ESSAY EMPIRE's custom essays
  Home Essay Topics & Examples Our Prices Research Papers Term Papers Essay Writing Order now Contact Us  
 Argumentative Essays and Research Papers
 Art and Culture Essays and Research Papers
 Business Essays and Research Papers
 Custom Essay Writing Services
 Environmental Essays and Research Papers
 Health Essays and Research Papers
 History Essays and Research Papers
 How to Write an Essay
 Literature Essays and Research Papers
 Media Essays and Research Papers
 Philosophy Essays and Research Papers
 Political Science Essays and Research Papers
 Psychology Essays and Research Papers
 Religion Essays and Research Papers
 Research Paper Examples
 Research Paper Topics & Ideas
 Science Essays and Research Papers
 Shakespeare Essays and Research Papers
 Sociology Essays and Research Papers
Todat' Free Samples Essay
Research Paper on Physical Activity and Obesity
Physical Activity and Obesity Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Obesity. Physical Activity is defined as bodily movement (any form) produced by the contraction of skeletal muscles that increases energy expenditure above the basal level, and can be categorized in various ways, including type, intensity or strenuousness and purpose. Obesity is a condition describing excess body weight in the form of fat, with a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or greater...
Popular Essay Topics
 Research Paper on Organizational Crime
 Research Paper on Human Trafficking
 Research Paper on Capital Punishment
 Research Paper on Community Corrections
 Research Paper on Crime Prevention
 Research Paper on Ancient Political Thought
 Research Paper on Asian Political Thought
 Research Paper on Islamic Political Thought
 Research Paper on Christian Political Thought
 Research Paper on Early Modern and Classical Liberal Political Thought
 Research Paper on Standards for Psychotherapy
 Research Paper on Support Groups
 Research Paper on Agoraphobia
 Research Paper on Alcohol Abuse
 Research Paper on Alzheimer's Disease
 Research Paper on Technology and the Environment
 Research Paper on Sociology of Terrorism
 Research Paper on the Sociology of Violence
 Research Paper on Environmental Sociology
 Research Paper on Applied Sociology
Copyright ©, 2004-2012. All rights reserved

You Are Here: Home > Essay Topics > Sociology Essays and Research Papers > Race and Ethnicity Research Paper Topics  > Transnationalism Research Paper

  Race and Ethnicity Research Paper Topics

Transnationalism Research Paper

The concept of transnationalism, described as an integral part of the globalization process, is becoming increasingly popular in social and political sciences. Originally coined in international economics to describe flows of capital and labor across national borders in the second half of the twentieth century, this concept was later applied to the study of international migration and ethnic diasporas. The transnational perspective became increasingly useful for exploring such issues as immigrant economic integration, identity, citizenship and cultural retention. Transnationalism embraces a variety of multifaceted social relations that are both embedded in and transcend two or more nation-states, cross-cutting sociopolitical, territorial and cultural borders. The ever-increasing flows of people, goods, ideas and images between various parts of the world enhances the blending of cultures and lifestyles and leads to the formation of ''hyphenated'' social and personal identities (Chinese-American, Greek-Australian, etc.).

Some authors argue that transnationalism may actually be a new name for an old phenomenon, in the sense that most big immigration waves of the past were typified by ethno-cultural retention and contacts with the homeland. Indeed, historic studies of ethnic diasporas show that immigrants never fully severed their links with the country they left behind. Yet, due to technical and financial limitations of the time, for most migrants these links remained mainly in the sentimental and cultural realm, and were seldom expressed in active shuttle movement or communication across borders. Economic ties with countries of origin were typically limited to monetary remittances to family members. Although up to one-quarter of transatlantic migrants of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries eventually returned to their homelands, the decision to repatriate was in fact another critical and irreversible choice to be made. Hence, for the majority of historic migrants, resettlement was an irreversible process always involving a dichotomy: stay or emigrate, or else stay or return.

In the late twentieth century efficient and relatively cheap means of communication and transportation (time- and space-compressing technologies) made this old dichotomy largely irrelevant. As Castells (1996) has pointed out in his book The Rise of the Network Society, new technologies have virtually created new patterns of social relations, or at lest strongly reinforced pre-existing tendencies. They allowed numerous diasporic immigrants to live in two or more countries at a time, via maintaining close physical and social links with their places of origin. Transnational activities and lifestyles became widely spread, embracing large numbers of people and playing a significant role in economy, politics and social life of both sending and receiving countries. Guarnizo and Smith (1998) have introduced a useful distinction between the two types of transnationalism - ''from above'' and ''from below.'' The former refers to institutionalized economic and political activities of multinational corporations and organizations such as UN, Amnesty International or Greenpeace, which set in motion large-scale global exchange of financial and human capital. On the other hand, the increasing role in these networks belongs to ordinary migrants - grassroots agents of transnationalism who run small businesses in their home countries, organize exchange of material (e.g., ethnic food) and cultural (e.g., tours of folk artists) goods within the diaspora, pay regular visits to their birthplace and receive co-ethnic guests. This is called a transnational lifestyle.

Most transnational networks in business, politics, communications and culture organize along ethnic lines, i.e. include members of the same ethnic community spread between different locales on the map. Common language and cultural heritage are the key cementing factors for the transnational diasporas. In most cases, transnationals become bi-lingual and bi-cultural, but different communities may exhibit various extent of cultural separatism versus acculturation in the host society.

Migration experience in the context of global society, where constant exchange of people, products and ideas is reinforced by global media networks, has attained a whole new quality. The full-time loyalty to one country and one culture is no longer self-evident: people may actually divide their physical pastime, effort and identity between several societies. Citizenship and political participation are also becoming bi-focal or even multifocal, since some sending countries allow their expatriates to remain citizens, vote in national elections and establish political movements. In this context, international migrants are becoming transmigrants, developing economic activities, enjoying cultural life and keeping dense informal networks not only with their home country, but also with other national branches of their diaspora. The split of economic, social and political loyalties among migrants, and gradual attenuation of loyalty to the nation-state as such, is seen as problematic by some receiving countries. Yet, some recent studies show that dual citizenship may in fact promote immigrants' legal and socio-political attachments to both their home and host country rather than reinforce the so-called post-nationalism.



Guarnizo, L. E. & Smith, M. P. (1998) The locations of transnationalism. In: Smith,M. P. & Guarnizo, L. E. (eds.), Transnationalism from Below. Comparative Urban and Community Research series, vol. 6. Transaction, New Brunswick and London, pp. 3-34.

Portes, A., Guarnizo, L. E., & Landolt, P. (1999) The study of transnationalism: pitfalls and promise of an emergent research field. Introduction to special issue on Transnational Communities. Ethnic and Racial Studies 22 (2): 217-37.

Van Hear, N. (1998) New Diasporas: The Mass Exodus, Dispersal and Regrouping of Migrant Communities. University College of London Press, London.


Larissa Remennick

EssayEmpire offers you the best custom essay writing services, along with term paper, thesis paper, and research paper writing help. Our company employs professional essay writers who are fully qualified in a variety of academic fields. If you require a high quality writing service that is capable of writing authentic essays, term papers or research papers because you simply don't have the time or resources to do them yourself or maybe they seem too complicated and time consuming, you don't need to look any further. EssayEmpire is the perfect place for all your needs. If you need high quality Transnationalism Research Paper at affordable prices please use our essay writing services offered by EssayEmpire.

Accommodation Research Paper
Assimilation Research Paper
Authoritarian Personality Research Paper
Caste Research Paper: Inequalities Past and Present
Civil Rights Movement Research Paper
Colonialism and Neocolonialism Research Paper
Decolonization Research Paper
Diaspora Research Paper
Discrimination Research Paper
Diversity Research Paper
Double Consciousness Research Paper
Ethnic Enclaves Research Paper
Ethnic Groups Research Paper
Ethnic/Informal Economy Research Paper
Ethnicity Research Paper
Immigration Research Paper
Indigenous Movements Research Paper
Indigenous Peoples Research Paper
Orientalism Research Paper
Outsider-Within Research Paper
Passing Research Paper
Prejudice Research Paper
Race Research Paper
Racial/Ethnic Conflict Research Paper
Segregation Research Paper
Solidarity Research Paper
Race/Ethnicity and Stratification Research Paper
Structural and Institutional Racism Research Paper
Tolerance Research Paper
Whiteness Research Paper

Check our prices! Order your custom essay Now!
Custom Essays FAQInstant Quote
Assignment Type
Due date
Custom Essays FAQCustom Essay Writing Services
Enter FIRST10 as your coupon code at checkout to receive a 10% custom writing discount for your first order!
 Professional Essay Writers
 Top Quality Essay Service
 Available 24/7
 Totally Authentic
 Flexible pricing and great discounts
 Written from scratch
 250 words per page
 6-hour delivery available
 Guaranteed Privacy
 FREE Bibliography
 Writing Research Papers in 3,6 or 12 hours
How many pages is a...
250 words essay = 1 page
300 words essay = 2 pages
500 words essay = 2 pages
600 words essay = 3 pages
750 words essay = 3 pages
800  word essay = 4 pages
1000 words essay = 4 pages
2000 words essay = 8 pages
3000 words essay = 12 pages
5000 words essay = 20 pages
7000 words essay = 28 pages
7500 words essay = 30 pages
10000 words essay = 40 pages
Best Prices
$9.99 / page > in 10 days
$11.99 / page > in 7 days
$13.99 / page > in 5 days
$14.99 / page > in 4 days
$15.99 / page > in 3 days
$17.99 / page > in 48 hours
$19.99 / page > in 24 hours
$23.99 / page > in 12 hours
$25.99 / page > in 6 hours
$29.99 / page > in 3 hours
Custom Essays FAQCustom Writing FAQ
 What does your service offer?
 Is this service legal?
 Whom do you employ for writing?
 How secure is the order processing?
 What kind of written works can you provide?
 How many words do you have per page?
 Can I contact you in case of emergency?
 What are your policies concerning the paper format?
 What about refunds?
 What charge will I have in my bank statement?
  Home About US Disclaimer Useful Links Essay Topics & Examples Our Prices Discounts Essay Writing FAQ Cheap Research Papers Order Now Contact Us