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You Are Here: Home > Essay Topics > Environmental Essays and Research Papers > Air Pollution  

  Air Pollution
Essay on Water Vapor and Air Pollution
Water Vapor and Air Pollution Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Air Pollution. Water vapor is water in its gaseous state. Water vapor may form by evaporation of liquid water or by sublimation of solid water (ice). Water vapor (H2O) is a chemical combination of two atoms of hydrogen and one of oxygen in which both the hydrogen and oxygen possess isotopes. Thus, the molecular weight of water vapor may vary from a low of 18 u to a high of (typically) 22 u. A u is equal to 1.66, 10-27 kilogram (Ruddiman, 2005). For a sample of water at a given temperature, the molecules of lower mass move with higher speeds than the more massive molecules and therefore more readily evaporate or sublimate. Thus, atmospheric water vapor is enriched in the lighter forms. In epochs of higher average...
Essay on Water Vapor and Air Pollution » 
Essay on Industrial Emission Controls
Industrial Emission Controls Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Air Pollution. Governmental regulations and technological innovations have helped reduce the amount of environmental pollutants and GHGs emitted into the environment as byproducts of industrial manufacturing. Since the Industrial Revolution began in the midnineteenth century, factories using combustion to power machinery manufacturing products have released chemicals detrimental to the environment in their emissions. By the twentieth century, power plants generating energy through burning fuels such as coal and...
Essay on Industrial Emission Controls » 
Argumentative Paper on Acid Rains: Effects and Solutions
Acid Rains: Effects and Solutions Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Air Pollution. The environmental effects of acid rain are most clearly seen in surface water environments such as streams, lakes, and marshes. Acid rain falls directly on these aquatic habitats, and acidic runoff flows into them after falling on rural and urban areas. The impact can be disastrous. In the United States, many aquatic species are showing the deadly effects of prolonged exposure to acidic conditions, sometimes to such an extent that the overall populations of whole species are reduced and species that are more sensitive to low pH levels become extinct. All of these effects contribute to a reduction in the biodiversity of the affected systems. Some acid lakes no longer have fish in them...
Argumentative Paper on Acid Rains: Effects and Solutions » 
Argumentative Paper on Air Pollution
Air Pollution Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Air Pollution. Air pollution is almost impossible to contain because of its ability to spread rapidly over a large area. There are many different pollutants in the air, and their effects range from environmental damage to health issues. The effect of pollution on the ozone layer is one example of environmental damage. The ozone layer is a part of the atmosphere that helps absorb radiation from the sun and a portion of ultraviolet light that is responsible for causing, among other things, various types of skin cancer and cataracts. Because substances such as carbon dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons, and sulfur dioxide (the chief cause of air pollution) are being released into the air, the ozone layer is being reduced and could...
Argumentative Paper on Air Pollution » 
Essay on Enhanced Greenhouse Effect
Enhanced Greenhouse Effect Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Environmental Issues. Greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere--such as carbon dioxide (CO2), methane, nitrous oxide, water vapor, and ozone--absorb infrared radiation from the Sun and reradiate some of it at the surface, warming Earth's atmosphere. The average temperature of the atmosphere has been estimated to be more than 30 Celsius warmer than it would be without these gases. The natural greenhouse effect occurs when this process is the result of nonhuman activities; the enhanced greenhouse effect denotes increases in the effect...
Essay on Enhanced Greenhouse Effect » 
Essay on Catalytic Converters and Air Pollution
Catalytic Converters and Air Pollution Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Air Pollution. A catalytic converter is a device to reduce the amount of toxic emissions in the exhaust of an internal combustion engine. It was developed in response to efforts in the early 1970's by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to tighten regulations on emissions from internal combustion engines. The 1975 model cars were produced with catalytic converters. The first converter, a two-way converter, oxidized carbon monoxide (CO) to carbon dioxide (CO2) and oxidized unburnt hydrocarbons to CO2 and water...
Essay on Catalytic Converters and Air Pollution » 
Essay on Oil, Gasoline, And Gasoline Additives Pollution
Oil, Gasoline, And Gasoline Additives Pollution Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Air Pollution. Oil and gasoline leak into inland waters from tankers, from pipelines, and from recreational watercraft. As happens in the oceans, pipelines and tankers can spill large amounts of oil into lakes and rivers. By far the largest source of oil in inland waters is the day-to-day runoff from roadways and other land surfaces. About 16 million gallons of oil are carried by rivers and streams into North American coastal waters each year. Runoff also contains the breakdown products of oil. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), for example, are toxic to organisms even in very small doses. Gasoline additives may also be pollutants. Beginning in 1992, in an effort to reduce air pollution from gasoline...
Essay on Oil, Gasoline, And Gasoline Additives Pollution » 
Essay on Sequestration of Greenhouse Gases
Sequestration of Greenhouse Gases Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Air Pollution. Sequestering CO2 and other greenhouse gases from the atmosphere by geological, biological, or chemical processes and storing them in forms that will not affect Earth's climate is a primary mechanism for reducing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations and limiting global warming. Since the Industrial Revolution began, atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) have risen from 275 parts per million to the present level of 380 parts per million. Evidence suggests that this observed rise in atmospheric CO2 levels is due primarily to the use of fossil fuels. There is a worldwide awareness that global warming is a result of the rising levels of CO2 and other greenhouse gases (GHGs)...
Essay on Sequestration of Greenhouse Gases » 
Essay on Industrial Greenhouse Emissions
Industrial Greenhouse Emissions Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Air Pollution. Since the Industrial Revolution, increased amounts of anthropogenic industrial greenhouse gas emissions from factories and power plants have combined with emissions from other sources to raise the global temperature and change the climate. Modern technology has accelerated the global warming process with the production of new industrial greenhouse gases. Industrial greenhouse gases (GHGs) are anthropogenic gaseous constituents of the atmosphere produced by human industrial processes that absorb and emit radiation at specific wavelengths within the spectrum of thermal infrared radiation, emitted by the Earth's surface, the atmosphere, and by clouds. This phenomenon causes the greenhouse effect...
Essay on Industrial Greenhouse Emissions » 
Essay on Greenhouse Gases
Greenhouse Gases Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Air Pollution. Greenhouse gases are trace atmospheric gases that trap heat in the lower atmosphere, causing global warming. Such warming has been associated with droughts, tornadoes, ice melting, sea-level rise, saltwater intrusion, evaporation, and other climatic changes and effects. Greenhouse gases (GHGs) have both natural and anthropogenic sources. They allow sunlight to pass through them and reach Earth's surface, but they trap the infrared radiation released by Earth's surface, preventing it from escaping into space. These trace atmospheric gases thus play an important role in the regulation of Earth's energy balance, raising the temperature of the lower atmosphere. GHG concentrations in the atmosphere have historically...
Essay on Greenhouse Gases » 
Essay on Fossil Fuel Emissions
Fossil Fuel Emissions Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Air Pollution. With the exception of CO2, the effluents of fossil fuel combustion devices such as automobile engines and thermoelectric power plants do not seem to have a direct effect on climate change. These pollutants are important, however, because of their deleterious effects upon the environment and human health. Fossil fuels are combustible geologic deposits of carbon created from plant and animal remains subjected to high temperatures and pressures in the Earth over hundreds of millions of years. Coal, oil, and natural gas are the primary fossil fuels. When any carbon-based fuel is burned, the carbon unites with oxygen in the atmosphere to produce carbon dioxide (CO2), the main culprit responsible for anthropogenic...
Essay on Fossil Fuel Emissions » 
Essay on Emission Scenario
Emission Scenario Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Air Pollution. An emission scenario is a means of assessing the future impact of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through different story lines that use a variety of assumptions. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), established by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), uses various emission scenarios to periodically review the science, impacts, and socioeconomics of climate change. The IPCC developed the projected scenarios using a variety of sources including literature searches, alternative modeling approaches, and feedback from informed groups and individuals. These models include emissions from all types of GHGs and their driving forces...
Essay on Emission Scenario » 
Essay on Carbon Dioxide Equivalent
Carbon Dioxide Equivalent Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Air Pollution. Various greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as methane, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorocarbons, and carbon dioxide (CO2) have different potential effects on global warming. In order to compare GHGs based on their global warming potential (GWP), CO2 is commonly chosen as a reference gas. The carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) for a given amount of GHG is defined as the amount of CO2 that would have the same GWP measured over a specified time period, usually one hundred years. More formally, the CO2e for emissions of a given gas is calculated by multiplying the amount of the gas emitted by its associated GWP. For example, the GWP for methane over a one-hundred-year time horizon is 21. Thus, the CO2e...
Essay on Carbon Dioxide Equivalent » 
Essay on Air Travel and Pollution
Air Travel and Pollution Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Air Pollution. Because they are released so high in the atmosphere, emissions from airplanes have greater relative effects upon air quality than do emissions from ground vehicles. The extent of those emissions' effects upon Earth's climate is a much studied and hotly debated issue. Powered flight was introduced in 1903, when Wilbur Wright and Orville Wright conducted the first short flight at Kill Devil Hills, North Carolina. The first thirty-five years of powered flight had minimal impacts upon Earth's climate. The advent of widespread aerial cargo and passenger service in the late 1930's and early 1940's arguably marks the first significant influence upon Earth's climate by aircraft. However, beginning in the 1960's...
Essay on Air Travel and Pollution » 
Essay on Air Quality Management Methods
Air Quality Management Methods Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Air Pollution. Contemporary air quality management plans focus on controlling state and local emissions, although the EPA has also initiated regional air quality management strategies. In general, there are two types of air quality standards. The first type, the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS's), are set by the EPA and include target levels for specific pollutants that apply to outdoor air throughout the country. The EPA has set NAAQS's for six principal pollutants, called "criteria pollutants." They are carbon monoxide, lead, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5), ozone, and sulfur dioxide. The second class of standards constitutes the Air Quality Index (AQI), which uses a scale...
Essay on Air Quality Management Methods » 
Essay on Air Pollution History
Air Pollution History Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Air Pollution. Air pollution resulting from human action dates primarily from the Industrial Revolution. Humans, however, have had some impact on the environment for at least five thousand years. As industrialized agriculture and manufacturing have increased, humans have added increasing amounts of pollutants to the atmosphere. The history of anthropogenic air pollution is generally traced from the Industrial Revolution of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. As by-products of manufacturing processes and through burning the coal and oil necessary to power them, industries added substantial amounts of heavy metals, acidic compounds (such as sulfur dioxide), and carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere...
Essay on Air Pollution History » 
Essay on Anthropogenic Air Pollution
Anthropogenic Air Pollution Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Air Pollution. Air pollution has been a problem since humans began burning carbon-based fuels while living in large cities. The first known air-pollution ordinance was passed in London, England, in 1273 in an attempt to alleviate the soot-blackened skies caused by excessive combustion of wood in the heavily populated city. From the mid-eighteenth through the mid-twentieth centuries, the increasingly heavy use of coal for heat, electricity, and transportation resulted in filthy cities and an escalating crisis of respiratory diseases. It was not until the latter half of the twentieth century that governments began attacking the problem by enacting legislation to control noxious emissions at their source...
Essay on Anthropogenic Air Pollution » 
Essay on Aerosol Pollutants
Aerosol Pollutants Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Air Pollution. Effects of aerosol pollutants such as volcanic dust have been debated for a long time. A 1783 eruption of a volcanic fissure in Iceland seemed related to an unusually cool summer in France that year. In 1883, the volcanic dust from the explosion of Krakatoa in the East Indies dimmed the sunlight for months, as had the 1815 eruption of Tambora. Some scientists perceived a pattern of temporary cooling from such events. Others asked if pollutants should be expected to warm, rather than cool, the atmosphere. Aerosols are minute airborne solid or liquid particles suspended in the atmosphere, typically measuring between 0.01 and 10 microns. They may be of either natural or anthropogenic origin...
Essay on Aerosol Pollutants » 
Essay on Direct Human Changes to the Atmosphere
Direct Human Changes to the Atmosphere Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Air Pollution. Beginning with the Industrial Revolution, human activities began modifying the composition of the atmosphere directly on a large scale. The burning of fuels--first wood and then fossil fuels--released increasing amounts of smoke and gases directly into the atmosphere. Among the most important emissions were CO2, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and ozone-depleting chemicals. CO2 is the most important anthropogenic GHG contributing to the enhanced greenhouse effect. The latter effect supplements...
Essay on Direct Human Changes to the Atmosphere » 
Essay on Indirect Human Changes to the Atmosphere
Indirect Human Changes to the Atmosphere Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Air Pollution. Human changes to the landscape also affect the atmosphere. Human activities may create dust and smoke, for example, which can reflect sunlight back into space or block sunlight from reaching Earth's surface. Such activities thus increase Earth's albedo and cool the planet, but they can also prevent radiation from being reflected back into space from the surface and thus trap heat, warming the planet. For example, studies of condensation trails, or contrails, of aircraft have shown that they...
Essay on Indirect Human Changes to the Atmosphere » 
Essay on Atmospheric and Environmental Chemistry
Atmospheric and Environmental Chemistry Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Environmental Issues. Environmental issues that have developed in industrialized economies have led to an emerging multidisciplinary field of chemistry known as environmental chemistry, beginning in the late 1980s. Primarily concerned with understanding how environmental processes function naturally and how humans impact that natural environmental flow, environmental chemistry includes the study of water, soil, and air chemistry. Atmospheric and environmental chemists compare the natural state of these...
Essay on Atmospheric and Environmental Chemistry » 
Essay on Indoor Air Pollution
Indoor Air Pollution Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Environmental Issues. Indoor pollution is potentially more damaging than outdoor air pollution as more and more Americans spend their time indoors. Since the air flow inside the building is not fresh and is restricted, the pollutants are "trapped" within the system. People are exposed to more concentrated doses of pollutants and for a longer period, with dangerous effects on those that live and work in the structure. Pollutants such as cigarette smoke, dust, mold, pet hair, toxic chemicals released from building supplies, carbon monoxide...
Essay on Indoor Air Pollution » 
Essay on Air Pollution Regulation
Air Pollution Regulation Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Environmental Issues. As pollution became more of a problem, Congress passed the first federal air pollution law, known as the Air Pollution Control Act of 1955. The primary impact of this legislation was to call attention to air pollution as a national problem and to grant research funds for exploring the problem more thoroughly. By 1963 sufficient research had been done that Congress passed the Clean Air Act of 1963, setting emissions standards for stationary pollution sources. Several amendments to this act (in 1965, 1966, 1967, and 1969)...
Essay on Air Pollution Regulation » 
Essay on The Effects of Acid Rain
The Effects of Acid Rain Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Environmental Issues. Acid rain affects vegetation in a variety of ways. The lowered pH of rainwater destroys the waxy cuticle on the leaves of a plant, interfering with the plant's ability to control its water loss via transpiration. Destruction of the leaf structure compromises the plant's control of oxygen and carbon dioxide levels inside the plant. This interferes with the plant's ability to undergo photosynthesis and respiration. Acid rain also impacts plants by affecting the pH of the soil. The addition of extra hydrogen...
Essay on The Effects of Acid Rain » 
Essay on Acid Precipitation
Acid Precipitation Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Environmental Issues. Precipitation comprises all solid and liquid forms of water that are deposited on the Earth's surface from the atmosphere. It includes rain, snow, hail, dew and sleet. All forms of precipitation are acid in so far as they have a pH of less than 7; in general, precipitation unaffected by human activity has a pH of 5.6. This naturally acidic state of precipitation is caused by the combination of water and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere to produce carbonic acid. However, the term acid precipitation, or acid rain...
Essay on Acid Precipitation » 
see also:
  Research paper on Climate Change
  Essay Writings on Ecology and Environment
  Term Papers on Global Warming
  Research paper on Pollution and Contamination
  Essay on Water Pollution




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