, Anatolia, and the Black Sea area" whose women were "warlike" (1996a, p. 24). In Eurasian Scythia women were not only warriors, but also important in politics (Walker 1996a). Similarly, Lewis Henry Morgan's, whose work was a basis for that of Engel's, description of the Iroquois...
Research Paper on Matriarchy » 
Research Paper on Maturation
Maturation Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. The term maturation comes from maturatio, a Latin word for ripening; thus, many dictionaries describe maturation as the process of "becoming ripe" or "mature," and being mature as "being ripe." In the social sciences, when we describe developmental changes as maturational, we are describing the change as having three characteristics: First, maturational change is an intrinsically teleological or end-goal oriented process. Second, maturational change is a systematic process. Finally, the end-goal of maturational change is an adaptive state. Maturity represents this goallike apex of adaptive functioning, and maturation describes the systematic and time-consuming processes that achieve maturity. Consequently...
Research Paper on Maturation » 
Research Paper on Mecca
Mecca Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. Makkah al-Mukarramah, or "Mecca the blessed," as it is called by the government of Saudi Arabia, is the holiest city in Islam. Its unique status derives from its links to the rise of monotheism and the triumph of Islam in Arabia, and its role as a pilgrimage destination for all Muslims. The pilgrimage to Mecca (hajj)--once in one's lifetime--is a religious duty for Muslims who can afford it. Pilgrimages to the vicinity predate the founding of Islam (there were evidently pre-Islamic pilgrimages to nearby Arafat and Mina, and the Kaaba was a religious site before it became a focus of worship for Muslims), but the Islamic Mecca hajj is more than 1,300 years old. Muhammad himself completed the pilgrimage in year 10...
Research Paper on Mecca » 
Research Paper on Medicine
Medicine Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. In its broadest sense, medicine denotes ideas relating to diagnoses, causes, and cures of illness, as well as the practice of restoring and maintaining health, and the substances used in the treatment of disease. Medicine is both a domain of knowledge and the application of that knowledge. Medical ideas and practices as well as the social institutions relating to health compose a medical system. Medical systems include ways of classifying disease (cancer, a cold, soul loss, and spirit possession), health specialists (doctors, herbalists, and shamans), and therapies to end illness (pharmaceuticals, meditation, acupuncture, and divination). Western medicine, or biomedicine, is currently the most widespread...
Research Paper on Medicine » 
Research Paper on The Medici Family
The Medici Family Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. The story of the Medici family is closely associated with four historical developments of great interest to scholars in the social sciences: the history of Florence, Italy, and the Florentine "republic" in particular; the development of humanism and the attendant rise of a new association of humanist scholars and artists; the life story and scholarly career of Niccolo Machiavelli; and the history of the Roman Catholic Church. The Medicis first arrived in Florence around 1200 CE from the Mugello region north of Florence. During the thirteenth century the city of Florence became increasingly famous and prosperous due to its success in the cloth and woolen trade, but also became increasingly divided between...
Research Paper on The Medici Family » 
Research Paper on Memory
Memory Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. Since the 1980s, collective memory has become an intensely studied topic across the social sciences. This sudden remarkable interest may be attributed to a rising preoccupation with dissolving collective identities in the face of new historical realities--globalizing economic and cultural trends, the reconfiguration of gender relations, and a media revolution with far-reaching implications for the organization of knowledge. The scholarly discourse about collective memory parallels another about the distinguishing traits of a "postmodernism" temper. Serious efforts in the social sciences to understand the dynamics of collective memory, however, date from the early twentieth century in the research of the French...
Research Paper on Memory » 
Research Paper on Mysticism
Mysticism Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. It is a major premise of the mystical traditions that it is possible for humanity to come into direct contact with the one God, the one Goddess. These traditions can be found in many places and in many eras. This entry provides a brief introduction to this profound area of human experience. One such tradition can be found in the Holy Kabbalah, which embodies the mystical, esoteric teachings of the Jewish faith. Its primary glyph is the tree of life, which is a complex symbol that represents both the microcosm and the macrocosm (the symbol of which is the Star of David--a hexagram uniting two triangles). The tree is composed of ten emanations of God, called sephira, and twenty-two connecting paths that correspond...
Research Paper on Mysticism » 
Research Paper on Nation
Nation Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. The term nation connotes a broad community of individuals, whose members consider themselves linked on the basis of shared long-standing cultural practices, ethnicity, history, memories, or traditions, who are typically associated with a specific geographical homeland, and who are predisposed to make political claims of autonomy, sovereignty, or other assertions of rights on the basis of their membership. Though nations are abstractions, in practice they are quite real to those who believe they belong to one. The idea that nations are real and legitimate forms of social organization is a fundamental assumption in ideologies of nationalism and national self-determination. While in vernacular and economic use nation...
Research Paper on Nation » 
Research Paper on National Geographic
National Geographic Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. The National Geographic Society was founded in January 1888 in Washington, D.C., to support "the increase and diffusion of geographical knowledge." In October of that year, the society published the first issue of what was originally called The National Geographic Magazine, which was considered a way to fulfill the society's educational mission. The generally bland and often technical articles that characterized the magazine's early issues (which contained no photographs) scarcely hinted at the style that was to transform the journal into one of the most widely read magazines in the United States. The National Geographic Magazine, issued erratically for its first eight years, became a monthly in January 1896...
Research Paper on National Geographic » 
Research Paper on Native Americans
Native Americans Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. Though referring properly to anyone born in America, the term Native Americans has referred to American indigenous peoples since the eighteenth century. Its use became popular in the 1970s as part of a movement to advance indigenous political and legal rights by emphasizing the aboriginal status of pre-Columbian peoples. The choice to use Native American rather than Indian, the term Christopher Columbus (1451-1506) gave and the other term commonly used in the United States, remains a matter of political debate in some indigenous communities. Aboriginal peoples of the Americas is more accurate, but unfamiliar. Further, it does not, strictly speaking, refer to Arctic peoples, sometimes known as Eskimo, Inuit...
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Research Paper on The Navajos
The Navajos Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. The Navajo, who in 2007 numbered approximately 290,000 people, the majority of whom occupy a thirteen-million-acre reservation that spans parts of Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah, understand themselves to be a chosen people living within a sacred geography. A rich oral tradition documents the travails of their ancestors as they traverse a series of three or four underworlds, each of which is portrayed in some state of chaos and disorder resulting in the need for migration upward into the next world. The oral tradition also documents the preparation of this world and the creation of the Navajo people and establishes tenets for living. In the last underworld, First Man and First Woman--the first beings with humanlike form...
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Research Paper on Negro
Negro Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. The term Negro emerged as a social and political marker for Africans south of the Sahara in the fifteenth century. In its earliest usage it generally referred only to color and could be applied to anyone viewed as black, nonwhite, or non-European. Negro derives from the Latin niger, meaning "black," and became Negro/a in Spanish and Portuguese. (The letter a signifies the grammatical feminine form of the word.) When the Portuguese began to enslave Africans in Portugal in the 1440s, the term became synonymous with "slave" and was used by the Spanish as they carried slaves from West Africa to New World societies at the beginning of the sixteenth century. The meaning of the term was modified by the histories of slavery in the...
Research Paper on Negro » 
Research Paper on Nonblacks
Nonblacks Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. Although racial and ethnic minority groups in the United States have been afforded many opportunities, they have also experienced a great deal of oppression over the course of U.S. history. Native Americans lost thousands of acres of land to early American settlers, and a large percentage of the Native population died in the process. In the mid-to late 1800s, individuals of Chinese descent were welcomed to the country to help build railroads, only to be excluded from citizenship and naturalization once the task was completed. Thousands of innocent Japanese-Americans were interned in the name of national security following the bombing of Pearl Harbor, resulting in the loss of billions of dollars worth of land and personal...
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Research Paper on Nonwhites
Nonwhites Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. Social scientists often classify and study individuals and groups based upon shared characteristics. A racial group is comprised of individuals who share similar physical characteristics including skin color. The U.S. Census uses the following racial categories: American Indian or Alaska Native; Asian; Black or African American; Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander; White and Some Other Race. There are also two minimum categories for ethnicity: Hispanic or Latino and Not Hispanic or Latino. Hispanics and Latinos may be of any race. The labels as well as the definition for the aforementioned racial groups have changed over time. For decades, individuals could only identify with one racial group...
Research Paper on Nonwhites » 
Research Paper on North - South Divide
North - South Divide Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. The terms the North and the South, when used in a global context, are alternative designations for "developed" and "developing" countries. Together, the North and South constitute virtually the entire global population. As terms, the North and the South emerged during the 1970s, probably simultaneously, and in contrast with each other. This article thus discusses these two terms together. While the countries that make up the North and the countries that comprise the South share broadly similar economic and historical characteristics with the other countries in their category, there is no precise definition of either term. Two generations ago, the North could have been approximately defined as Europe...
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Research Paper on Participant Observation
Participant Observation Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. Participant observation was introduced into anthropology at the beginning of the twentieth century when Bronislaw Malinowski (1884-1942) challenged the traditional paradigm of researchers conducting their studies from the veranda of a missionary station, by taking accounts from individuals rather than observing situations firsthand (Wax and Cassell 1979). He exhorted his colleagues to conduct fieldwork in situ, using participant observation. This technique was used by Malinowski in his studies of the Trobriand Islands (Malinowski 1922, 1935, 1948) "to grasp the native's point of view, his relation to life, to realize his vision of his world" (Malinowski 1922, p. 25, emphasis in original). Participant...
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Research Paper on Oppositionality
Oppositionality Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. Oppositional identity refers to any attitudes or behaviors intended to challenge schooling. These attitudes and behaviors range from mild opposition, such as not doing homework or becoming the class clown, to more disruptive opposition, such as defying and striking teachers or walking out of class. The most extreme form of opposition is dropping out of school. The high dropout rates and low academic achievement of racial and ethnic minority and lower-class students is often explained as a result of their adoption of an oppositional identity. An oppositional stance to school develops because students believe that education will not lead to social mobility or because school requires behaviors that are deemed incompatible...
Research Paper on Oppositionality » 
Research Paper on Organization Theory
Organization Theory Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. Organization theory is a theoretical perspective which conceives of organizations as complex social actors and investigates how the structures they adopt affect their behavior. The field takes a broad view of the term "structure" including not only formal structure, but also informal and network relationships and cultural and cognitive aspects of the organizations. As such, it addresses broad questions of how and why organizations come to be, take the forms they do, behave as they do, and survive or fail. With its focus on organizations as a collective entity, organization theory complements organizational behavior, which focuses on individuals and small groups within the larger field of organization studies...
Research Paper on Organization Theory » 
Research Paper on The Other
The Other Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. The term other is used in a variety of contexts. In the most basic sense, the other is used with a small o to depict the manners or processes by which perceptions of others are attained. This is the subject of much research in psychology, neurology, cognitive science, and philosophy of mind. Psychologists, particularly childhood psychologists, postulate that perceptions of the other proceed inter alia from processes of contrast, comparison, and analogy through which the self sets itself apart from, first, those who are close--mother, father, and other kin--and, second, outwardly to distant "strangers" (Klein 1964; Erikson [1950] 1993). It is thus understood that consciousness of the self depends upon...
Research Paper on The Other » 
Research Paper on Palestinian Diaspora
Palestinian Diaspora Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. There is an increasing literature that describes as diasporic the twentieth-century dispersion of the Palestinian people from their historical homeland in the Middle East. However, the question arises whether celebrating the hybridity and the challenge to notions of nation-state and the dominant culture inherent in diaspora cultures does not detract from legitimate political claims to the homeland that was lost. This is particularly obvious in the case of the Palestinians. Thus, the literature on Palestinian diaspora communities and their experiences of dispersal and uprootedness demonstrates some unease in using the term diaspora precisely because it implies the possibility of permanence and the denial...
Research Paper on Palestinian Diaspora » 
Research Paper on Pan-Africanism
Pan-Africanism Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. Pan-Africanism is a political, ideological, and cultural movement centered on the liberation of Africa and Africans both on the continent and in the diaspora. The primary tension in the history of the movement has been the precise nature and relative importance of race and class, and their relation, in this struggle (Allen 1969). There are many definitions of Pan-Africanism, and even debate about when it began and what actors and actions constitute the movement. These different conceptions hinge largely on whether one is referring to an organized historical movement self-identified as "Pan-Africanism" that began in the late nineteenth century and continues into the twenty-first. The alternative is a "general...
Research Paper on Pan-Africanism » 
Research Paper on Pan-Arabism
Pan-Arabism Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. Pan-Arabism is a Western term for the ideological and political project Arabs refer to as Arab nationalism. This project's central premise is that all those who speak Arabic, from Iraq in the east to Morocco in the west, share a common history, heritage, and culture, and are therefore members of a single nation whose destiny it is to overcome the artificial boundaries imposed by colonialism and achieve independence and unity. Like all nationalisms, Arab nationalism claims ancient roots but is actually of relatively recent origin. The term Arab was used by neighboring peoples to designate an ethnos based in the central and northern Arabian Peninsula from well before the emergence of Islam in the seventh century CE...
Research Paper on Pan-Arabism » 
Research Paper on Pan-Caribbeanism
Pan-Caribbeanism Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. The emergence of Pan-Caribbeanism--a movement dedicated to regional economic and political integration-- can only be understood in the context of the Caribbean's history, from plantation system and slavery, to anti-colonialist struggles and eventual independence. The attempt to integrate the region economically and politically dates back to the eighteenth century, when British colonial authorities sought confederation of the Leeward Islands. Other attempts occurred in the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century, but met with no success. Indeed, no serious consideration of West Indian Federation was made until the mid-1940s. Some scholars suggest that the idea of the West Indian Federation...
Research Paper on Pan-Caribbeanism » 
Research Paper on Peasantry and Peasant Movements
Peasantry and Peasant Movements Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. Peasantry refers to peoples and communities who are peasants. The modern English term peasant comes from French and Latin terms referring to residents of an administrative district. In modern times the term has come to refer primarily to small-scale agriculturalists who live in villages and small towns in rural areas. Peasant communities are typically based economically on the cultivation of grains and other high yielding plant foods. Wheat, barley, and oats were first domesticated in the area where Syria, Palestine, and adjacent areas of Northern Iraq are now located and the first peasants appeared in Ancient Mesopotamia (present day Iraq). The basis of peasant agriculture began with varieties...
Research Paper on Peasantry and Peasant Movements » 
Research Paper on Practice Theory
Practice Theory Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. Practice theory is generally recognized as a way to account for social life through the synthesis of societal structures and a person's individual dispositions. Pierre Bourdieu (1930-2002) is perhaps the most famous social theorist associated with this method of apprehending social life-- a method that in the early 1990s he termed genetic structuralism. Until his death in 2002, Bourdieu held the chair of sociology at the College de France and directed the Centre de Sociologie Europeenne. In Outline of a Theory of Practice (1972), Bourdieu argued that in their attempt to account for social practice, sociologists and ethnographers must not only leave the objectivist grand theories of history and society behind...
Research Paper on Practice Theory » 
Research Paper on Pre-Columbian Peoples
Pre-Columbian Peoples Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. The term pre-Columbian refers to the time before Columbus first set foot in the Americas. He sailed to find alternative routes to the East, as Asian imports had become very expensive in Europe after the Turks conquered Constantinople in 1453. Yet pre-Columbian peoples had flourishing civilizations long before the arrival of Columbus. Each society had prescribed laws and unique religions, and far from the savage cultures that history painted them to be, several societies were highly sophisticated. Some scholars have postulated that around the time that the Israelites chose David as their king, a tribe of Asians crossed the land bridge that became the Bering Strait in search of new game. These people, called...
Research Paper on Pre-Columbian Peoples » 
Research Paper on Primates
Primates Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. No simple set of diagnostic characteristics defines "primates." Rather, members of the order Primates share, to varying degrees, several suites of features that reflect a generally arboreal lifestyle. These attributes include: 1. Pentadactyl, prehensile hands and/or feet with nails (rather than claws) on the digits, of which the thumb and/or big toe are opposable. 2. Pronounced sensory emphasis on vision, notably through development of binocular and stereoscopic vision, as well as expansion of the visual cortex. 3. A generalized postcranial anatomy tending toward orthrograde (upright) posture. 4. A trend toward enlargement of the cerebral cortex, especially in monkeys and apes. Primate taxonomy is debated...
Research Paper on Primates » 
Research Paper on Queer Studies
Queer Studies Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. Formed out of scholarly conferences in the 1980s, queer studies started as an elite academic movement of primarily humanities scholars who had taken a lead in developing lesbian and gay social constructionist studies in the 1980s (Fuss 1991). Social science scholars were largely absent from its beginning intellectual formations (see, for example, Fuss 1991; Abelove et al. 1993; Warner 1993). Correcting for this absence, two important edited readers stand out in foregrounding a queer perspective for the social sciences and, conversely, a more social standpoint for queer studies. The first is Queer Theory/Sociology (1996). In his introduction to the volume, Seidman argues that queer theory wants to shift...
Research Paper on Queer Studies » 
Research Paper on Race and Anthropology
Race and Anthropology Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. The history of anthropology has been closely identified with the study of race. In the early twenty-first century the concept of race is highly contested among anthropologists, some of whom claim that it does not exist in either biology or society except as an objectionable, stigmatizing fiction. Its problematic biological status has led some to assume a "no-race" stance that resonates with the colorblind ideology that has gained popularity in some segments of U.S. society. Color blindness denies the extant social significance and the experiential and institutional materiality of race, races, and racial inequalities. Race is an ideologically charged and invidious social distinction (Berreman 1972)...
Research Paper on Race and Anthropology » 
Research Paper on Realist Theory
Realist Theory Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. Theoretical schools and trends represent more than abstract, free-floating ideas. They are socially moored, and need to be seen in relation to other intellectual and social trends. "Realism" has been present in philosophical thought at least since Aristotle, but the return of realism in recent years can be best understood as a reaction against the dominance of "postmodernism" in the academy, especially in the humanities and humanistic social sciences. What we have now come to call postmodernism (even when some of its adherents disavow the label) is a theoretical position that relies on a definable epistemic stance-- what the philosopher Bernard Williams has called the stance of the "denier." At the most general...
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Research Paper on Reciprocity
Reciprocity Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. Reciprocity is mutual exchange. It is the back-and-forth movement of goods and services between people. Reciprocity is the defining characteristic of nearly every nonmarket exchange system, and it shapes formal market economics as well. Dynamic social and political aspects of mutual exchange significantly influence the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services in all societies. Nuances in reciprocity also influence how various items and labor are imbued with culturally specific values. Marshall Sahlins (1972), drawing on the work of Bronislaw Malinowski (1922) and Marcel Mauss (1925), pinpoints three overarching categories of reciprocal exchange among different past and present peoples...
Research Paper on Reciprocity » 
Research Paper on The Norm of Reciprocity
The Norm of Reciprocity Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. Social norms refer to the rules and expectations about how people should behave in a group or culture, and pertain to generally accepted ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving that people agree on and endorse as right or proper. Various norms can be distinguished: among others, the norm of social responsibility, prescribing that people should help others who are dependent on them; the norm of social justice or fairness, which relates to the just distribution of resources; and the norm of social commitment, which concerns the shared view that people should honor their agreements and obligations. American sociologist Alvin Gouldner (1960) was the first to propose the existence of a universal, generalized...
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Research Paper on Reflexivity
Reflexivity Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. Individuals, institutions, and societies are reflexive: They "turn back" upon themselves to observe, reference, describe, predict, assess and explain their own ways and workings. Reflexive turns are not mere adjuncts to social life: They make it possible and increasingly comprise its very fabric. Selfhood, mind, and agency are constituted through the human capacity to reflexively make an object of oneself. Individuals interact with one another in light of their reflexive understanding of the contexts and consequences of their actions. Innumerable professionals--social scientists among them--audit, analyze, and forecast the functioning of organizations, institutions, and the society itself. Reflexive turns...
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Research Paper on Relativism
Relativism Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. Relativism, put very generally, states that a particular feature varies (or at least can vary) relative to certain phenomena. Prime candidates for the varying feature have been meaning, truth, rationality, justification, knowledge, value, and morality. Relativism thus arises in many areas of inquiry, and it has numerous variations within each area. Relativism about truth states that truth varies relative to, for example, the concepts, the beliefs, the purposes, or the reasons possessed by an individual or a group. Relativists about truth thus suggest that truth is, in a sense, always truth for an individual or a group with certain concepts, beliefs, purposes, or reasons. Cultural relativism about truth...
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Research Paper on Religion
Religion Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. Though difficult to define from an intercultural perspective, religion informs the lives of virtually every society as a complex system involving beliefs, behavior, organizational structures, and symbols. Problems in satisfactorily defining the term emerge from the manifold ways in which religion expresses itself, the varied roles that it performs both for individuals and for social groups, and the plethora of academic disciplines that study it. Beliefs that may be deemed "religious" range from precisely articulated perceptions of a complex array of anthropomorphic deities, such as the myriad levels of divinity recognized in Hinduism, to vague notions of impersonal, overarching power--for example, the concept of mana...
Research Paper on Religion » 
Research Paper on Rites of Passage
Rites of Passage Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. A rite of passage is a series of rituals that conveys an individual from one social state or status to another--for example, from adolescence to adulthood, from single to married, from student to graduate, from apprentice to a full member of a profession, from life to death--thereby transforming both society's definition of the individual and the individual's self-perception. Such rituals of social transition mark culturally recognized stages of life and assist the individual and social group in adjusting to an individual's new status and its implications for behavior and social relations. Transition rituals--rites of passage-- reduce the ambiguity associated with change, protecting individual psyches during...
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Research Paper on Rituals
Rituals Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. A ritual is a patterned, repetitive, and symbolic enactment of a cultural belief or value. Rituals usually work to enhance social cohesion, because their primary purpose in most cases is to align the belief system of the individual with that of the group. The more a belief system is enacted through ritual, the stronger it becomes; the less it is enacted, the weaker it becomes. For this reason, religious leaders often exhort their members to participate regu-larly--for example, to come to church every Sunday and to prayer group every Wednesday night. If people stop going, that is, if they cease to enact the religion's rituals, over time that religion will have less and less meaning for them. Rituals are most commonly...
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Research Paper on Sanskritization
Sanskritization Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. The term Sanskritization was first coined by the Indian sociologist Mysore Narasimhachar Srinivas (1916-1999) in his Oxford University PhD thesis, which was eventually published as Religion and Society among the Coorgs of South India (1952). His research demonstrated that, contrary to the British colonial view, the caste system was not static and pan-Indian, but local, dynamic, and fluid. He captured the dynamics of this stratification system in his theory of Sanskritization. Sanskrit is the canonical language of the Hindu scriptures, including principally the Upanishads, and thus Sanskritization is the process by which lower castes attempt to emulate the culture of higher castes. More precisely...
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Research Paper on Social Theory
Social Theory Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. Social theory begins with ordinary questions, like why do some passively accept authority while others respond with political violence? Religions provided answers in a distant past. Social theory emerged as a secular alternative, often joining ethical and positive elements. Three traditions of social theory are important for the social sciences. A first tradition comes from Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679). After years of bloody warfare between Catholics and Protestants, Hobbes's Leviathan (1651) offered a worldly theory of social order. What was really at issue was power. As an early example of what would be termed ideology critique, Hobbes asks "cui bono?"--whose interest does this idea serve? People obey...
Research Paper on Social Theory » 
Research Paper on The Standard Cross-Cultural Sample
The Standard Cross-Cultural Sample Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. The Standard Cross-Cultural Sample, or SCCS (Murdock and White 1969), is a cumulative and collaborative database of coded variables on maximally diverse and ethno-graphically best-described societies used by scholars in the social sciences. The champion of modern cross-cultural and statistical methods, George P. Murdock, in preparation for a standard sample, had classified the 1,267 societies in his coded Ethnographic Atlas into 200 distinctive world cultural provinces (Murdock 1962-1967, 1968). Douglas R. White (1968) had compiled a database of coded cross-cultural studies and done a concordance of previous samples (repeated by Ember 1992) that showed the fruitlessness of testing...
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Research Paper on The Stare
The Stare Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. The ancient Greeks explored the dialectics of the gaze in the form of the myth of Medusa, who can turn people to stone with a single glance. The Medusan story symbolically condenses a range of experiences of looking and being looked at in the graphic image of the "petrifying gaze" (petrification meaning literally the turning of the other into an inert object), and the Medusa, being a female deity, introduces the idea that "looking" implicates sexual and gendered phenomena of some social and cultural importance. The human sciences have demonstrated that "looking" is a profoundly social and political phenomenon that obliges the analyst to distinguish between different modalities and practices of seeing...
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Research Paper on Street Culture
Street Culture Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. A primary issue for urban sociologists is the disproportionate poverty in ghettoes, defined as parts of American cities that are composed of mostly poor African Americans. These economically and socially alienated communities often suffer from high rates of unemployment, crime, and drug use, creating images of these areas and their occupants that mask differences among residents and the structural conditions that affect them. Several studies have attempted to disentangle these issues by identifying systematic inequalities and the ways inner-city residents respond to them. Many note the integral role of street cultures in such neighborhoods, which help disadvantaged residents to cope with inner-city life...
Research Paper on Street Culture » 
Research Paper on Subjectivity: Overview
Subjectivity: Overview Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. In emulating the success of the physical sciences, the social sciences have traditionally been committed to the paradigm of objective knowledge. The norm of objectivity was understood as an ideal of disinterested, factual, replicable, lawlike knowledge of social reality, a type of knowledge that would demonstrably transcend both ideological controversies and commonsense knowledge, indeed a knowledge wholly independent of human interests, passions, and all subjective entanglements. Not surprisingly, this image of science polarized epistemological disputes into two extreme camps, the objectivist persuasion defending the ideal and a range of dissenting voices questioning the possibility...
Research Paper on Subjectivity: Overview » 
Research Paper on Subjectivity: Analysis
Subjectivity: Analysis Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. The terms subject and subjectivity are employed in the humanities and social sciences in contradistinction to the notion of the self or selfhood. The latter terms traditionally suggest the idea of identity as a personal possession and of individuality as both unique and autonomous. The notion of the subject is more ambivalent in that the term at once denotes a person under the control or influence of other people or external forces--that is, a being literally or figuratively subjected to such forces and influences--and an individual agency that thinks, feels, perceives, intends, and acts in its interaction with other people and the outside world. In contrast to the self, regarded as a...
Research Paper on Subjectivity: Analysis » 
Research Paper on Sudras in Caste System
Sudras in Caste System Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. Sudras (also Sudhra or Shudra) are people occupying a position next to the bottom of the Hindu caste system in India. Most Sudras are menial workers. At times it is difficult to distinguish Sudras from untouchables (Dalits), who stand below them and are considered to be so polluted that they are regarded as outside the caste system entirely. The Vaisya (Vaishya) or merchant caste stands directly above the Sudras in India's cast hierarchy. Identifying a member of the Sudra class is a matter of recognizing subtle distinctions with which one becomes familiar after living around Sudras. They are usually identified by their vocabulary, which may include vulgarities; by the towns where they live or were born...
Research Paper on Sudras in Caste System » 
Research Paper on Tally's Corner
Tally's Corner Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. Tally's Corner: A Study of Negro Streetcorner Men (1967), by the American anthropologist Elliot Liebow (1925-1994), represented a breakthrough for its time in studies dealing with poverty and race. Tally's Corner was originally written as Liebow's PhD dissertation in anthropology for the Catholic University of America. For twelve months in 1962 and 1963, Liebow and a group of researchers studied the behavior of a group of young black men who lived near and frequently hung around a street corner in a poor black neighborhood in downtown Washington, D.C. Liebow's participant observation revealed the numerous obstacles facing black men on a day-to-day basis, including the structural and individual...
Research Paper on Tally's Corner » 
Research Paper on Tourism Industry
Tourism Industry Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. Leisure tourism has long been a pursuit of the wealthy, but it is only since the 1980s that the majority of the population has become involved, either as tourists or as workers catering for their needs--a phenomenon that has raised tourism to the position of one of the world's largest industries. Domestic tourism is estimated to be ten times greater in volume than international tourism, and yet relatively little is known about it; closer attention has been paid to international tourism. With developments in world trade, better means of transport and communications, intensive marketing, rises in disposable income, improvements in political ties, technological advances, and increased leisure time...
Research Paper on Tourism Industry » 
Research Paper on Travel and Travel Writing
Travel and Travel Writing Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. Modern notions of travel have their roots in a diverse history of developments; groups of people have moved across landscapes for the purposes of migration, pilgrimage, trade, exploration, and colonization. For example, humans have migrated for resettlement for a million years, and for agricultural reasons for tens of thousands of years. Similarly, pilgrimages have been the cornerstone of most major religions: Just as the ancient Greeks sought the oracle at Delphi, Buddhists travel to the city of Buddha's birth, Muslims make the hajj to Mecca, and Christians visit Jerusalem. In another parallel flow of travel, trade routes flourished between Europe and China from the rise of Greek...
Research Paper on Travel and Travel Writing » 
Research Paper on Tribe
Tribe Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. Despite its popular as well as academic usage, tribe is a contentious concept. In popular imagination, tribe is associated with "primitivism" and "backwardness," clearly referring to non-Western or indigenous groups inhabiting the countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin America or to American Indian reservations. In 1951 the Royal Anthropological Institute defined the tribe as a "politically or socially coherent and autonomous group occupying or claiming a particular territory" (1951, p. 66). Scholars since then have contested the notions of coherence, autonomy, and territorial segregation as only ideal constructs, devoid of much empirical support. Although it is unlikely that this definition would apply perfectly...
Research Paper on Tribe » 
Research Paper on Trigueno
Trigueno Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. The term trigueno is derived from trigo (wheat) and literally means "wheat-colored." The term seems to have gained currency in twentieth-century Puerto Rico and elsewhere in Spanish-speaking Latin America (Argentina, Bolivia, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, and Venezuela) to describe people with a tan or brown skin tone (piel morena). However, its meaning and social uses contain the same ambiguities inherent in all so-called race-related concepts as race is not an objective fact of nature but what might be called a social fact, subject to power dynamics and the social hierarchies of racism. Thus, in the Hispanic Caribbean, trigueno is also deployed as a euphemism for Negro (black)...
Research Paper on Trigueno » 
Research Paper on Vaisyas in Caste System
Vaisyas in Caste System Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. An upper class in the Hindu tradition, the Vaisyas are the lowest level of the "twice-born" (dvijas). They are commoners, but not a servant group. They undergo the sacred thread ceremony (Yajnopavita), as do the Brahmins and Kshatriyas. But while male Vaisyas "take the thread," it is made of a fiber different from that of the two castes above them (Brahmins and Kshatriyas). As part of the cosmic order of dharma, they have been assigned the role of merchants and craftspeople. Vaisyas are described in the Laws of Manu (a Hindu sacred book) as being given at creation the duties to tend cattle, bestow gifts, offer sacrifices, trade, lend money, cultivate land, and study the Vedas. It is sacrilegious...
Research Paper on Vaisyas in Caste System » 
Research Paper on Values
Values Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. The word value appears in two forms. The first is as a noun meaning core ideals and norms, as in, for example, "independence is a core value in contemporary U.S. society." The second form of value is a verb meaning the process by which things acquire importance or economic price, which is sometimes understood as valuation, as in, for example, "the ball was valued at $1.29 for quick resale" or "group members value her participation." Most social theory has focused on values as nouns that represent key ideas for a given culture, perform certain functions for society, or figure in ideological systems of power. However, an additional consideration of valuation can bring into focus issues of value change and the relationships...
Research Paper on Values » 
Research Paper on Women's Movement
Women's Movement Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. The women's movement has often been called one of the most important social movements of the twentieth century. Its most basic goals are to improve women's social, economic, and political conditions by facilitating personal transformations, introducing new ideas to public discourse, and exerting pressure on policymakers. In addition to voting, it has been a key form of women's political participation, joined only recently by greater numbers of women in political office. Beyond these basic features, however, there is considerable diversity among specific women's movements around the world. First, not all types of political engagement by women would be considered a women's movement. As Karen Beckwith...
Research Paper on Women's Movement » 
Research Paper on Women's Studies
Women's Studies Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. Women's studies is an interdisciplinary academic field that concentrates on the experiences and aspirations of women. Although women's studies departments and programs in the United States and around the world are reflective of their locations within educational institutions and their larger social context, a common thread is the claim that women's experiences have been underrepresented or misrepresented in more traditional academic disciplines that claim to capture the human experience. This has been found by some critics to be the case in traditional disciplines that purport to speak about human nature but consider only the social location of men or take men as the universal subject, casting women...
Research Paper on Women's Studies » 
Research Paper on Work and Women
Work and Women Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Anthropology. The term work, generally implying some sort of activity or achievements, acquired specific connotations due to the development of capitalist productive relations, particularly since the Industrial Revolution in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries in Britain. Under capitalism it is the payment of wages that makes clear the distinction between work and nonwork. The notion of work came to be associated with some sort of paid employment, so that time spent outside waged employment is not considered "work" but leisure time. For example, taking care of one's own household and children--a job typically done by women--is usually considered nonwork because it is a non-wage-generating activity...
Research Paper on Work and Women » 
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