ESSAY EMPIRE's custom essays
  Home Essay Topics & Examples Our Prices Research Papers Term Papers Essay Writing Order now Contact Us  
 Argumentative Essays and Research Papers
 Art and Culture Essays and Research Papers
 Business Essays and Research Papers
 Custom Essay Writing Services
 Environmental Essays and Research Papers
 Health Essays and Research Papers
 History Essays and Research Papers
 How to Write an Essay
 Literature Essays and Research Papers
 Media Essays and Research Papers
 Philosophy Essays and Research Papers
 Political Science Essays and Research Papers
 Psychology Essays and Research Papers
 Religion Essays and Research Papers
 Research Paper Examples
 Research Paper Topics & Ideas
 Science Essays and Research Papers
 Shakespeare Essays and Research Papers
 Sociology Essays and Research Papers
Todat' Free Samples Essay
Research Paper on Physical Activity and Obesity
Physical Activity and Obesity Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Obesity. Physical Activity is defined as bodily movement (any form) produced by the contraction of skeletal muscles that increases energy expenditure above the basal level, and can be categorized in various ways, including type, intensity or strenuousness and purpose. Obesity is a condition describing excess body weight in the form of fat, with a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or greater...
Popular Essay Topics
 Research Paper on Organizational Crime
 Research Paper on Human Trafficking
 Research Paper on Capital Punishment
 Research Paper on Community Corrections
 Research Paper on Crime Prevention
 Research Paper on Ancient Political Thought
 Research Paper on Asian Political Thought
 Research Paper on Islamic Political Thought
 Research Paper on Christian Political Thought
 Research Paper on Early Modern and Classical Liberal Political Thought
 Research Paper on Standards for Psychotherapy
 Research Paper on Support Groups
 Research Paper on Agoraphobia
 Research Paper on Alcohol Abuse
 Research Paper on Alzheimer's Disease
 Research Paper on Technology and the Environment
 Research Paper on Sociology of Terrorism
 Research Paper on the Sociology of Violence
 Research Paper on Environmental Sociology
 Research Paper on Applied Sociology
Copyright ©, 2004-2012. All rights reserved

You Are Here: Home > Essay Topics > Sociology Essays and Research Papers > Anthropology Research Papers  > Research Paper on Medical Anthropology

  Anthropology Research Paper Topics

Research Paper on Medical Anthropology

Medical anthropology is the subdiscipline of anthropology that focuses on the intersection of health, medicine, society, and culture. Generally thought to include the study of the impact of disease on society and the impact of society and culture on health and disease, medical anthropology encompasses several different paradigms for research, including biocultural anthropology; ethnomedicine; social and cultural factors in the incidence, prevalence, and treatment of disease, or social epidemiology; the political economy of health; and the inclusion of cultural and social concerns in the planning, implementation, and evaluation of projects, which is the core of applied medical anthropology.


In 1978 George Foster and Barbara Anderson, following Khwaja Hassan (1975), suggested that the field of contemporary medical anthropology has four distinct roots that came together in the mid-twentieth century to form a recognized subfield of inquiry: the interest in variation in human morphology and paleopathology that began in the mid-nineteenth century, carried out in part by anatomists and early physical anthropologists; the culture and personality movement, or psychological anthropology, that began in the early twentieth century as both an offshoot of and a critical alternative to Freudian psychology but gained strength during World War II because of increasing interest in understanding the psychological makeup of the different cultures involved in that conflict; the study of ethnomedicine, which began as part of ethnography in the nineteenth century but became a focus of study for culturally oriented medical anthropologists after the posthumous publication of W. H. R. Rivers's Medicine, Magic, and Religion in 1924; and the applied anthropology of public health, which arose from the post-World War II interest in improving health practices and introducing biomedicine in developing countries. The continuation of these themes can be seen in contemporary medical anthropology in the form of bio-cultural anthropology, ethnomedicine, critical medical anthropology (CMA), applied medical anthropology, and psychological anthropology.


The first review that addressed the subfield was Caudill's 1953 article "Applied Anthropology in Medicine." As the title suggests, it was a review of the inclusion of anthropological concepts and ethnographic methods in medical settings, or in medical sociologist Robert Straus's terms, social science in medicine (1957). The first review article with the title "Medical Anthropology" was published by Norman Scotch in 1963 and was more comprehensive in its approach. Subsequent reviews by Horacio Fabrega in 1971 and Anthony Colson and Karen Selby in 1974 continued to debate the nature of the field, with the latter article discussing whether medical anthropology constituted a subfield of anthropology or the intersection of anthropology and medicine.

By the mid-1970s, however, there was a well-organized association representing the field of medical anthropology that embraced the full range of work by people who called themselves medical anthropologists. The Society for Medical Anthropology (SMA) started as the Steering Committee for the Organization of Medical Anthropology, which began publication of the Medical Anthropology Newsletter (MAN) in 1968. MAN later became the Medical Anthropology Quarterly (MAQ). In 1987 MAQ achieved status as a peer-reviewed quarterly journal that publishes across the full range of research in medical anthropology.


Biocultural anthropology draws heavily on the work of the neoevolutionary theorists of the mid-twentieth century and the adaptation paradigm that entered medical anthropology in the 1970s after the publication in 1970 of Alexander Alland's Adaptation in Cultural Anthropology: An Approach to Medical Anthropology. It includes anthropologists trained in cultural anthropology and those trained in biological anthropology and generally examines the way in which adaptation to particular physical and social environmental conditions shapes the experience of disease and illness in societies and the ways in which society adapts to challenges presented by disease. It also involves researchers working in human biology, and early interest among physical anthropologists and anatomists in paleopathology is represented currently by forensic anthropology. Biocultural anthropology has been criticized by writers with a CMA perspective for its failure to assess the assumptions in the adaptation/neoevolutionary theoretical framework critically. However, current theorists such as Goodman and Leatherman (1998) and Andrea Wiley (2004) have attempted to include a political economy approach in biocultural anthropology.

Critical medical anthropology and the political economy of health approaches draw heavily on the work of Marxist and later poststructural social theorists such as Michel Foucault (1975). The central project of CMA is a critical examination of the assumptions and practice of biomedicine, their application in medicine and health policy, and the diffusion of biomedical understandings to non-Western settings, in Straus's terms, social science of medicine (or ethnomedical systems). Drawing on the work of Rudolf Virchow, it also can include the application of theory from political economy to the understanding of the distribution of health and illness. Key books in this area include the works of Paul Farmer (1999, 2003), Merrill Singer (2006a, 2006b), and Nancy Scheper-Hughes (1992) and more comprehensive works such as Medical Anthropology in the World System (Baer, Singer, and Susser 2003).

Applied medical anthropology has its roots in the international public health movement that gained momentum after World War II. One of the first series of studies of the role of ethnomedical beliefs in the adoption of public health practices and biomedical treatment was carried out by anthropologists working for the Smithsonian Institution's Bureau of American Ethnology under contract to the Office of Special Studies, which later became the U.S. Agency for International Development. Some of this work is summarized in Health, Culture, and Community, edited by Benjamin Paul (1955), which argued for the inclusion of the study of ethnomedical beliefs in the design and implementation of public health programs. A number of anthropologists have worked with bilateral and multilateral health organizations such as the U.S. Agency for International Development and the World Health Organization. Interest in the study of non-Western medical systems also has been incorporated, including Mark Nichter's work on ethnomedical systems and medical change (1989, 1992). The line dividing primarily theoretically oriented and primarily applied research has become blurred. Several critical theorists, such as Merrill Singer and Paul Farmer, are deeply involved in the design and implementation of interventions and use a political economy approach to understand the epidemiology of disease and illness.



Alland, Alexander. 1970. Adaptation in Cultural Evolution: An Approach to Medical Anthropology. New York: Columbia University Press.

Baer, Hans A., Merrill Singer, and Ida Susser. 2003. Medical Anthropology and the World System. 2nd ed. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Caudill, William 1953. Applied Anthropology in Medicine. In Anthropology Today: An Encyclopedic Inventory, Prepared under the Chairmanship of A. L. Kroeber, ed. Alfred L. Kroeber, 771-791. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Colson, Anthony C., and Karen E. Selby. 1974. Medical Anthropology. Annual Review of Anthropology 3: 245-262.

Ember, Carol R., and Melvin Ember. 2003. Encyclopedia of Medical Anthropology: Health and Illness in the World's Cultures, vols. 1 and 2. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.

Fabrega, Horacio, Jr. 1971. Medical Anthropology. Annual Review of Anthropology:167-229.

Farmer, Paul. 1999. Infections and Inequalities: The Modern Plagues. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Farmer, Paul. 2003. Pathologies of Power: Health, Human Rights, and the New War on the Poor. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Foster, George M., and Barbara Gallatin Anderson. 1978. Medical Anthropology. New York: Wiley.

Foucault, Michel. 1975. Birth of the Clinic: An Archaeology of Medical Perception. New York: Vintage.

Goodman, Alan, and Thomas Leatherman, eds. 1998. Building a New Biocultural Synthesis: Political-Economic Perspectives on Human Biology (Linking Levels of Analysis). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Hassan, Khwaja Arif. 1975. What Is Medical Anthropology? Medical Anthropology Newsletter 6 (3): 7-10.

Nichter, Mark. 1989. Anthropology and International Health: South Asian Case Studies. Dordrecht, Netherlands, and Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Nichter, Mark, ed. 1992. Anthropological Approaches to the Study of Ethnomedicine. Yverdon, Switzerland, and Langhorne, PA: Gordon and Breach Science Publishers.

Paul, Benjamin D., ed. 1955. Health, Culture, and Community: Case Studies of Public Reactions to Health Programs. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Rivers, W. H. R. 1924. Medicine, Magic, and Religion: The Fitz Patrick Lectures Delivered before the Royal College of Physicians of London. New York: Harcourt Brace.

Scheper-Hughes, Nancy. 1992. Death without Weeping: The Violence of Everyday Life in Brazil. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Scheper-Hughes, Nancy, and Margaret Lock. 1987. The Mindful Body: A Prolegomenon to Future Work in Medical Anthropology. Medical Anthropology Quarterly, New Series 1: 6-41.

Scotch, Norman A. 1963. Medical Anthropology. Biennial Review of Anthropology 3: 30-68.

Singer, Merrill. 2006a. The Face of Social Suffering: Life History of a Street Drug Addict. Long Grove, IL.: Waveland Press.

Singer, Merrill. 2006b. Something Dangerous: Emergent and Changing Illicit Drug Use and Community Health. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press.

Straus, Robert. 1957. The Nature and Status of Medical Sociology. American Sociological Review 22: 200-204.

Trostle, James A. 2004. Epidemiology and Culture. Cambridge, U.K., and New York: Cambridge University Press.

Wiley, Andrea S. 2004. An Ecology of High-Altitude Infancy: A Biocultural Perspective. Cambridge, U.K., and New York: Cambridge University Press.


Kathleen Musante DeWalt

EssayEmpire offers you the best custom essay writing services, along with term paper, thesis paper, and research paper writing help. Our company employs professional essay writers who are fully qualified in a variety of academic fields. If you require a high quality writing service that is capable of writing authentic essays, term papers or research papers because you simply don't have the time or resources to do them yourself or maybe they seem too complicated and time consuming, you don't need to look any further. EssayEmpire is the perfect place for all your needs. If you need high quality Research Paper on Medical Anthropology at affordable prices please use our essay writing services offered by EssayEmpire.

Research Paper on Acting White
Research Paper on African American Studies
Research Paper on African Americans
Research Paper on The African Crisis Response Initiative
Research Paper on African Diaspora
Research Paper on The African National Congress
Research Paper on Africville (Canada)
Research Paper on AIDS/HIV Impact in Developing Countries
Research Paper on Alpha-male
Research Paper on The American Anthropological Association
Research Paper on The American Dream
Research Paper on Americanism
Research Paper on Anthropology
Research Paper on Biological Anthropology
Research Paper on British Anthropology
Research Paper on Linguistic Anthropology
Research Paper on Public Anthropology
Research Paper on Urban Anthropology
Research Paper on U.S. Anthropology
Research Paper on The Aryans
Research Paper on The Asiatic Mode of Production
Research Paper on Birth Control
Research Paper on Out-of-Wedlock Births
Research Paper on Black Towns
Research Paper on Blood and Bloodline
Research Paper on Borders
Research Paper on Brahmins in Caste System
Research Paper on Buraku or Burakumin
Research Paper on Burial Grounds
Research Paper on African Burial Grounds
Research Paper on Native American Burial Grounds
Research Paper on Anthropology of Caste (Caste System)
Research Paper on The Cherokees
Research Paper on Childlessness
Research Paper on Children
Research Paper on Chinese Americans
Research Paper on Civil Society
Research Paper on Civilization
Research Paper on Clock Time
Research Paper on Collective Memory
Research Paper on Colonialism
Research Paper on Primitive Communism
Research Paper on Creole
Research Paper on Cultural Group Selection
Research Paper on Cultural Landscape
Research Paper on Cultural Rights
Research Paper on Cultural Studies
Research Paper on Culture
Research Paper on Out-of-Wedlock Births
Research Paper on Social Darwinism
Research Paper on Death and Dying
Research Paper on Diaspora
Research Paper on Discourse
Research Paper on Distinctions, Social and Cultural
Research Paper on Dowry and Bride Price
Research Paper on The Dravidians
Research Paper on Eroticism
Research Paper on Essentialism
Research Paper on Ethnicity
Research Paper on Ethno-Epidemiological Methodology
Research Paper on Ethnology and Folklore
Research Paper on Ethnomethodology
Research Paper on Family
Research Paper on Fatherhood
Research Paper on Feminism
Research Paper on Human Fertility
Research Paper on Female-Headed Families
Research Paper on Femininity
Research Paper on Food
Research Paper on The Colonial Gaze
Research Paper on The Gaze
Research Paper on Globalization: Anthropological Aspects
Research Paper on Going Native
Research Paper on Racial Identification
Research Paper on Identity
Research Paper on Black Immigrants
Research Paper on Intersectionality
Research Paper on Intersubjectivity
Research Paper on The Inuit
Research Paper on Islam: Shia and Sunni
Research Paper on Japanese Americans
Research Paper on Evolutionary Theory of Kinship
Research Paper on Kshatriyas in Caste System
Research Paper on Leisure
Research Paper on Landlords
Research Paper on Magic
Research Paper on Malnutrition
Research Paper on Marxist Anthropology
Research Paper on Marxism
Research Paper on Masculinity
Research Paper on Matriarchy
Research Paper on Maturation
Research Paper on Mecca
Research Paper on Medicine
Research Paper on The Medici Family
Research Paper on Memory
Research Paper on Mysticism
Research Paper on Nation
Research Paper on National Geographic
Research Paper on Native Americans
Research Paper on The Navajos
Research Paper on Negro
Research Paper on Nonblacks
Research Paper on Nonwhites
Research Paper on North - South Divide
Research Paper on Participant Observation
Research Paper on Oppositionality
Research Paper on Organization Theory
Research Paper on The Other
Research Paper on Palestinian Diaspora
Research Paper on Pan-Africanism
Research Paper on Pan-Arabism
Research Paper on Pan-Caribbeanism
Research Paper on Peasantry and Peasant Movements
Research Paper on Practice Theory
Research Paper on Pre-Columbian Peoples
Research Paper on Primates
Research Paper on Queer Studies
Research Paper on Race and Anthropology
Research Paper on Realist Theory
Research Paper on Reciprocity
Research Paper on The Norm of Reciprocity
Research Paper on Reflexivity
Research Paper on Relativism
Research Paper on Religion
Research Paper on Rites of Passage
Research Paper on Rituals
Research Paper on Sanskritization
Research Paper on Social Theory
Research Paper on The Standard Cross-Cultural Sample
Research Paper on The Stare
Research Paper on Street Culture
Research Paper on Subjectivity: Overview
Research Paper on Subjectivity: Analysis
Research Paper on Sudras in Caste System
Research Paper on Tally's Corner
Research Paper on Tourism Industry
Research Paper on Travel and Travel Writing
Research Paper on Tribe
Research Paper on Trigueno
Research Paper on Vaisyas in Caste System
Research Paper on Values
Research Paper on Women's Movement
Research Paper on Women's Studies
Research Paper on Work and Women

Check our prices! Order your custom essay Now!
Custom Essays FAQInstant Quote
Assignment Type
Due date
Custom Essays FAQCustom Essay Writing Services
Enter FIRST10 as your coupon code at checkout to receive a 10% custom writing discount for your first order!
 Professional Essay Writers
 Top Quality Essay Service
 Available 24/7
 Totally Authentic
 Flexible pricing and great discounts
 Written from scratch
 250 words per page
 6-hour delivery available
 Guaranteed Privacy
 FREE Bibliography
 Writing Research Papers in 3,6 or 12 hours
How many pages is a...
250 words essay = 1 page
300 words essay = 2 pages
500 words essay = 2 pages
600 words essay = 3 pages
750 words essay = 3 pages
800  word essay = 4 pages
1000 words essay = 4 pages
2000 words essay = 8 pages
3000 words essay = 12 pages
5000 words essay = 20 pages
7000 words essay = 28 pages
7500 words essay = 30 pages
10000 words essay = 40 pages
Best Prices
$9.99 / page > in 10 days
$11.99 / page > in 7 days
$13.99 / page > in 5 days
$14.99 / page > in 4 days
$15.99 / page > in 3 days
$17.99 / page > in 48 hours
$19.99 / page > in 24 hours
$23.99 / page > in 12 hours
$25.99 / page > in 6 hours
$29.99 / page > in 3 hours
Custom Essays FAQCustom Writing FAQ
 What does your service offer?
 Is this service legal?
 Whom do you employ for writing?
 How secure is the order processing?
 What kind of written works can you provide?
 How many words do you have per page?
 Can I contact you in case of emergency?
 What are your policies concerning the paper format?
 What about refunds?
 What charge will I have in my bank statement?
  Home About US Disclaimer Useful Links Essay Topics & Examples Our Prices Discounts Essay Writing FAQ Cheap Research Papers Order Now Contact Us